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Microsoft Office

Suite of office software

Microsoft Office logo (2019–present).svg
Office 365 app logos.svg

From top-left: Outlook, OneDrive, Word, Excel, PowerPoint, OneNote, SharePoint, Teams, and Yammer.

Developer(s)Microsoft
Initial releaseNovember 19, 1990; 30 years ago (1990-11-19)
Office 3652107 (Beta Channel) (16.0.13901.20462) / June 8, 2021; 5 months ago (2021-06-08)
One-time purchase2021 / October 5, 2021; 44 days ago (2021-10-05)[1]
Written inC++ (back-end)[2]
Operating systemMicrosoft Windows
Standard(s)Office Open XML (ISO/IEC 29500)
Available in102 languages[3]
TypeOffice suite
LicenseTrialware, volume licensing or SaaS
Websitewww.office.com

Microsoft Office, or simply Office, is a family of client software, server software, and services developed by Microsoft. It was first announced by Bill Gates on August 1, 1988, at COMDEX in Las Vegas. Initially a marketing term for an office suite (bundled set of productivity applications), the first version of Office contained Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, and Microsoft PowerPoint. Over the years, Office applications have grown substantially closer with shared features such as a common spell checker, OLE data integration and Visual Basic for Applications scripting language. Microsoft also positions Office as a development platform for line-of-business software under the Office Business Applications brand. On July 10, 2012, Softpedia reported that Office was being used by over a billion people worldwide.[11]

Office is produced in several versions targeted towards different end-users and computing environments. The original, and most widely used version, is the desktop version, available for PCs running the Windows and macOSoperating systems. Microsoft also maintains mobile apps for Android and iOS. Office on the web is a version of the software that runs within a web browser.

Since Office 2013, Microsoft has promoted Office 365 as the primary means of obtaining Microsoft Office: it allows the use of the software and other services on a subscription business model, and users receive feature updates to the software for the lifetime of the subscription, including new features and cloud computing integration that are not necessarily included in the "on-premises" releases of Office sold under conventional license terms. In 2017, revenue from Office 365 overtook conventional license sales. Microsoft also rebranded most of their standard Office 365 editions into Microsoft 365 to emphasize their current inclusion of products and services.

The current on-premises, desktop version of Office is Office 2021, released on October 5, 2021.[12]

Components

See also: List of Microsoft Office programs

Core apps and services

  • Microsoft Word is a word processor included in Microsoft Office and some editions of the now-discontinued Microsoft Works. The first version of Word, released in the autumn of 1983, was for the MS-DOS operating system and introduced the computer mouse to more users. Word 1.0 could be purchased with a bundled mouse, though none was required. Following the precedents of LisaWrite and MacWrite, Word for Macintosh attempted to add closer WYSIWYG features into its package. Word for Mac was released in 1985. Word for Mac was the first graphical version of Microsoft Word. Initially, it implemented the proprietary .doc format as its primary format. Word 2007, however, deprecated this format in favor of Office Open XML, which was later standardized by Ecma International as an open format. Support for Portable Document Format (PDF) and OpenDocument (ODF) was first introduced in Word for Windows with Service Pack 2 for Word 2007.[13]
  • Microsoft Excel is a spreadsheet editor that originally competed with the dominant Lotus 1-2-3 and eventually outsold it. Microsoft released the first version of Excel for the Mac OS in 1985 and the first Windows version (numbered 2.05 to line up with the Mac) in November 1987.
  • Microsoft PowerPoint is a presentation program used to create slideshows composed of text, graphics, and other objects, which can be displayed on-screen and shown by the presenter or printed out on transparencies or slides.
  • Microsoft OneNote is a notetaking program that gathers handwritten or typed notes, drawings, screen clippings and audio commentaries. Notes can be shared with other OneNote users over the Internet or a network. OneNote was initially introduced as a standalone app that was not included in any Microsoft Office 2003 edition. However, OneNote eventually became a core component of Microsoft Office; with the release of Microsoft Office 2013, OneNote was included in all Microsoft Office offerings. OneNote is also available as a web app on Office on the web, a freemium (and later freeware) Windows desktop app, a mobile app for Windows Phone, iOS, Android, and Symbian, and a Metro-style app for Windows 8 or later.
  • Microsoft Outlook (not to be confused with Outlook Express, Outlook.com or Outlook on the web) is a personal information manager that replaces Windows Messaging, Microsoft Mail, and Schedule+ starting in Office 97; it includes an e-mail client, calendar, task manager and address book. On the Mac OS, Microsoft offered several versions of Outlook in the late 1990s, but only for use with Microsoft Exchange Server. In Office 2001, it introduced an alternative application with a slightly different feature set called Microsoft Entourage. It reintroduced Outlook in Office 2011, replacing Entourage.[14]
  • Microsoft OneDrive is a file hosting service that allows users to sync files and later access them from a web browser or mobile device.
  • Microsoft Teams is a platform that combines workplace chat, meetings, notes, and attachments.

Windows-only apps

Mobile-only apps

  • Office Lens is an image scanner optimized for mobile devices. It captures the document (e.g. business card, paper, whiteboard) via the camera and then straightens the document portion of the image. The result can be exported to Word, OneNote, PowerPoint or Outlook, or saved in OneDrive, sent via Mail or placed in Photo Library.
  • Office Mobile is a unified Office mobile app for Android and iOS, which combines Word, Excel, and PowerPoint into a single app and introduces new capabilities as making quick notes, signing PDFs, scanning QR codes, and transferring files.[16]
  • Office Remote is an application that turns the mobile device into a remote control for desktop versions of Word, Excel and PowerPoint.

Server applications

Web services

Office on the web

Office on the web is a free lightweight web version of Microsoft Office and primarily includes three web applications: Word, Excel and Powerpoint. The offering also includes Outlook.com, OneNote and OneDrive which are accessible through a unified app switcher. Users can install the on-premises version of this service, called Office Online Server, in private clouds in conjunction with SharePoint, Microsoft Exchange Server and Microsoft Lync Server.[18]

Word, Excel, and PowerPoint on the web can all natively open, edit, and save Office Open XML files (docx, xlsx, pptx) as well as OpenDocument files (odt, ods, odp). They can also open the older Office file formats (doc, xls, ppt), but will be converted to the newer Open XML formats if the user wishes to edit them online. Other formats cannot be opened in the browser apps, such as CSV in Excel or HTML in Word, nor can Office files that are encrypted with a password be opened. Files with macros can be opened in the browser apps, but the macros cannot be accessed or executed.[19][20][21] Starting in July 2013, Word can render PDF documents or convert them to Microsoft Word documents, although the formatting of the document may deviate from the original.[22] Since November 2013, the apps have supported real-time co-authoring and autosaving files.[23][24]

Office on the web lacks a number of the advanced features present in the full desktop versions of Office, including lacking the programs Access and Publisher entirely. However, users are able to select the command "Open in Desktop App" that brings up the document in the desktop version of Office on their computer or device to utilize the advanced features there.[25][26]

Supported web browsers include Microsoft Edge, Internet Explorer 11, the latest versions of Firefox or Google Chrome, as well as Safari for OS X 10.8 or later.[27]

The Personal edition of Office on the web is available to the general public free of charge with a Microsoft account through the Office.com website, which superseded SkyDrive (now OneDrive) and Office Live Workspace. Enterprise-managed versions are available through Office 365.[28] In February 2013, the ability to view and edit files on SkyDrive without signing in was added.[29] The service can also be installed privately in enterprise environments as a SharePoint app, or through Office Web Apps Server.[18] Microsoft also offers other web apps in the Office suite, such as the Outlook Web App (formerly Outlook Web Access),[30] Lync Web App (formerly Office Communicator Web Access),[31] Project Web App (formerly Project Web Access).[32] Additionally, Microsoft offers a service under the name of Online Doc Viewer to view Office documents on a website via Office on the web.[33]

There are free extensions available to use Office on the web directly in Google Chrome and Microsoft Edge.[34][35]

Common features

Most versions of Microsoft Office (including Office 97 and later) use their own widget set and do not exactly match the native operating system. This is most apparent in Microsoft Office XP and 2003, where the standard menus were replaced with a colored, flat-looking, shadowed menu style. The user interface of a particular version of Microsoft Office often heavily influences a subsequent version of Microsoft Windows. For example, the toolbar, colored buttons and the gray-colored 3D look of Office 4.3 were added to Windows 95, and the ribbon, introduced in Office 2007, has been incorporated into several programs bundled with Windows 7 and later. In 2012, Office 2013 replicated the flat, box-like design of Windows 8.

Users of Microsoft Office may access external data via connection-specifications saved in Office Data Connection (.odc) files.[36]

Both Windows and Office use service packs to update software. Office had non-cumulative service releases, which were discontinued after Office 2000 Service Release 1.

Past versions of Office often contained Easter eggs. For example, Excel 97 contained a reasonably functional flight-simulator.

File formats and metadata

Microsoft Office prior to Office 2007 used proprietary file formats based on the OLE Compound File Binary Format.[37] This forced users who share data to adopt the same software platform.[38] In 2008, Microsoft made the entire documentation for the binary Office formats freely available for download and granted any possible patents rights for use or implementations of those binary format for free under the Open Specification Promise.[39][40] Previously, Microsoft had supplied such documentation freely but only on request.[41]

Starting with Office 2007, the default file format has been a version of Office Open XML, though different from the one standardized and published by Ecma International and by ISO/IEC. Microsoft has granted patent rights to the formats technology under the Open Specification Promise[42] and has made available free downloadable converters for previous versions of Microsoft Office including Office 2003, Office XP, Office 2000[43] and Office 2004 for Mac OS X. Third-party implementations of Office Open XML exist on the Windows platform (LibreOffice, all platforms), macOS platform (iWork '08, NeoOffice, LibreOffice) and Linux (LibreOffice and OpenOffice.org 3.0). In addition, Office 2010, Service Pack 2 for Office 2007, and Office 2016 for Mac supports the OpenDocument Format (ODF) for opening and saving documents – only the old ODF 1.0 (2006 ISO/IEC standard) is supported, not the 1.2 version (2015 ISO/IEC standard).

Microsoft provides the ability to remove metadata from Office documents. This was in response to highly publicized incidents where sensitive data about a document was leaked via its metadata.[44] Metadata removal was first available in 2004, when Microsoft released a tool called Remove Hidden Data Add-in for Office 2003/XP for this purpose.[45] It was directly integrated into Office 2007 in a feature called the Document Inspector.

Extensibility

A major feature of the Office suite is the ability for users and third-party companies to write add-ins (plug-ins) that extend the capabilities of an application by adding custom commands and specialized features. One of the new features is the Office Store.[46]Plugins and other tools can be downloaded by users.[47] Developers can make money by selling their applications in the Office Store. The revenue is divided between the developer and Microsoft where the developer gets 80% of the money.[48] Developers are able to share applications with all Office users.[48]

The app travels with the document, and it is for the developer to decide what the recipient will see when they open it. The recipient will either have the option to download the app from the Office Store for free, start a free trial or be directed to payment.[48] With Office's cloud abilities, IT department can create a set of apps for their business employees in order to increase their productivity.[49] When employees go to the Office Store, they'll see their company's apps under My Organization. The apps that employees have personally downloaded will appear under My Apps.[48] Developers can use web technologies like HTML5, XML, CSS3, JavaScript, and APIs for building the apps.[50] An application for Office is a webpage that is hosted inside an Office client application. User can use apps to amplify the functionality of a document, email message, meeting request, or appointment. Apps can run in multiple environments and by multiple clients, including rich Office desktop clients, Office Web Apps, mobile browsers, and also on-premises and in the cloud.[50] The type of add-ins supported differ by Office versions:

Password protection

Main article: Microsoft Office password protection

Microsoft Office has a security feature that allows users to encrypt Office (Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Access, Skype Business) documents with a user-provided password. The password can contain up to 255 characters and uses AES 128-bit advanced encryption by default.[54] Passwords can also be used to restrict modification of the entire document, worksheet or presentation. Due to lack of document encryption, though, these passwords can be removed using a third-party cracking software.[55]

Support policies

Approach

All versions of Microsoft Office products before Microsoft Office 2019 are eligible for ten years of support following their release, during which Microsoft releases security updates for the product version and provides paid technical support. The ten-year period is divided into two five-year phases: The mainstream phase and the extended phase. During the mainstream phase, Microsoft may provide limited complimentary technical support and release non-security updates or change the design of the product. During the extended phase, said services stop.[56] Office 2019 only receives 5 years of mainstream and 2 years of extended support.[57]

Timelines of support

Ambox current red Americas.svg

This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(October 2021)

Timeline of Microsoft Office for Windows

  •      (Spent) standard support
  •      (Remaining) standard support
  •      (Spent) extended support
  •      (Remaining) extended support

Platforms

Microsoft supports Office for the Windows and macOS platforms, as well as mobile versions for Windows Phone, Android and iOS platforms. Beginning with Mac Office 4.2, the macOS and Windows versions of Office share the same file format, and are interoperable. Visual Basic for Applications support was dropped in Microsoft Office 2008 for Mac,[58] then reintroduced in Office for Mac 2011.[59]

Microsoft tried in the mid-1990s to port Office to RISC processors such as NEC/MIPS and IBM/PowerPC, but they met problems such as memory access being hampered by data structure alignment requirements. Microsoft Word 97 and Excel 97, however, did ship for the DEC Alpha platform. Difficulties in porting Office may have been a factor in discontinuing Windows NT on non-Intel platforms.[60]

Pricing model and editions

The Microsoft Office applications and suites are sold via retail channels, and volume licensing for larger organizations (also including the "Home Use Program". allowing users at participating organizations to buy low-cost licenses for use on their personal devices as part of their employer's volume license agreement).[61]

In 2010, Microsoft introduced a software as a service platform known as Office 365, to provide cloud-hosted versions of Office's server software, including Exchange e-mail and SharePoint, on a subscription basis (competing in particular with Google Apps).[62][63] Following the release of Office 2013, Microsoft began to offer Office 365 plans for the consumer market, with access to Microsoft Office software on multiple devices with free feature updates over the life of the subscription, as well as other services such as OneDrive storage.[64][65]

Microsoft has since promoted Office 365 as the primary means of purchasing Microsoft Office. Although there are still "on-premises" releases roughly every three years, Microsoft marketing emphasizes that they do not receive new features or access to new cloud-based services as they are released unlike Office 365, as well as other benefits for consumer and business markets.[66][67][68] Office 365 revenue overtook traditional license sales for Office in 2017.[69]

Editions

Microsoft Office is available in several editions, which regroup a given number of applications for a specific price. Primarily, Microsoft sells Office as Microsoft 365. The editions are as follows:

  • Microsoft 365 Personal
  • Microsoft 365 Family
  • Microsoft 365 Business Basic
  • Microsoft 365 Business Standard
  • Microsoft 365 Business Premium
  • Microsoft 365 apps for business
  • Microsoft 365 apps for enterprise
  • Office 365 E1, E3, E5
  • Office 365 A1, A3, A5 (for education)
  • Office 365 G1, G3, G5 (for government)
  • Microsoft 365 F1, F3, Office 365 F3 (for frontline)

Microsoft sells Office for a one-time purchase as Home & Student and Home & Business, however, these editions do not receive major updates.

Education pricing

Post-secondary students may obtain the University edition of Microsoft Office 365 subscription. It is limited to one user and two devices, plus the subscription price is valid for four years instead of just one. Apart from this, the University edition is identical in features to the Home Premium version. This marks the first time Microsoft does not offer physical or permanent software at academic pricing, in contrast to the University versions of Office 2010 and Office 2011. In addition, students eligible for DreamSpark program may receive select standalone Microsoft Office apps free of charge.

Discontinued applications and features

  • Binder was an application that can incorporate several documents into one file and was originally designed as a container system for storing related documents in a single file. The complexity of use and learning curve led to little usage, and it was discontinued after Office XP.
  • Bookshelf was a reference collection introduced in 1987 as part of Microsoft's extensive work in promoting CD-ROM technology as a distribution medium for electronic publishing.
  • Data Analyzer was a business intelligence program for graphical visualization of data and its analysis.
  • Docs.com was a public document sharing service where Office users can upload and share Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Sway and PDF files for the whole world to discover and use.
  • Entourage was an Outlook counterpart on macOS, Microsoft discontinued it in favor of extending the Outlook brand name.
  • FrontPage was a WYSIWYG HTML editor and website administration tool for Windows. It was branded as part of the Microsoft Office suite from 1997 to 2003. FrontPage was discontinued in December 2006 and replaced by Microsoft SharePoint Designer and Microsoft Expression Web.
  • InfoPath was a Windows application for designing and distributing rich XML-based forms. The last version was included in Office 2013.[70]
  • InterConnect was a business-relationship database available only in Japan.
  • Internet Explorer was a graphical web browser and one of the main participants of the first browser war. It was included in Office until Office XP when it was removed.
  • Mail was a mail client (in old versions of Office, later replaced by Microsoft Schedule Plus and subsequently Microsoft Outlook).
  • Office Accounting (formerly Small Business Accounting) was an accounting software application from Microsoft targeted towards small businesses that had between 1 and 25 employees.
  • Office Assistant (included since Office 97 on Windows and Office 98 on Mac as a part of Microsoft Agent technology) was a system that uses animated characters to offer context-sensitive suggestions to users and access to the help system. The Assistant is often dubbed "Clippy" or "Clippit", due to its default to a paper clip character, coded as . The latest versions that include the Office Assistant were Office 2003 (Windows) and Office 2004 (Mac).
  • Office Document Image Writer was a virtual printer that takes documents from Microsoft Office or any other application and prints them, or stores them in an image file as TIFF or Microsoft Document Imaging Format format. It was discontinued with Office 2010.[71]
  • Office Document Imaging was an application that supports editing scanned documents. Discontinued Office 2010.[71]
  • Office Document Scanning was a scanning and OCR application. Discontinued Office 2010.[71]
  • Office Picture Manager was a basic photo management software (similar to Google's Picasa or Adobe's Photoshop Elements), that replaced Microsoft Photo Editor.
  • PhotoDraw was a graphics program that was first released as part of the Office 2000 Premium Edition. A later version for Windows XP compatibility was released, known as PhotoDraw 2000 Version 2. Microsoft discontinued the program in 2001.
  • Photo Editor was photo-editing or raster-graphics software in older Office versions up to Office XP. It was supplemented by Microsoft PhotoDraw in Office 2000 Premium edition.
  • Schedule Plus (also shown as Schedule+) was released with Office 95. It featured a planner, to-do list, and contact information. Its functions were incorporated into Microsoft Outlook.
  • SharePoint Designer was a WYSIWYG HTML editor and website administration tool. Microsoft attempted to turn it into a specialized HTML editor for SharePoint sites, but failed on this project and wanted to discontinue it.
  • SharePoint Workspace (formerly Groove) was a proprietary peer-to-peer document collaboration software designed for teams with members who are regularly offline or who do not share the same network security clearance.
  • Skype for Business was an integrated communications client for conferences and meetings in real-time; it is the only Microsoft Office desktop app that is neither useful without a proper network infrastructure nor has the "Microsoft" prefix in its name.
  • Streets & Trips (known in other countries as Microsoft AutoRoute) is a discontinued mapping program developed and distributed by Microsoft.
  • Unbind is a program that can extract the contents of a Binder file. Unbind can be installed from the Office XP CD-ROM.
  • Virtual PC was included with Microsoft Office Professional Edition 2004 for Mac. Microsoft discontinued support for Virtual PC on the Mac in 2006 owing to new Macs possessing the same Intel architecture as Windows PCs.[72] It emulated a standard PC and its hardware.
  • Vizact was a program that "activated" documents using HTML, adding effects such as animation. It allows users to create dynamic documents for the Web. The development has ended due to unpopularity.

Discontinued server applications

Discontinued web services

  • Office Live
    • Office Live Small Business had web hosting services and online collaboration tools for small businesses.
    • Office Live Workspace had online storage and collaboration service for documents, which was superseded by Office on the web.
  • Office Live Meeting was a web conferencing service.

Criticism

Data formats

Microsoft Office has been criticized in the past for using proprietary file formats rather than open standards, which forces users who share data into adopting the same software platform.[73] However, on February 15, 2008, Microsoft made the entire documentation for the binary Office formats freely available under the Open Specification Promise.[74] Also, Office Open XML, the document format for the latest versions of Office for Windows and Mac, has been standardized under both Ecma International and ISO. Ecma International has published the Office Open XML specification free of copyrights and Microsoft has granted patent rights to the formats technology under the Open Specification Promise[75] and has made available free downloadable converters for previous versions of Microsoft Office including Office 2003, Office XP, Office 2000 and Office 2004 for the Mac. Third-party implementations of Office Open XML exist on the Mac platform (iWork 08) and Linux (OpenOffice.org 2.3 – Novell Edition only).

Unicode and bi-directional texts

Another point of criticism Microsoft Office has faced was the lack of support in its Mac versions for Unicode and Bi-directional text languages, notably Arabic and Hebrew. This issue, which had existed since the first release in 1989, was addressed in the 2016 version.[76][77]

Privacy

On November 13, 2018, a report initiated by the Government of the Netherlands concluded that Microsoft Office 2016 and Office 365 do not comply with GDPR, the European law which regulates data protection and privacy for all citizens in and outside the EU and EFTA region.[78] The investigation was initiated by the observation that Microsoft does not reveal or share publicly any data collected about users of its software. In addition, the company does not provide users of its (Office) software an option to turn off diagnostic and telemetry data sent back to the company. Researchers found that most of the data that the Microsoft software collects and "sends home" is diagnostics. Researchers also observed that Microsoft "seemingly tried to make the system GDPR compliant by storing Office documents on servers based in the EU". However, they discovered the software packages collected additional data that contained private user information, some of which was stored on servers located in the US.[79] The Netherlands Ministry of Justice hired Privacy Company to probe and evaluate the use of Microsoft Office products in the public sector.[80] "Microsoft systematically collects data on a large scale about the individual use of Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and Outlook. Covertly, without informing people", researchers of the Privacy Company stated in their blog post. "Microsoft does not offer any choice with regard to the amount of data, or possibility to switch off the collection, or ability to see what data are collected, because the data stream is encoded."[81]

The researchers commented that there is no need for Microsoft to store information such as IPs and email addresses, which are collected automatically by the software. "Microsoft should not store these transient, functional data, unless the retention is strictly necessary, for example, for security purposes", the researchers conclude in the final report by the Netherlands Ministry of Justice.[82]

As a result of this in-depth study and its conclusions, the Netherlands regulatory body concluded that Microsoft has violated GDPR "on many counts" including "lack of transparency and purpose limitation, and the lack of a legal ground for the processing."[83] Microsoft has provided the Dutch authorities with an "improvement plan" that should satisfy Dutch regulators that it "would end all violations". The Dutch regulatory body is monitoring the situation and states that "If progress is deemed insufficient or if the improvements offered are unsatisfactory, SLM Microsoft Rijk will reconsider its position and may ask the Data Protection Authority to carry out a prior consultation and to impose enforcement measures."[84] When asked for a response by an IT professional publication, a Microsoft spokesperson stated: We are committed to our customers’ privacy, putting them in control of their data and ensuring that Office ProPlus and other Microsoft products and services comply with GDPR and other applicable laws. We appreciate the opportunity to discuss our diagnostic data handling practices in Office ProPlus with the Dutch Ministry of Justice and look forward to a successful resolution of any concerns."[80] The user privacy data issue affects ProPlus subscriptions of Microsoft Office 2016 and Microsoft Office 365, including the online version of Microsoft Office 365.[85]

History of releases

Legend:

Old version

Older version, still maintained

Latest version

Latest preview version

Future release

Office version Version number Minimum operating system version Office support end date
Mainstream Extended
202116.0[citation needed]Windows10[86]Current stable version:October 13, 2026[87]N/A[87]
201916.0[88]Current stable version:October 10, 2023[89]Current stable version:October 14, 2025[89]
201616.0 7 SP1[90]Old version, no longer maintained: October 13, 2020[91]Older version, yet still maintained: October 14, 2025[91]
201315.0 7[92]Old version, no longer maintained: April 10, 2018[93]Older version, yet still maintained: April 11, 2023[93]
201014.0 XP SP3[94]Old version, no longer maintained: October 13, 2015 Old version, no longer maintained: October 13, 2020
200712.0 XP SP2[95]Old version, no longer maintained: October 9, 2012[96]Old version, no longer maintained: October 10, 2017[96]
200311.0 2000 SP3[97]Old version, no longer maintained: April 14, 2009 Old version, no longer maintained: April 8, 2014
XP10.0 98 or NT 4 SP6a[98][99]Old version, no longer maintained: July 11, 2006[100]Old version, no longer maintained: July 12, 2011[100]
20009.0 95 or NT 4 SP3[101]Old version, no longer maintained: June 30, 2004 Old version, no longer maintained: July 14, 2009
978.0 NT 3.51 SP5 or 95Old version, no longer maintained: August 31, 2001[102]Old version, no longer maintained: February 28, 2002[102]
957.0 NT 3.51 or 95Old version, no longer maintained: December 31, 2001[103]N/A[103]
4.x 6.0 3.1Old version, no longer maintained: November 1, 2000[104]N/A[104]
3.x Various 3.0[105]Old version, no longer maintained: September 30, 1998[106]N/A[106]
Office version Version number Minimum operating systemOffice support end date
202116.0 macOS10.15 – 11TBA
201916.0 10.12 – 11Current stable version:October 10, 2023[107]
201615.0 – 16.16.x 10.10 – 10.13[108]Old version, no longer maintained: October 13, 2020[109]
2011 for Mac14.0 10.5(Intel) – 10.12[108]Old version, no longer maintained: October 10, 2017[110]
2008 for Mac12.0 10.4(PPC) – 10.12[108]Old version, no longer maintained: April 9, 2013[111]
2004 for Mac11.0 10.2 – 10.6Old version, no longer maintained: January 10, 2012[112]
v. X 10.0 10.1 – 10.6Old version, no longer maintained: January 9, 2007[113]
20019.0 Classic
Mac OS
8.1(PPC)Old version, no longer maintained: December 31, 2005[114]
98 Macintosh Edition8.0 7.5(PPC)Old version, no longer maintained: June 30, 2003[115]
4.2 7.0 7.0(68K)Old version, no longer maintained: December 31, 1996[104]
3.0 6.0 ? Old version, no longer maintained: June 1, 2001[106]

Version history

Main article: History of Microsoft Office

Windows versions

Microsoft Office for Windows

Microsoft Office for Windows[118] started in October 1990 as a bundle of three applications designed for Microsoft Windows 3.0: Microsoft Word for Windows 1.1, Microsoft Excel for Windows 2.0, and Microsoft PowerPoint for Windows 2.0.[119]

Microsoft Office for Windows 1.5 updated the suite with Microsoft Excel 3.0.[120]

Version 1.6[121] added Microsoft Mail for PC Networks 2.1 to the bundle.[122]

Microsoft Office 3.0

Microsoft Office 3.0,[123] also called Microsoft Office 92, was released on August 30, 1992, and[124] contained Word 2.0, Excel 4.0, PowerPoint 3.0 and Mail 3.0. It was the first version of Office also released on CD-ROM.[125] In 1993, Microsoft Office Professional[126] was released, which added Microsoft Access 1.1.[127]

Microsoft Office 4.x

Microsoft Office 4.0 was released containing Word 6.0, Excel 4.0a, PowerPoint 3.0 and Mail in 1993.[128] Word's version number jumped from 2.0 to 6.0 so that it would have the same version number as the MS-DOS and Macintosh versions (Excel and PowerPoint were already numbered the same as the Macintosh versions).

Microsoft Office 4.2 for Windows NT was released in 1994 for i386, Alpha,[129] MIPS and PowerPC[130] architectures, containing Word 6.0 and Excel 5.0 (both 32-bit,[131] PowerPoint 4.0 (16-bit), and Microsoft Office Manager 4.2 (the precursor to the Office Shortcut Bar)).

Microsoft Office 95

Microsoft Office 95 was released on August 24, 1995. Software version numbers were altered again to create parity across the suite – every program was called version 7.0 meaning all but Word missed out versions. Office 95 included new components to the suite such as Schedule+ and Binder. Office for Windows 95 was designed as a fully 32-bit version to match Windows 95 although some apps not bundled as part of the suite at that time - Publisher for Windows 95 and Project 95 had some 16-bit components even though their main program executable was 32-bit.

Office 95 was available in two versions, Office 95 Standard and Office 95 Professional. The standard version consisted of Word 7.0, Excel 7.0, PowerPoint 7.0, and Schedule+ 7.0. The professional edition contained all of the items in the standard version plus Access 7.0. If the professional version was purchased in CD-ROM form, it also included Bookshelf.

The logo used in Office 95 returns in Office 97, 2000 and XP. Microsoft Office 98 Macintosh Edition also uses a similar logo.

Microsoft Office 97

Microsoft Office 97 (Office 8.0) included hundreds of new features and improvements, such as introducing command bars, a paradigm in which menus and toolbars were made more similar in capability and visual design. Office 97 also featured Natural Language Systems and grammar checking. Office 97 featured new components to the suite including FrontPage 97, Expedia Streets 98 (in Small Business Edition), and Internet Explorer 3.0 & 4.0.

Office 97 was the first version of Office to include the Office Assistant. In Brazil, it was also the first version to introduce the Registration Wizard, a precursor to Microsoft Product Activation. With this release, the accompanying apps, Project 98 and Publisher 98 also transitioned to fully 32-bit versions. Exchange Server, a mail server and calendaring server developed by Microsoft, is the server for Outlook after discontinuing Exchange Client.

Microsoft Office 2000

Microsoft Office 2000 (Office 9.0) introduced adaptive menus, where little-used options were hidden from the user. It also introduced a new security feature, built around digital signatures, to diminish the threat of macro viruses. The Microsoft Script Editor, an optional tool that can edit script code, was also introduced in Office 2000.[132] Office 2000 automatically trusts macros (written in VBA 6) that were digitally signed from authors who have been previously designated as trusted. Office 2000 also introduces PhotoDraw, a raster and vector imaging program, as well as Web Components, Visio, and Vizact.

The Registration Wizard, a precursor to Microsoft Product Activation, remained in Brazil and was also extended to Australia and New Zealand, though not for volume-licensed editions. Academic software in the United States and Canada also featured the Registration Wizard.

Microsoft Office XP

Microsoft Office XP (Office 10.0 or Office 2002) was released in conjunction with Windows XP, and was a major upgrade with numerous enhancements and changes over Office 2000. Office XP introduced the Safe Mode feature, which allows applications such as Outlook to boot when it might otherwise fail by bypassing a corrupted registry or a faulty add-in. Smart tag is a technology introduced with Office XP in Word and Excel and discontinued in Office 2010.

Office XP also introduces new components including Document Imaging, Document Scanning, Clip Organizer, MapPoint, and Data Analyzer. Binder was replaced by Unbind, a program that can extract the contents of a Binder file. Unbind can be installed from the Office XP CD-ROM.

Office XP includes integrated voice command and text dictation capabilities, as well as handwriting recognition. It was the first version to require Microsoft Product Activation worldwide and in all editions as an anti-piracy measure, which attracted widespread controversy.[133] Product Activation remained absent from Office for Mac releases until it was introduced in Office 2011 for Mac.

Microsoft Office 2003

Microsoft Office 2003 (Office 11.0) was released in 2003. It featured a new logo. Two new applications made their debut in Office 2003: Microsoft InfoPath and OneNote. It is the first version to use new, more colorful icons. Outlook 2003 provides improved functionality in many areas, including Kerberos authentication, RPC over HTTP, Cached Exchange Mode, and an improved junk mail filter.

Office 2003 introduces three new programs to the Office product lineup: InfoPath, a program for designing, filling, and submitting electronic structured data forms; OneNote, a note-taking program for creating and organizing diagrams, graphics, handwritten notes, recorded audio, and text; and the Picture Managergraphics software which can open, manage, and share digital images.

SharePoint, a web collaboration platform codenamed as Office Server, has integration and compatibility with Office 2003 and so on.[134]

Microsoft Office 2007

Microsoft Office 2007 (Office 12.0) was released in 2007. Office 2007's new features include a new graphical user interface called the Fluent User Interface,[135] replacing the menus and toolbars that have been the cornerstone of Office since its inception with a tabbed toolbar, known as the Ribbon; new XML-based file formats called Office Open XML; and the inclusion of Groove, a collaborative software application.[136]

While Microsoft removed Data Analyzer, FrontPage, Vizact, and Schedule+ from Office 2007; they also added Communicator, Groove, SharePoint Designer, and Office Customization Tool (OCT) to the suite.

Microsoft Office 2010

Microsoft Office 2010 (Office 14.0, Microsoft skipped 13.0 due to fear of 13[137]) was finalized on April 15, 2010, and made available to consumers on June 15, 2010.[138][139] The main features of Office 2010 include the backstage file menu, new collaboration tools, a customizable ribbon, protected view and a navigation panel. Office Communicator, an instant messaging and videotelephony application, was renamed into Lync 2010.

This is the first version to ship in 32-bit and 64-bit variants. Microsoft Office 2010 featured a new logo, which resembled the 2007 logo, except in gold, and with a modification in shape.[140] Microsoft released Service Pack 1 for Office 2010 on June 28, 2011[141] and Service Pack 2 on July 16, 2013.[142] Office Online was first released online along with SkyDrive, an online storing service.

Microsoft Office 2013

A technical preview of Microsoft Office 2013 (Build 15.0.3612.1010) was released on January 30, 2012, and a Customer Preview version was made available to consumers on July 16, 2012.[143] It sports a revamped application interface; the interface is based on Metro, the interface of Windows Phone and Windows 8. Microsoft Outlook has received the most pronounced changes so far; for example, the Metro interface provides a new visualization for scheduled tasks. PowerPoint includes more templates and transition effects, and OneNote includes a new splash screen.[144]

On May 16, 2011, new images of Office 15 were revealed, showing Excel with a tool for filtering data in a timeline, the ability to convert Roman numerals to Arabic numerals, and the integration of advanced trigonometric functions. In Word, the capability of inserting video and audio online as well as the broadcasting of documents on the Web were implemented.[145] Microsoft has promised support for Office Open XML Strict starting with version 15, a format Microsoft has submitted to the ISO for interoperability with other office suites, and to aid adoption in the public sector.[146] This version can read and write ODF 1.2 (Windows only).[147]

On October 24, 2012, Office 2013 Professional Plus was released to manufacturing and was made available to TechNet and MSDN subscribers for download.[148] On November 15, 2012, the 60-day trial version was released for public download.[149] Office 2013 was released to general availability on January 29, 2013.[150] Service Pack 1 for Office 2013 was released on February 25, 2014.[151] Some applications were completely removed from the entire suite including SharePoint Workspace, Clip Organizer, and Office Picture Manager.

Microsoft Office 2016

Main article: Microsoft Office 2016

On January 22, 2015, the Microsoft Office blog announced that the next version of the suite for Windows desktop, Office 2016, was in development. On May 4, 2015, a public preview of Microsoft Office 2016 was released.[152][153][154] Office 2016 was released for Mac OS X on July 9, 2015[155] and for Windows on September 22, 2015.[156]

Users who had the Professional Plus 2016 subscription have the new Skype for Business app. Microsoft Teams, a team collaboration program meant to rival Slack, was released as a separate product for business and enterprise users.

Microsoft Office 2019

Main article: Microsoft Office 2019

On September 26, 2017, Microsoft announced that the next version of the suite for Windows desktop, Office 2019, was in development. On April 27, 2018, Microsoft released Office 2019 Commercial Preview for Windows 10.[157] It was released to general availability for Windows 10 and for macOS on September 24, 2018.[158]

Microsoft Office 2021

Main article: Microsoft Office 2021

On February 18, 2021, Microsoft announced that the next version of the suite for Windows desktop, Office 2021, was in development.[159] This new version will be supported for five years and was released on October 5, 2021.[12]

Mac versions

Prior to packaging its various office-type Mac OS software applications into Office, Microsoft released Mac versions of Word 1.0 in 1984, the first year of the Macintosh computer; Excel 1.0 in 1985; and PowerPoint 1.0 in 1987.[160] Microsoft does not include its Access database application in Office for Mac.

Microsoft has noted that some features are added to Office for Mac before they appear in Windows versions, such as Office for Mac 2001's Office Project Gallery and PowerPoint Movie feature, which allows users to save presentations as QuickTime movies.[161][162] However, Microsoft Office for Mac has been long criticized for its lack of support of Unicode and for its lack of support for right-to-left languages, notably Arabic, Hebrew and Persian.[163][164]

Early Office for Mac releases (1989–1994)

Microsoft Office for Mac was introduced for Mac OS in 1989, before Office was released for Windows.[165] It included Word 4.0, Excel 2.2, PowerPoint 2.01, and Mail 1.37.[166] It was originally a limited-time promotion but later became a regular product. With the release of Office on CD-ROM later that year, Microsoft became the first major Mac publisher to put its applications on CD-ROM.[167]

Microsoft Office 1.5 for Mac was released in 1991 and included the updated Excel 3.0, the first application to support Apple's System 7operating system.[160]

Microsoft Office 3.0 for Mac was released in 1992 and included Word 5.0, Excel 4.0, PowerPoint 3.0 and Mail Client. Excel 4.0 was the first application to support new AppleScript.[160]

Microsoft Office 4.2 for Mac was released in 1994. (Version 4.0 was skipped to synchronize version numbers with Office for Windows) Version 4.2 included Word 6.0, Excel 5.0, PowerPoint 4.0 and Mail 3.2.[168] It was the first Office suite for Power Macintosh.[160] Its user interface was identical to Office 4.2 for Windows[169] leading many customers to comment that it wasn't Mac-like enough.[161] The final release for Mac 68K was Office 4.2.1, which updated Word to version 6.0.1, somewhat improving performance.

Microsoft Office 98 Macintosh Edition

Microsoft Office 98 Macintosh Edition was unveiled at MacWorld Expo/San Francisco in 1998. It introduced the Internet Explorer 4.0 web browser and Outlook Express, an Internet e-mail client and usenet newsgroup reader.[170] Office 98 was re-engineered by Microsoft's Macintosh Business Unit to satisfy customers' desire for software they felt was more Mac-like.[161] It included drag–and-drop installation, self-repairing applications and Quick Thesaurus, before such features were available in Office for Windows. It also was the first version to support QuickTime movies.[161]

Microsoft Office 2001 and v. X

Microsoft Office v. X box art

Microsoft Office 2001 was launched in 2000 as the last Office suite for the classic Mac OS. It required a PowerPC processor. This version introduced Entourage, an e-mail client that included information management tools such as a calendar, an address book, task lists and notes.[162] Microsoft Office v. X was released in 2001 and was the first version of Microsoft Office for Mac OS X.[171] Support for Office v. X ended on January 9, 2007, after the release of the final update, 10.1.9[172] Office v.X includes Word X, Excel X, PowerPoint X, Entourage X, MSN Messenger for Mac and Windows Media Player 9 for Mac; it was the last version of Office for Mac to include Internet Explorer for Mac.[173]

Office 2004

Microsoft Office 2004 for Mac was released on May 11, 2004.[174] It includes Microsoft Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Entourage and Virtual PC. It is the final version of Office to be built exclusively for PowerPC and to officially support G3 processors, as its sequel lists a G4, G5, or Intel processor as a requirement. It was notable for supporting Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), which is unavailable in Office 2008. This led Microsoft to extend support for Office 2004 from October 13, 2009, to January 10, 2012. VBA functionality was reintroduced in Office 2011, which is only compatible with Intel processors.

Office 2008

Microsoft Office 2008 for Mac was released on January 15, 2008. It was the only Office for Mac suite to be compiled as a universal binary, being the first to feature native Intel support and the last to feature PowerPC support for G4 and G5 processors, although the suite is unofficially compatible with G3 processors. New features include native Office Open XML file format support, which debuted in Office 2007 for Windows,[160] and stronger Microsoft Office password protection employing AES-128 and SHA-1. Benchmarks suggested that compared to its predecessor, Office 2008 ran at similar speeds on Intel machines and slower speeds on PowerPC machines.[175] Office 2008 also lacked Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) support, leaving it with only 15 months of additional mainstream support compared to its predecessor. Nevertheless, five months after it was released, Microsoft said that Office 2008 was "selling faster than any previous version of Office for Mac in the past 19 years" and affirmed "its commitment to future products for the Mac."[176]

Office 2011

Microsoft Office for Mac 2011 was released on October 26, 2010,.[59] It is the first version of Office for Mac to be compiled exclusively for Intel processors, dropping support for the PowerPC architecture. It features an OS X version of Outlook to replace the Entourage email client. This version of Outlook is intended to make the OS X version of Office work better with Microsoft's Exchange server and with those using Office for Windows.[177] Office 2011 includes a Mac-based Ribbon similar to Office for Windows.

OneNote and Outlook release (2014)

Microsoft OneNote for Mac was released on March 17, 2014. It marks the company's first release of the note-taking software on the Mac. It is available as a free download to all users of the Mac App Store in OS X Mavericks.[178]

Microsoft Outlook 2016 for Mac debuted on October 31, 2014. It requires a paid Office 365 subscription, meaning that traditional Office 2011 retail or volume licenses cannot activate this version of Outlook. On that day, Microsoft confirmed that it would release the next version of Office for Mac in late 2015.[179]

Despite dropping support for older versions of OS X and only keeping support for 64-bit-only versions of OS X, these versions of OneNote and Outlook are 32-bit applications like their predecessors.

Office 2016

Main article: Microsoft Office 2016

The first Preview version of Microsoft Office 2016 for Mac was released on March 5, 2015.[180] On July 9, 2015, Microsoft released the final version of Microsoft Office 2016 for Mac which includes Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Outlook and OneNote. It was immediately made available for Office 365 subscribers with either a Home, Personal, Business, Business Premium, E3 or ProPlus subscription. A non–Office 365 edition of Office 2016 was made available as a one-time purchase option on September 22, 2015.[156]

Office 2019

Main article: Microsoft Office 2019

Mobile versions

Office Mobile for iPhone

Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_Office
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    Windows 11 can’t make me switch from a Mac — here’s why

    Windows 11 just launched and as someone who uses both Macs and PCs, I was curious about how Microsoft's software update would be, and what's there. Microsoft had a whole event this summer to get the word out about Windows 11, and the energy surrounding Windows 11 system requirements created such a fervor that it felt like Windows 11 could be a game-changer. Or at least people believed it was that important. 

    Then I saw all the bright pretty colors of Windows 11, its rounded edges and opaque panels. It felt Mac-like. 

    And since I expect to need a new computer soon, a small, small part of me was hoping that Windows 11 could be that new home for all of my computing. Buying both a new gaming PC and a MacBook Pro 2021 is going to require a lot of money. Even though I've used a Mac for my adult life, I do kinda want to go all in on Windows — I use it to stream games that aren't available for the Mac, which makes me wonder why I'm sticking with the Mac.

    Looking at Windows 11, I was reminded about that "why," over and over again. So, I put together a list of the top five reasons that Windows 11 isn't doing it for me. This list could be really long (the way to write an em-dash "—" is still absurd on Windows, though it's easy on a Mac), but I thought I should keep my reasons to the important things tied to (or relevant for) Windows 11. 

    iPhone integration matters more than Android apps

    This, at the core of it all, is a major reason for why Microsoft probably isn't going to lure me over. I'm an iPhone user (I tried to use Android, it didn't click), and the Your Phone app just does nothing for me. It's just for Androids, and I get it. Because of all the restrictions and limitations of Apple's software and hardware, Microsoft can't get into the iPhone. I didn't expect Microsoft to crack that code, though — so don't take this as me being disappointed.

    But there's no such limitation on Mac-iPhone integration, which lets me reply to text messages from a MacBook, or run FaceTime calls on an iMac. And that kind of nimbleness, where you can leave the phone charging, and stay productive with your Mac, is what I love. And I love that Android users will get a little of that with the Your Phone app. I love that for them. Seriously.

    But I also just don't care at all about the Android apps coming to the PC in Windows 11 (not that they're present at launch). This is partially because I'm an iPhone user and would rather those apps be made available (more on that below). 

    It's also because Windows 11 is getting the least appealing spin-off of the Google Play Store (and its 3.5 million apps) in the form of the Amazon Appstore's 500,000-ish apps. This means you don't get any Google apps, including Gmail or YouTube, which are glaring exceptions for those of us who think about Android being Google's world.

    Can it be fixed? Not sure, but getting the real Google Play Store integrated with Windows would be a start.

    Widgets are not it (yet)

    Widgets are here in Windows 11, and I'm really disappointed with the first batch. The only included calendars widget is Outlook Calendar, which (you guessed it) requires you to use Outlook. There's no way Microsoft could have made a widget that supported its own Calendars app, too? Windows 11 needs third-party widgets and it needs them badly.

    The only other included widgets that piqued my interest were Weather, To Do (I've got my own preferred productivity app, but this is a nice touch) and Entertainment. The other apps, such as Watchlist Stocks, Sports, Esports (LOL), Traffic and Photos didn't do much for me, and the so-called "Entertainment" app is merely a very basic, bland and not-at-all recent set of recommendations for what to watch. (It's not very tailored to my interests — I have done nothing to suggest I'd want to watch Trolls World Tour).

    Then there's the section under the Widgets, which appears to be a holdover from something else. It's a series of news items that, were they shared on Twitter, would generate a series of dismissive replies. Stories like "Amal Clooney Wore a Gorgeous Cutout Dress with George for 'The Tender Bar' Premiere," "BREAKING: Starting defensive lineman will miss the remainder of the season," and "Bindi Irwin Shares Sunny Snapshots of 'Princess' Grace, 6 Months, Smiling with Tongue Out."

    I try to do my best to avoid this chuff: in the "followed interests" section on Microsoft's MSN site, I've only checked off TV, Movies, Music and Coronavirus. But still I get served chum like the above.

    How to fix it: More widgets, less fluffy news.

    The Apple third party apps I want aren’t on Windows

    There's a lot of good being done in the Windows store, the app store inside of Windows. It's being opened up to third party sellers, such Epic Games (whose spat with Apple led to Fortnite getting kicked off Apple devices.)

    But this isn't really a thing I care about a whole lot for me, personally. My favorite apps, such as the productivity-focused Due reminder app, Deliveries for tracking packages, the excellent Pixelmator image editor and the Overcast podcatcher aren't in the Windows store. That's not a knock against Windows, except that the developers in question don't make Windows versions of their apps.

    How to fix it: I don't know if Microsoft can get those developers to build Windows 11 apps, but that would go a long way for me. 

    I don’t care about Teams 

    Microsoft's rebranding of itself as a services company is a bit much if you ask me, because they're really hoping that people care about Microsoft Teams — a service that we as individuals don't have much control over if we use at work or not.

    Microsoft seems so proud of Teams that it wants us to make it and the Teams Chat app the crux of all of our messaging. "Forget Skype, messages and everything else," Microsoft seems to say "You should just use Teams!"

    But what if I like what I was using before? I rely on Discord, and that doesn't really seem to have an integration (it and Teams Chat seem to be two whole separate worlds, so it probably won't work like this). Shouldn't I be able to easily remove the Teams Chat app Microsoft jammed into the Task Bar? 

    At first, it doesn't seem like you can, as there's no option to un-pin it when you right-click the Teams/Chat app (which appears when you right click other apps on that area). My colleague Alex Wawro explained how to do it, though. Open the Settings app, select Personalization and select Taskbar. Then, turn the switch next to Chat to the Off position. That's a little too much work if you ask me, and I bet many people will not poke around settings and find this. Instead, they'll wind up having Microsoft bully them into using this app or letting it take up space.

    How to fix it: Make Teams more obviously optional.

    Edge still gets pushed way too hard

    One of the many holdovers from Windows 10 is that Edge is still the baked-in default web browser for when you do anything within Windows. Search the web in the Start Menu or in Widgets? You're opening in Edge. It's a really weird thing for Microsoft to force, especially when you can set Chrome as your default web browser. 

    Speaking of which, Windows 11 makes it harder than ever to change your default web browser. Microsoft took the old method — look for "Web browser" in the Default apps section of System Preferences — and threw it out because ... it was too easy? I'm not sure why Microsoft did this, but now you need to open the same Default apps section, but scroll down through a list of applications to find the browser you want to use. For me, because of requirements at work, that's Chrome. 

    Once I click through Chrome, I have to change every single web page format that exists: .htm, .html, .pdf, .shtml, .svg, .webp, .xht, .xhtml, FTP, HTTP, HTTPS and many more. 

    I get the .pdf option but ... what was wrong with just one "web browser" setting? Did someone actually say they needed to open .html links and HTTP links in different applications? 

    How to fix it: Go back to Windows 10's default web browser setting — and let that setting apply to actions in the Start Menu too.

    Windows 11 outlook

    I can't tell if Microsoft will ever make the Windows that gets me, a Mac user, to switch full-time. Breaking the padlocks on the gate to the iPhone is probably an ask too far, but if it could pull in app developers who aren't even on Windows, make Widgets worth a damn and stop pushing Teams and Edge so damn hard?

    Maybe I would be able to get away with one new computer — and not two — this year.

    Henry is a senior editor at Tom’s Guide covering streaming media, laptops and all things Apple, reviewing devices and services for the past six-plus years. Prior to joining Tom's Guide, he reviewed software and hardware for TechRadar Pro, and interviewed artists for Patek Philippe International Magazine. He's also covered the wild world of professional wrestling for Cageside Seats, interviewing athletes and other industry veterans.

    Источник: https://www.tomsguide.com/opinion/windows-11-cant-make-me-switch-from-a-mac-heres-why
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