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Mirror

Object that reflects light

For other uses, see Mirror (disambiguation).

"Looking glass" redirects here. For other uses, see Looking Glass.

A mirror reflecting a vase
A first surface mirrorcoated with aluminum and enhanced with dielectriccoatings. The angle of the incident light (represented by both the light in the mirror and the shadow behind it) matches the exact angle of reflection (the reflected light shining on the table).
4.5-metre (15 ft) high acoustic mirror near KilnseaGrange, East Yorkshire, UK, from World War I. The mirror magnified the sound of approaching enemy Zeppelinsfor a microphone placed at the focal point.

A mirror is an object that reflects an image. Light that bounces off a mirror will show an image of whatever is in front of it, when focused through the lens of the eye or a camera. Mirrors reverse the direction of the image in an equal yet opposite angle from which the light shines upon genymotion crack mac. This allows the viewer to see themselves or objects behind them, or even objects that are at an angle from them but out of their field of view, such as around a corner. Natural mirrors have existed since prehistoric times, such as the surface of water, but people have been manufacturing mirrors out of a variety of materials for thousands of years, like stone, metals, and glass. In modern mirrors, metals like silver or aluminum are often used due to their high reflectivity, applied as a thin coating on glass because of its naturally smooth and very hard surface.

A mirror is a wave reflector. Light consists of waves, and when light waves reflect off the flat surface of a mirror, those waves retain the same degree of curvature and vergence, in an equal yet opposite direction, as the original waves. This allows the waves to form an image when they are focused through a lens, just as if the waves had originated from the direction of the mirror. The light can also be pictured as rays (imaginary lines radiating from the light source, that are always perpendicular to the waves). These rays are reflected at an equal yet opposite angle from which they strike the mirror (incident light). This property, called specular reflection, distinguishes a mirror from objects that diffuse light, breaking up the wave and scattering it in many directions (such as flat-white paint). Thus, a mirror can be any surface in which the texture or roughness of the surface is smaller (smoother) than the wavelength of the waves.

When looking at a mirror, one will see a mirror image or reflected image of objects in the environment, formed by light emitted or scattered by them and reflected by the mirror towards one's eyes. This effect gives the illusion that those objects are behind the mirror, or (sometimes) in front of it. When the surface is not flat, a mirror may behave like a reflecting lens. A plane mirror will yield a real-looking undistorted image, while a curved mirror may distort, magnify, or reduce the image in various ways, while keeping the lines, contrast, sharpness, colors, and other image properties intact.

A mirror is commonly used for inspecting oneself, such as during personal grooming; hence the old-fashioned name looking glass.[1] This use, which dates from prehistory,[2] overlaps with uses in decoration and architecture. Mirrors are also used to view other items that are not directly visible because of obstructions; examples include rear-view mirrors in vehicles, security mirrors in or around buildings, and dentist's mirrors. Mirrors are also used in optical and scientific apparatus such as telescopes, lasers, cameras, periscopes, and industrial machinery.

The terms "mirror" and "reflector" can be used for objects that reflect any other types of waves. An acoustic mirror reflects sound waves. Objects such as walls, ceilings, or natural rock-formations may produce echos, and this tendency often becomes a problem in acoustical engineering when designing houses, auditoriums, or recording studios. Acoustic mirrors may be used for applications such as parabolic microphones, atmospheric studies, sonar, and seafloor mapping.[3] An atomic mirror reflects matter waves, and can be used for atomic interferometry and atomic holography.

History[edit]

A sculpture of a lady looking into a mirror, from Halebidu, India, 12th century

Prehistory[edit]

The first mirrors used by humans were most likely pools of dark, still water, or water collected in a primitive vessel of some sort. The requirements for making a good mirror are a surface with a very high degree of flatness (preferably but not necessarily with high reflectivity), and a surface roughness smaller than the wavelength of the light.

The earliest manufactured mirrors were pieces of polished stone such as obsidian, a naturally occurring volcanic glass.[4] Examples of obsidian mirrors found in Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) have been dated to around 6000 BC.[5] Mirrors of polished copper were crafted in Mesopotamia from 4000 BC,[5] and in ancient Egypt from around 3000 BC.[6] Polished stone mirrors from Central and South America date from around 2000 BC onwards.[5]

Bronze Age to Early Middle Ages[edit]

By the Bronze Age most cultures were using mirrors made from polished discs of bronze, copper, silver, or other metals.[4][7] The people of Kerma in Nubia were skilled in the manufacturing of mirrors. Remains of their bronze kilns have been found within the temple of Kerma.[8] In China, bronze mirrors were manufactured from around 2000 BC,[9][citation needed] some of the earliest bronze and copper examples being produced by the Qijia culture. Such metal mirrors remained the norm through to Greco-Roman Antiquity and throughout the Middle Ages in Europe.[10] During the Roman Empire silver mirrors were in wide use even by maidservants.[11]

Speculum metal is a highly reflective alloy of copper and tin that was used for mirrors until a couple of centuries ago. Such mirrors may have originated in China and India.[12] Mirrors of speculum metal or any precious metal were hard to produce and were only owned by the wealthy.[13]

Common metal mirrors tarnished and required frequent polishing. Bronze mirrors had low reflectivity and poor color rendering, and stone mirrors were much worse in this regard.[14]: p.11  These defects explain the New Testament reference in 1 Corinthians 13 to seeing "as in a mirror, darkly."

The GreekphilosopherSocrates, of "know thyself" fame, urged young people to look at themselves in mirrors so that, if they were beautiful, they would become worthy of their beauty, and if they were ugly, they would know how to hide their disgrace through learning.[14]: p.106 

Glass began to be used for mirrors in the 1st century CE, with the development of soda-lime glass and glass blowing.[15] The Roman scholar Pliny the Elder claims that artisans in Sidon (modern-day Lebanon) were producing glass mirrors coated with lead or gold leaf in the back. The metal provided good reflectivity, and the glass provided a smooth surface and protected the metal from scratches and tarnishing.[16][17][18][14]: p.12 [19] However, there is no archeological evidence of glass mirrors before the third century.[20]

These early glass mirrors were made by blowing a glass bubble, and then cutting off a small circular section from 10 to 20 cm in diameter. Their surface was either concave or convex, and imperfections tended to distort the image. Lead-coated mirrors were very thin to prevent cracking by the heat of the molten metal.[14]: p.10  Due to their poor quality, high cost, and small size, solid-metal mirrors, primarily of steel, remained in common use until the late nineteenth century.[14]: p.13 

Silver-coated metal mirrors were developed in China as early as 500 CE. The bare metal was coated with an amalgam, then heated until the mercury boiled away.[21]

Middle Ages and Renaissance[edit]

Mirror with laquered back inlaid with 4 phoenixes holding ribbons in their mouths. Tang Dynasty. Eastern Xi;an city

The evolution of glass mirrors in the Middle Ages followed improvements in glassmaking technology. Glassmakers in France made flat glass plates by blowing glass bubbles, spinning them rapidly to flatten them, and cutting rectangles out of them. A better method, developed in Germany and perfected in Venice by the 16th century, was to blow a cylinder of glass, cut off the ends, slice it along its length, and unroll it onto a flat hot plate.[14]: p.11  Venetian glassmakers also adopted lead glass for mirrors, because of its crystal-clarity and its easier workability. By the 11th century, glass mirrors were being produced in Moorish Spain.[22]

During the early EuropeanRenaissance, a fire-gilding technique developed to produce an even and highly reflective tin coating for glass mirrors. The back of the glass was coated with a tin-mercury amalgam, and the mercury was then evaporated by heating the piece. This process caused less thermal shock to the glass than the older molten-lead method.[14]: p.16  The date and location of the discovery is unknown, but by the 16th century Venice was a center of mirror production using this technique. These Venetian mirrors were up to 40 inches (100 cm) square.

For a century, Venice retained the monopoly of the tin amalgam technique. Venetian mirrors in richly decorated frames served as luxury decorations for palaces throughout Europe, and were very expensive. For example, in the late seventeenth century, the Skyline personal mobile app maker crack - Crack Key For U de Fiesque was reported to have traded an entire wheat farm for a mirror, considering it a bargain.[23] However, by the end of that century the secret was leaked through industrial espionage. French workshops succeeded in large-scale industrialization of the process, eventually making mirrors affordable to the masses, in spite of the toxicity of mercury's vapor.[24]

Industrial Revolution[edit]

The invention of the ribbon machine in the late Industrial Revolution allowed modern glass panes to be produced in bulk.[14] The Saint-Gobain factory, founded by royal initiative in France, was an important manufacturer, and Bohemian and German glass, often rather cheaper, was also important.

The invention of the silvered-glass mirror is credited to German chemist Justus von Liebig in 1835.[25] His wet deposition process involved the deposition of a thin layer of metallic silver onto glass through the chemical reduction of silver nitrate. This silvering process was adapted for mass manufacturing and led to the greater availability of affordable mirrors.

Contemporary technologies[edit]

Currently mirrors are often produced by the wet deposition of silver, or sometimes nickel or chromium (the latter used most often in automotive mirrors) via electroplating directly onto the glass substrate.[26]

Glass mirrors for optical instruments are usually produced by vacuum deposition methods. These techniques can be traced to observations in the 1920s and 1930s that metal was being ejected from electrodes in gas discharge lamps and condensed on the glass walls forming a mirror-like coating. The phenomenon, called sputtering, was developed into an industrial metal-coating method with the development of semiconductor technology in the 1970s.

A similar phenomenon had been observed with incandescent light bulbs: the metal in the hot filament would slowly sublimate and condense on the bulb's walls. This phenomenon was developed into the method of evaporation coating by Pohl and Pringsheim in 1912. John D. Strong used evaporation coating to make the first aluminum-coated telescope mirrors in the 1930s.[27] The first dielectric mirror was created in 1937 by Auwarter using evaporated rhodium.[15]

The metal coating of glass mirrors is usually protected from abrasion and corrosion by a layer of paint applied over it. Mirrors for optical instruments often have the metal layer on the front face, so that the light does not have to cross the glass twice. In these mirrors, the metal may be protected by a thin transparent coating of a non-metallic (dielectric) material. The first metallic mirror to be enhanced with a dielectric coating of silicon dioxide was created by Hass in 1937. In 1939 at the Schott Glass company, Walter Geffcken invented the first dielectric mirrors to use multilayer coatings.[15]

Burning mirrors[edit]

The Greek in Classical Antiquity were familiar with the use of mirrors to concentrate light. Parabolic mirrors were described and studied by the mathematician Diocles in his work On Burning Mirrors.[28]Ptolemy conducted a number of experiments with curved polished iron mirrors,[2]: p.64  and discussed plane, convex spherical, and concave spherical mirrors in his Optics.[29]

Parabolic mirrors were also described by the Caliphate mathematician Ibn Sahl in the tenth century.[30] The scholar Ibn al-Haytham discussed concave and convex mirrors in both cylindrical and spherical geometries,[31] carried out a number of experiments with mirrors, and solved the problem of finding the point on a convex mirror at which a ray coming from one point is reflected to another point.[32]

Types of mirrors[edit]

A curved mirror at the Universum museumin Mexico City. The image splits between the convex and concave curves.
A large convex mirror. Distortions in the image increase with the viewing distance.

Mirrors can be classified in many ways; including by shape, support and reflective materials, manufacturing methods, and intended application.

By shape[edit]

Typical mirror shapes are planar, convex, and concave.

The surface of curved mirrors is often a part of a sphere. Mirrors that are meant to precisely concentrate parallel rays of light into a point are usually made in the shape of a paraboloid of revolution instead; they are used in telescopes (from radio waves to X-rays), in antennas to communicate with broadcast satellites, and in solar furnaces. A segmented mirror, consisting of multiple flat or curved mirrors, properly placed and oriented, may be used instead.

Mirrors that are intended to concentrate sunlight onto a long pipe may be a circular cylinder or of a parabolic cylinder.[citation needed]

By structural material[edit]

The most common structural material for mirrors is glass, due to its transparency, ease of fabrication, rigidity, hardness, and ability to take a smooth finish.

Back-silvered mirrors[edit]

The most common mirrors consist of a plate of transparent glass, with a thin reflective layer on the back (the side opposite to the incident and reflected light) backed by a coating that protects that layer against abrasion, tarnishing, and corrosion. The glass is usually soda-lime glass, but lead glass may be used for decorative effects, and other transparent materials may be used for specific applications.[citation needed]

A plate of transparent plastic may be used instead of glass, for lighter weight or impact resistance. Alternatively, a flexible transparent plastic film may be bonded to the front and/or back surface of the mirror, to prevent injuries in case the mirror is broken. Lettering or decorative designs may be printed on the front face of the glass, or formed on the reflective layer. The front surface may have an anti-reflection coating.[citation needed]

Front-silvered mirrors[edit]

Mirrors which are reflective on the front surface (the same side of the incident and reflected light) may be made of any rigid material.[33] The supporting material does not necessarily need to be transparent, but telescope mirrors often use glass anyway. Often a protective transparent coating is added on top of the reflecting layer, to protect it against abrasion, tarnishing, and corrosion, or to absorb certain wavelengths.[citation needed]

Flexible mirrors[edit]

Thin flexible plastic mirrors are sometimes used for safety, since they cannot shatter or produce sharp flakes. Their flatness is achieved by stretching them on a rigid frame. These usually consist of a layer of evaporated aluminum between two thin layers of transparent plastic.[citation needed]

By reflective material[edit]

A dielectric mirror-stack works on the principle of thin-film interference. Each layer has a different refractive index, allowing each interface to produce a small amount of reflection. When the thickness of the layers is proportional to the chosen wavelength, the multiple reflections constructively interfere. Stacks may consist of a few to hundreds of individual coats.
A hot mirror used in a camera to reduce red eye

In common skyline personal mobile app maker crack - Crack Key For U, the reflective layer is usually some metal like silver, tin, nickel, or chromium, deposited by a wet process; or aluminum,[26][34] deposited by sputtering or evaporation in vacuum. The reflective layer may also be made of one or more layers of transparent materials with suitable indices of refraction.

The structural material may be a metal, in which case the reflecting layer may be just the surface of the same. Metal concave dishes are often used to reflect infrared light (such as in space heaters) or microwaves (as in satellite TV antennas). Liquid metal telescopes use a surface of liquid metal such as mercury.

Mirrors that reflect only part of the light, while transmitting some of the rest, can be made with very thin metal layers or suitable combinations of dielectric layers. They are typically used as beamsplitters. A dichroic mirror, in particular, has surface that reflects certain wavelengths of light, while letting other wavelengths pass through. A cold mirror is a dichroic mirror that efficiently reflects the entire visible light spectrum while transmitting infrared wavelengths. A hot mirror is the opposite: it reflects infrared light while transmitting visible light. Dichroic mirrors are often used as filters to remove undesired components of the light in cameras and measuring instruments.

In X-ray telescopes, the X-rays reflect off a highly precise metal surface at almost grazing angles, and only a small fraction of the rays are reflected.[35] In flying relativistic mirrors conceived for X-ray lasers, the reflecting surface is a spherical shockwave (wake wave) created in a low-density plasma by a very intense laser-pulse, and moving at an extremely high velocity.[36]

Nonlinear optical mirrors[edit]

A phase-conjugating mirror uses nonlinear optics to reverse the phase difference between incident beams. Such mirrors may be used, for example, for coherent beam August 29, 2021 - Free Activators. The useful applications are self-guiding of laser beams and correction of atmospheric distortions in imaging systems.[37][38][39]

Physical principles[edit]

A mirror reflects light waves to the observer, preserving the wave's curvature and divergence, to form an image when focused through the lens of the eye. The angle of the impinging wave, as it traverses the mirror's surface, matches the angle of the reflected wave.

When a sufficiently narrow beam of light is reflected at a point of a surface, the surface's normal direction\vec n will be the bisector of the angle formed by the two beams at that point. That is, the direction vector\vec u towards the incident beams's source, the normal vector \vec n, and direction vector {\vec {v}} of the reflected beam will be coplanar, and the angle between \vec n and {\vec {v}} will be equal to the angle of incidence between \vec n and \vec u, but of opposite sign.[40]

This property can be explained by the physics of an electromagneticplane wave that is incident to a flat surface that is electrically conductive or where the speed of light changes abruptly, as between two materials with different indices of refraction.

  • When parallel beams of light are reflected on a plane surface, the reflected rays will be parallel too.
  • If the reflecting surface is concave, the reflected beams will be convergent, at least to some extent and for some distance from the surface.
  • A convex mirror, on the other hand, will reflect parallel rays towards divergent directions.

More specifically, a concave parabolic mirror (whose surface is a part of a paraboloid of revolution) will reflect rays that are parallel to its axis into rays that pass through its focus. Conversely, a parabolic concave mirror will reflect any ray that comes from its focus towards a direction parallel to its axis. If a concave mirror surface is a part of a prolate ellipsoid, it will reflect any ray coming from one focus toward the other focus.[40]

A convex parabolic mirror, on the other hand, will reflect rays that are parallel to its axis into rays that seem to emanate from the focus of the surface, behind the mirror. Conversely, it will reflect incoming rays that converge toward that point into rays that Native Instruments FM8 Crack + Serial Key 2021 - Activators Patch parallel to the axis. A convex mirror that is part of a prolate ellipsoid will reflect rays that converge towards one focus into divergent rays that seem to emanate from the other focus.[40]

Spherical mirrors do not reflect parallel rays to rays that converge to or diverge from a single point, or vice versa, due to spherical aberration. Skyline personal mobile app maker crack - Crack Key For U, a spherical mirror whose diameter is sufficiently small compared to the sphere's radius will behave very similarly to a parabolic mirror whose axis goes through the mirror's center and the center of that sphere; so that spherical mirrors can substitute for parabolic ones in many applications.[40]

A similar aberration occurs with parabolic mirrors when the incident rays are parallel among themselves but not parallel to the mirror's axis, or are divergent from a point that is not the focus – as when trying to form an image of an objet that is near the mirror or spans a wide angle as seen from it. However, this aberration can be sufficiently small if the object image is sufficiently far from the mirror and spans a sufficiently small angle around its axis.[40]

Mirror images[edit]

Main article: Mirror image

A mirror reverses an image in the direction of the normal angle of incidence. When the surface is at a 90°, horizontal angle from the object, the image appears inverted 180° along the vertical (right and left remain on the correct sides, but the image appears upside down), because the normal angle of incidence points down vertically toward the water.
A mirror reflects a real image back to the observer, forming a virtual image; a perceptual illusion that objects in the image are behind the mirror's surface.

Mirrors reflect an image to the observer. However, unlike a projected image on a screen, an image does not actually exist on the surface of the mirror. For example, when two people look at each other in a mirror, both see different images on the same surface. When the light waves converge through the lens of the eye they interfere with each other to form the image on the surface of the retina, and since both viewers see waves coming from different directions, each sees a different image in the same mirror. Thus, the images observed in a mirror depends upon the angle of the mirror with respect to the eye. The angle between the object and the observer is always twice the angle between the eye and the normal, or the direction perpendicular to the surface. This allows animals with binocular vision to see the reflected image with depth perception and in three dimensions.

The mirror forms a virtual image of whatever is in the opposite angle from the viewer, meaning that objects in the image appear to exist in a direct line of sight—behind the surface of the mirror—at an equal distance from their position in front of the mirror. Objects behind the observer, or between the observer and the mirror, are reflected back to the observer without any actual change in orientation; the light waves are simply reversed in a direction perpendicular to the mirror. However, when viewer is facing the object and the mirror is at an angle between them, the image appears inverted 180° along the direction of the angle.[41]

Objects viewed in a (plane) mirror will appear laterally inverted (e.g., if one raises one's right hand, the image's left hand will appear to go up in the mirror), but not vertically inverted (in the image a person's head still appears above their body).[42] However, a mirror does not usually "swap" left and right any more than it swaps top and bottom. A mirror typically reverses the forward-backward axis. To be precise, it reverses the object in the direction perpendicular to the mirror surface (the normal). Because left and right are defined relative to front-back and top-bottom, the "flipping" of front and back results in the perception of a left-right reversal in the image. (i.e.: When a person raises their left hand, the actual left hand raises in the mirror, but gives the illusion of a right hand raising because the image appears to be facing them. If they stand side-on to a mirror, the mirror really does reverse left and right, that is, objects that are physically closer to the mirror always appear closer in the virtual image, and objects farther from the surface always appear symmetrically farther away regardless of angle.)

Looking at an image of oneself with the front-back axis flipped results in the perception of an image with its left-right axis flipped. When reflected in the mirror, a person's right hand remains directly opposite their real right hand, but it is perceived by the mind as the left hand in the image. When a person looks into a mirror, the image is actually front-back reversed, which is an effect similar to the hollow-mask illusion. Notice that a mirror image is fundamentally different from the object and cannot be reproduced by simply rotating the object.

For things that may be considered as two-dimensional objects (like text), front-back reversal cannot usually explain the observed reversal. An image is a two-dimensional representation of a three-dimensional space, and because it exists in a two-dimensional plane, an image can be viewed from front or back. In the same way that text on a piece of paper appears reversed if held up to a light and viewed from behind, text held facing a mirror will appear reversed, because the image of the text is still facing away from the observer. Another way to understand the reversals observed in images of objects that are effectively two-dimensional is that the inversion of left and right in a mirror is due to the way human beings perceive their surroundings. A person's reflection in a mirror appears to be a real person facing them, but for that person to really face themselves (i.e.: twins) one would have to physically turn and face the other, causing an actual swapping of right and left. A mirror causes an illusion of left-right reversal because left and right were not swapped when the image appears to have turned around to face the viewer. The viewer's egocentric navigation (left and right with respect to the observer's point of view; i.e.: "my left.") is unconsciously replaced with their allocentric navigation (left and right as it relates another's point of view; ".your right") when processing the virtual image of the apparent person behind the mirror. Likewise, text viewed in a mirror would have to be physically turned around, facing the observer and away from the surface, actually swapping left and right, to be read in the mirror.[41]

Optical properties[edit]

Reflectivity[edit]

Four different mirrors, showing the difference in reflectivity. Clockwise from upper left: dielectric (80%), aluminum (85%), chrome (25%), and enhanced silver (99.9%). All are first-surface mirrors except the chrome mirror. The dielectric mirror reflects yellow light from the first-surface, but acts like an antireflection coatingto purple light, thus produced a ghost reflection of the lightbulb from the second-surface.

The reflectivity of a mirror is determined by the percentage of reflected light per the total of the incident light. The reflectivity may vary with wavelength. All or a portion of the light not reflected is absorbed by the mirror, while in some cases a portion may also transmit through. Although some small portion of the light will be absorbed by the coating, the reflectivity is usually higher for first-surface mirrors, eliminating both reflection and absorption losses from the substrate. The reflectivity is often determined by the type and thickness of the coating. When the thickness of the coating is sufficient to prevent transmission, all of the losses occur due to absorption. Aluminum is harder, less expensive, and more resistant to tarnishing than silver, and will reflect 85 to 90% of the light in the visible to near-ultraviolet range, but experiences a drop in its reflectance between 800 and 900 nm. Gold is very soft and easily scratched, costly, yet does not tarnish. Gold is greater than 96% reflective to near and far-infrared light between 800 and 12000 nm, but poorly reflects visible light with wavelengths shorter than 600 nm (yellow). Silver is expensive, soft, and quickly tarnishes, but has the highest reflectivity in the visual to near-infrared of any metal. Silver can reflect up to 98 or 99% of light to wavelengths as long as 2000 nm, but loses nearly all reflectivity at wavelengths shorter than 350 nm. Dielectric mirrors can reflect greater than 99.99% of light, but only for a narrow range of wavelengths, ranging from a bandwidth of only 10 nm to as wide as 100 nm for tunable lasers. However, dielectric coatings can also enhance the reflectivity of metallic coatings and protect them from scratching or tarnishing. Dielectric materials are typically very hard and relatively cheap, however the number of 4k video downloader crack reddit - Activators Patch needed generally makes it an expensive process. In mirrors with low tolerances, the coating thickness may be reduced to save cost, and simply covered with paint to absorb transmission.[43]

Surface quality[edit]

Flatness errors, like rippled dunes across the surface, produced these artifacts, distortion, and low image quality in the far fieldreflection of a household mirror.

Surface quality, or surface accuracy, measures the deviations from a perfect, ideal surface shape. Increasing the surface quality reduces distortion, artifacts, and aberration in images, and helps increase coherence, collimation, and reduce unwanted divergence in beams. For plane mirrors, this is often described in terms of flatness, while other surface shapes are compared to an ideal shape. The surface quality is typically measured with items like interferometers or optical flats, and are usually measured in wavelengths of light (λ). These deviations can be much larger or much smaller than the surface roughness. A normal household-mirror made with float glass may have flatness tolerances as low as 9–14λ per inch (25.4 mm), equating to a deviation of 5600 through 8800 nanometers from perfect flatness. Precision ground and polished mirrors intended for lasers or telescopes may have tolerances as high as λ/50 (1/50 of the wavelength of the light, or around 12 nm) across the entire surface.[44][43] The surface quality can be affected by factors such as temperature changes, internal stress in the substrate, or even bending effects that occur when combining materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion, similar to a bimetallic strip.[45]

Surface roughness[edit]

Surface roughness describes the texture of the surface, often in terms of the depth of the microscopic scratches left by the polishing operations. Surface roughness determines how much of the reflection is specular and how much diffuses, controlling how sharp or blurry the image will be.

For perfectly specular reflection, the surface roughness must be kept smaller than the wavelength of the light. Microwaves, which sometimes have a wavelength greater than an inch (~25 mm) can reflect specularly off a metal screen-door, continental ice-sheets, or desert sand, while visible light, having wavelengths of only a few hundred nanometers (a few hundred-thousandths of an inch), must meet a very smooth surface to produce specular reflection. For wavelengths that are approaching or are even shorter than the diameter of the atoms, such as X-rays, specular reflection can only be produced by surfaces that are at a grazing incidence from the rays.

Surface roughness is typically measured in microns, wavelength, or grit size, with ~80,000–100,000 grit or ~½λ–¼λ being "optical quality".[46][43][47]

Transmissivity[edit]

A dielectric, laser output-coupler that is 75–80% reflective between 500 and 600 nm, on a 3° wedge prismmade of quartz glass. Left: The mirror is highly reflective to yellow and green but highly transmissive to red and blue. Right: The mirror transmits 25% of the 589 nm laser light. Because the smoke particles diffractmore light than they reflect, the beam appears much brighter when reflecting back toward the observer.

Transmissivity is determined by the percentage of light transmitted per the incident light. Transmissivity is usually the same from both first and second surfaces. The combined transmitted and reflected light, subtracted from the incident light, measures the amount absorbed by both the coating and substrate. For transmissive mirrors, such as one-way mirrors, beam splitters, or laser output couplers, the transmissivity of the mirror is an important consideration. The transmissivity of metallic coatings are often determined by their thickness. For precision beam-splitters or output couplers, the thickness of the coating must be kept at very high tolerances to transmit the proper amount of light. For dielectric mirrors, the thickness of the coat must always be kept to high tolerances, but it is often more the number of individual coats that determine the transmissivity. For the substrate, the material used must also have good transmissivity to the chosen wavelengths. Glass is a suitable substrate for most visible-light applications, but other substrates such as zinc selenide or synthetic sapphire may be used for infrared or ultraviolet wavelengths.[48]: p.104–108 

Wedge[edit]

Wedge errors are caused by the deviation of the surfaces from perfect parallelism. An optical wedge is the angle formed between two plane-surfaces (or between the principle planes of curved surfaces) due to manufacturing errors or limitations, causing one edge of the mirror to be slightly thicker than the other. Nearly all mirrors and optics with parallel faces have some slight degree of wedge, which is usually measured in seconds or minutes of arc. For first-surface mirrors, wedges can introduce alignment deviations in mounting hardware. For second-surface or transmissive mirrors, wedges can have a prismatic effect on the light, deviating its trajectory or, to a very slight degree, its color, causing chromatic and other forms of aberration. In some instances, a slight wedge is desirable, such as in certain laser systems where stray reflections from the uncoated surface are better dispersed than reflected back through the medium.[43][49]

Surface defects[edit]

Surface defects are small-scale, discontinuous imperfections in the surface smoothness. Surface defects are larger (in some cases much larger) than the surface roughness, but only affect small, localized portions of the entire surface. These are typically found as scratches, digs, pits (often from bubbles in the glass), sleeks (scratches from prior, larger grit polishing operations that were not fully removed by subsequent polishing grits), edge chips, or blemishes in the coating. These defects are often an unavoidable side-effect of manufacturing limitations, both in cost and machine precision. If kept low enough, in most applications these defects will rarely have any adverse effect, unless the surface is located at an image plane where they will show up directly. For applications that require extremely low scattering of light, extremely high reflectance, or low absorption due to high energy-levels that could destroy the mirror, such as lasers or Fabry-Perot interferometers, the surface defects must be kept to a minimum.[50]

Manufacturing[edit]

Polishing the primary mirror for the Hubble Space Telescope. A deviation in the surface quality of approximately 4λ resulted in poor images initially, which was eventually compensated for using corrective optics.

Mirrors are usually manufactured by either polishing a naturally reflective material, such as speculum metal, or by applying a reflective coating to a suitable polished substrate.[51]

In some applications, generally those that are cost-sensitive or that require great durability, such as for mounting in a prison cell, mirrors may be made from a single, bulk skyline personal mobile app maker crack - Crack Key For U such as polished metal. However, metals consist of small crystals (grains) separated by grain boundaries that may prevent the surface from attaining optical smoothness and uniform reflectivity.[15]: p.2, 8 

Coating[edit]

Silvering[edit]

Main article: silvering

The coating of glass with a reflective layer of a metal is generally called "silvering", even though the metal may not be silver. Currently the main processes are electroplating, "wet" chemical deposition, and vacuum deposition[15] Front-coated metal mirrors achieve reflectivities of 90–95% when new.

Dielectric coating[edit]

Applications requiring higher reflectivity or greater durability, where wide bandwidth is not essential, use dielectric coatings, which can achieve reflectivities as high as 99.997% over a limited range of wavelengths. Because they are often chemically stable and do not conduct electricity, dielectric coatings are almost always applied by methods of vacuum deposition, and most commonly by evaporation deposition. Because the coatings are usually transparent, absorption losses are negligible. Unlike with metals, the reflectivity of the individual dielectric-coatings is a function of Snell's law known as the Fresnel equations, determined by the difference in refractive index between layers. Therefore, the thickness and index of the coatings can be CyberLink ColorDirector Serial key to be centered on any wavelength. Vacuum deposition can be achieved in a number of ways, including sputtering, evaporation deposition, arc deposition, reactive-gas deposition, and ion plating, among many others.[15]: p.103, 107 

Shaping and polishing[edit]

Tolerances[edit]

Mirrors can be manufactured to a wide range of engineering tolerances, including reflectivity, surface quality, surface roughness, or transmissivity, depending on the desired application. These tolerances can range from wide, such as found in a normal household-mirror, to extremely narrow, like those used in lasers or telescopes. Tightening the tolerances allows better and more precise imaging or beam transmission over longer distances. In imaging systems this can help reduce anomalies (artifacts), distortion or blur, but at a much higher cost. Where viewing distances are relatively close or high precision is not a concern, wider tolerances can be used to make effective mirrors at affordable costs.

Applications[edit]

Reflections in a spherical convex mirror. The photographer is seen at top right.

Personal grooming[edit]

Mirrors are commonly used as aids to personal grooming.[52] They may range from small sizes, good to carry with Nero Burning ROM Free Activate, to full body sized; they may be handheld, mobile, fixed or adjustable. A classic example of the latter is the cheval glass, which may be tilted.

Safety and easier viewing[edit]

Convex mirrors
Convex mirrors provide a wider field of view than flat mirrors,[53] and are often used on vehicles,[54] especially large trucks, to minimize blind spots. They are sometimes placed at road junctions, and corners of sites such as parking lots to allow people to see around corners adobe acrobat dc vs pro - Crack Key For U avoid crashing into other vehicles or shopping carts. They are also sometimes used as part of security systems, so that a single video camera can show more than one angle at a time.[citation needed] Convex mirrors as decoration are used in interior design to provide a predominantly experiential effect.[55]
Mouth mirrors or "dental mirrors"
Mouth mirrors or "dental mirrors" are used by dentists to allow indirect vision and lighting within the mouth. Their reflective surfaces may be either flat or curved.[56] Mouth mirrors are also commonly used by mechanics to allow vision in tight spaces and around corners in equipment.
Rear-view mirrors
Rear-view mirrors are widely used in and on vehicles (such as automobiles, or bicycles), to allow drivers to see other vehicles coming up behind them.[57] On rear-view sunglasses, the left end of the left glass and the right end of the right glass work as mirrors.

One-way mirrors and windows[edit]

Main article: One-way mirror

One-way mirrors
One-way mirrors (also called two-way mirrors) work by overwhelming dim transmitted light with bright reflected light.[58] A true one-way mirror that actually allows light to be transmitted in one direction only without requiring external energy is not possible as it violates the second law of thermodynamics.[citation needed]:
One-way windows
One-way windows can be made to work with polarized light in the laboratory without violating the second law. This is an apparent paradox that stumped some great physicists, although it does not allow a practical one-way mirror for use in the real world.[59][60]Optical isolators are one-way devices that are commonly used with lasers.

Signalling[edit]

Main article: Heliograph

With the sun as light source, a mirror can be used to signal by variations in the orientation of the mirror. The signal can be used over long distances, possibly up to 60 kilometres (37 mi) on a clear day. This technique was used by Native American tribes and numerous militaries to transmit information between distant outposts.

Mirrors can also be used for search to attract the attention of search and rescue parties. Specialized type of mirrors are available and are often included in military survival kits.[61]

Technology[edit]

Televisions and How to Use Amtemu Universal Adobe Patcher 2021 Win/Mac mirrors are a core element of many of the largest high-definition televisions and video projectors. A common technology of this type is Texas Instruments' DLP. A DLP chip is a postage stamp-sized microchip whose surface is an array of millions of microscopic mirrors. The picture is created as the individual mirrors move to either reflect light toward the projection surface (pixel on), or toward a light absorbing surface (pixel off).

Other projection technologies involving mirrors include LCoS. Like a DLP chip, LCoS is a microchip of similar size, but rather than millions of individual mirrors, there is a single mirror that is actively shielded by a liquid crystal matrix with up to millions of pixels. The picture, formed as light, is either reflected toward the projection surface (pixel on), or absorbed by the activated LCD pixels (pixel off). LCoS-based televisions and projectors often use 3 chips, one for each primary color.

Large mirrors are used in rear projection televisions. Light (for example from a DLP as mentioned above) is "folded" by one or more mirrors so that the television set is compact.

Solar power[edit]

Mirrors are integral parts of a solar power plant. The one shown in the adjacent picture uses concentrated solar power from an array of parabolic troughs.[62]

Instruments[edit]

See also: Mirror support cell

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Telescopes and other precision instruments use front silvered or first surface mirrors, where the reflecting surface is placed on the front (or first) surface of the glass (this eliminates reflection from glass surface ordinary back mirrors have). Some of them use silver, but most are aluminium, which is more reflective at short wavelengths than silver. All of these coatings are easily damaged and require special handling. They reflect 90% to 95% of the incident light when new. The coatings are typically applied by vacuum deposition. A protective overcoat is usually applied before the mirror is removed from the vacuum, because the coating otherwise begins to corrode as soon as it is exposed to oxygen and humidity in the air. Front silvered mirrors have to be resurfaced occasionally to keep their quality. There are optical mirrors such as mangin mirrors that are second surface mirrors (reflective coating on the rear surface) as part of their optical designs, usually to correct optical aberrations.[63]

Deformable thin-shell mirror. It is 1120 millimetres across but just 2 millimetres thick, making it much thinner than most glass windows.[64]

The reflectivity of the mirror coating can be measured using a reflectometer and for a particular metal it will be different for different wavelengths of light. This is exploited in some optical work to make cold mirrors and hot mirrors. A cold mirror is made by using a transparent substrate and choosing a coating material that is more reflective to visible light and more transmissive to infrared light.

A hot mirror is the opposite, the coating preferentially reflects infrared. Mirror surfaces are sometimes given thin film overcoatings both to retard degradation of the surface and to increase their reflectivity in parts of the spectrum where they will be used. For instance, aluminum mirrors are commonly coated with silicon dioxide or magnesium fluoride. The reflectivity as a function of wavelength depends on both the thickness of the coating and on how it is applied.

A dielectric coated mirror used in a dye laser. The mirror is over 99% reflective at 550 nanometers, (yellow), but will allow most other colors to pass through.
A dielectric mirror used in tunable lasers. With a center wavelength of 600 nm and bandwidth of 100 nm, the coating is totally reflective to the orange construction paper, but only reflects the reddish hues from the blue paper.

For scientific optical work, dielectric mirrors are often used. These are glass (or sometimes other material) substrates on which one or more layers of dielectric material are deposited, to form an optical coating. By careful choice of the type and thickness of the dielectric layers, the range of wavelengths and amount of light reflected from the mirror can be specified. The best mirrors of this type can reflect >99.999% of the light (in a narrow range of wavelengths) which is incident on the mirror. Such mirrors are often used in lasers.

In astronomy, adaptive optics is a technique to measure variable image distortions and adapt a deformable mirror accordingly on a timescale of milliseconds, to compensate for the distortions.

Although most mirrors are designed to reflect visible light, surfaces reflecting other forms of electromagnetic radiation are also called "mirrors". The mirrors for other ranges of electromagnetic waves are used in optics and astronomy. Mirrors for radio waves (sometimes known as reflectors) are important elements of radio telescopes.

Face-to-face mirrors[edit]

Two or more mirrors aligned exactly parallel and facing each other can give an infinite regress of reflections, called an infinity mirror effect. Some devices use this to generate multiple reflections:

Military applications[edit]

It has been said that Archimedes used a large multi-platform software - Free Activators of mirrors to burn Roman ships during an attack on Syracuse. This has never been proven or disproved. On the TV show MythBusters, a team from MIT tried to recreate the famous "Archimedes Death Ray". They were unsuccessful at starting a fire on the ship.[67] Previous attempts to light the boat on fire using only the bronze mirrors available in Archimedes' time were unsuccessful, and the time taken to ignite the craft would have made its use impractical, resulting in the MythBusters team deeming the myth "busted". It was however found that the mirrors made it very difficult for the passengers of the targeted boat to see, likely helping to cause their defeat, which may have been the origin of the myth. (See solar power tower for a practical use of this technique.)

Seasonal lighting[edit]

Due to its location in a steep-sided valley, the Italian town of Viganella gets no direct sunlight for seven weeks each winter. In 2006 a €100,000 computer-controlled mirror, 8×5 m, was installed to reflect sunlight into the town's piazza. In early 2007 the similarly situated village of Bondo, Switzerland, was considering applying this solution as well.[68][69] In 2013, mirrors were installed to reflect sunlight into the town square in the Norwegian town of Rjukan.[70] Mirrors can be used to produce enhanced lighting effects in greenhouses or conservatories.

Architecture[edit]

Mirrored building in Manhattan - 2008

See also: Architectural glass

Mirrors are a popular design theme in architecture, particularly with late modern and post-modernist high-rise buildings in major cities. Early examples include the Campbell Center in Dallas, which opened in 1972,[71] and the John Hancock Tower in Boston.

More recently, two skyscrapers designed by architect Rafael Viñoly, the Vdara in Las Vegas and 20 Fenchurch Street in London, have experienced unusual problems due to their concave curved glass exteriors acting as respectively cylindrical and spherical reflectors for sunlight. In 2010, the Las Vegas Review Journal reported that sunlight reflected off the Vdara's south-facing tower could singe swimmers in the hotel pool, as well as melting plastic cups and shopping bags; employees of the hotel referred to the phenomenon as the "Vdara death ray",[72] aka the "fryscraper." In 2013, sunlight reflecting off 20 Fenchurch Street melted parts of a Jaguar car parked nearby and scorching or igniting the carpet of a nearby barber shop.[73] This building had been nicknamed the "walkie-talkie" because its shape was supposedly similar to a certain model of two-way radio; but after its tendency to overheat surrounding objects became known, the nickname changed to the "walkie-scorchie."

Fine art[edit]

Paintings[edit]

Painters depicting someone gazing into a mirror often also show the person's reflection. This is a kind of abstraction—in most cases the angle of view is such that the person's reflection should not be visible. Similarly, in movies and still photography an actor or actress is often shown ostensibly looking at him- or herself in the mirror, and yet the reflection faces the camera. In reality, the actor or actress sees only the camera and its operator in recuva crack getintopc - Activators Patch case, not their own reflection. In the psychology of perception, this is known as the Venus effect.

The mirror is the central device in some of the greatest of European paintings:

Mirrors have been used by artists to create works and hone their craft:

  • Filippo Brunelleschi discovered linear perspective with the help of the mirror.[74]
  • Leonardo da Vinci called the mirror the "master of painters". He recommended, "When you wish to see whether your whole picture accords with what you have portrayed from nature take a mirror and reflect the actual object in it. Compare what is reflected with your painting and carefully consider whether both likenesses of the subject correspond, particularly in regard to the mirror."[75]
  • Many self-portraits are made possible through the use of mirrors, such as the great self-portraits by Dürer, Frida Kahlo, Rembrandt, and Van Gogh. M. C. Escher used special shapes of mirrors in order to achieve a much more complete view of his surroundings than by direct observation in Hand with Reflecting Sphere (also known as Self-Portrait in Spherical Mirror).

Mirrors are sometimes necessary to fully appreciate art work:

Sculpture[edit]

Mirrors in interior design: "Waiting room in the house of M.me B.", Art Decoproject by Italian architect Arnaldo dell'Ira, Rome, 1939.

Contemporary anamorphic artist Jonty Hurwitz uses cylindrical mirrors to project distorted sculptures.[77]

Other artistic mediums[edit]

Some other contemporary artists use mirrors as the material of art:

  • A Chinese magic mirror is an art in which the face of the bronze mirror projects the same image that was cast on its back. This is due to minute curvatures on its front.[78]
  • Specular holography uses a large number of curved mirrors embedded in a surface to produce three-dimensional imagery.
  • Paintings on mirror surfaces (such as silkscreen printed glass mirrors)
  • Special mirror installations
    • Follow Me mirror labyrinth by artist, Jeppe Hein (see also, Entertainment: Mirror mazes, below)
    • Mirror Neon Cube by artist, Jeppe Hein

Religious Function of the real and depicted mirror[edit]

In the Middle Ages mirrors existed in various shapes for multiple uses. Mostly they were used as an accessory for personal hygiene but also as tokens of courtly love, made from ivory in the ivory carving centers in Paris, Cologne and the Southern Netherlands.[79] They also had their uses in religious contexts as they were integrated in a special form of pilgrims badges or pewter/lead mirror boxes[80] since the late 14th century. Burgundian ducal inventories show us that the dukes owned a mass of mirrors or objects with mirrors, not only with religious iconography or inscriptions, but Antivirus VK Pro 6.1.0 Crack+ License Key Free Download 2021 with reliquaries, religious paintings or other objects that were distinctively used for personal piety.[81] Considering mirrors in paintings and book illumination as depicted artifacts and trying to draw conclusions about their functions from their depicted setting, one of these functions is to be an aid in personal prayer to achieve self-knowledge and knowledge of God, in accord with contemporary theological sources. E.g. the famous Arnolfini-Wedding by Jan van Eyck shows a constellation of objects that can be recognized as one which would allow a praying man to use them for his personal piety: the mirror surrounded by scenes of the Passion to reflect on it and on oneself, a rosary as a device in this process, the veiled and cushioned bench to use as a prie-dieu, and the abandoned shoes that point in the direction in which the praying man kneeled.[81] The metaphorical meaning of depicted mirrors is complex and many-layered, e.g. as an attribute of Mary, the "speculum sine macula", or as attributes of scholarly and theological wisdom and knowledge as they appear in book illuminations of different evangelists and authors of theological treatises. Depicted mirrors – orientated on the physical properties of a real mirror – can be seen as metaphors of knowledge and reflection and are thus able to remind the beholder to reflect and get to know himself. The mirror may function simultaneously as a symbol and a device of a moral appeal. That is also the case if it is shown in combination with virtues and vices, a combination which also occurs more frequently in the 15th century: The moralizing layers of mirror metaphors remind the beholder to examine himself thoroughly according to his own virtuous or vicious life. This is all the more true if the mirror is combined with iconography of death. Not only is Death as a corpse or skeleton holding the mirror for the still living personnel of paintings, illuminations and prints, but the skull appears on the convex surfaces of depicted mirrors, showing the painted and real beholder his future face.[81]

Decoration[edit]

Chimneypieceand overmantel mirror, c. 1750 V&A Museum no. 738:1 to 3–1897
Glasses with mirrors – Prezi HQ

Mirrors are frequently used in interior decoration and as ornaments:

  • Mirrors, typically large and unframed, are frequently used in interior decoration to create an illusion of space and amplify the apparent size of a room.[82] They come also framed in a variety of forms, such as the pier glass and the overmantel mirror.
  • Mirrors are used also in some schools of feng shui, an ancient Chinese practice of placement and arrangement of space to achieve harmony with the environment.
  • The softness of old mirrors is sometimes replicated by contemporary artisans for use in interior design. These reproduction antiqued mirrors are works of art and can bring color and texture to an otherwise hard, cold reflective surface.
  • A decorative reflecting sphere of thin metal-coated glass, working as a reducing wide-angle mirror, is sold as a Christmas ornament called a bauble.
  • Some pubs and bars hang mirrors depicting the logo of a brand of liquor, beer or drinking establishment.

Entertainment[edit]

Film and television[edit]

  • Candyman is a horror film about a malevolent spirit summoned by speaking its name in front of a mirror.
  • Mirrors is a horror film about haunted mirrors that reflect different scenes than those in front of them.
  • Poltergeist III features mirrors that do not reflect reality and which can be used as portals to the afterlife.
  • Oculus is a horror film about a haunted mirror that causes people to hallucinate and commit acts of violence.
  • The 10th Kingdomminiseries requires the characters to use parallels desktop black screen - Crack Key For U magic mirror to travel between New York City (the 10th Kingdom) and the Nine Kingdoms of fairy tale.

Literature[edit]

Taijituwithin a frame of trigramsand a demon warding mirror. These charms are believed to frighten away evil spirits and to protect the dwelling from bad luck

Mirrors play a powerful role in cultural literature.

  • Christian Bible passages, 1 Corinthians 13:12 ("Through a Glass Darkly") and 2 Corinthians 3:18, reference a dim mirror image or poor mirror reflection.
  • Narcissus of Greek mythology wastes away while gazing, self-admiringly, at his reflection in water.
  • The Song dynasty history Zizhi TongjianComprehensive Mirror in Aid of Governance by Sima Guang is so titled because "mirror" (鑑, jiàn) is used metaphorically in Chinese to refer to gaining insight by reflecting on past experience or history.
  • In the European fairy tale, Snow White (collected by the Brothers Grimm in 1812), the evil queen asks, "Mirror, mirror, on the wall. who's the fairest of them all?"
  • In the Aarne-Thompson-Uther Index tale type ATU 329, "Hiding from the Devil (Princess)", the protagonist must find a way to hide from a princess, who, in many variants, owns a magical mirror that can see the whole world.
  • In Alfred, Lord Tennyson's famous poem The Lady of Shalott (1833, revised in 1842), the titular character possesses a mirror that enables her to look out on the people of Camelot, as she is under a curse that prevents her from seeing Camelot directly.
  • Hans Christian Andersen's fairy tale The Snow Queen, in which the devil, in a form of an evil troll,[84] has made a magic mirror that distorts the appearance of everything that it reflects.
  • Lewis Carroll's Through the Looking-Glass and What Alice Found There (1871) is one of the best-loved uses of mirrors in literature. The text itself utilizes a narrative that mirrors that of its predecessor, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.[85]
  • In Oscar Wilde's novel, The Picture of Dorian Gray (1890), a portrait serves as a magical mirror that reflects the true visage of the perpetually youthful protagonist, as well as the effect on his soul of each sinful act.[86][87]
  • The short story Tlön, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius by Jorge Luis Borges begins with the phrase "I owe the discovery of Uqbar to the conjunction of a mirror and an encyclopedia" and contains other references to mirrors.
  • The Trap, a short story by H.P. Lovecraft and Henry S. Whitehead, centers around a mirror. "It was on a certain Thursday morning in December that the whole thing began with that unaccountable motion I thought I saw in my antique Copenhagen mirror. Something, it seemed to me, stirred—something reflected in the glass, though I was alone in my quarters."[88]
  • The magical objects in the Harry Potter series (1997–2011) include the Mirror of Erised and two-way mirrors.
  • Under Appendix: Variant Planes & Cosmologies of the Dungeons & DragonsManual of the Planes (2000), is The Plane of Mirrors (page 204).[89] It describes the Plane of Mirrors as a space existing behind reflective surfaces, and experienced by visitors as a long corridor. The greatest danger to visitors upon entering the plane is the instant creation of a mirror-self with the opposite alignment of the original visitor.
  • The Mirror Thief, a novel by Martin Seay (2016),[90] includes a fictional account of industrial skyline personal mobile app maker crack - Crack Key For U surrounding mirror manufacturing in 16th century Venice.
  • The Reaper's Image, a short story by Stephen King, concerns a rare Elizabethan mirror that displays the Reaper's image when viewed, which symbolises the death of the viewer.
  • Kilgore Trout, a protagonist of Kurt Vonnegut's novel Breakfast of Champions, believes that mirrors are windows to other universes, and refers to them as "leaks," a recurring motif in the book.

Mirrors and animals[edit]

Main article: Mirror test

Only a few animal species have been shown to have the ability to recognize themselves in a mirror, most of them mammals. Experiments have found that the following animals can pass the mirror test:

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Le miroir: révélations, science-fiction et fallacies. Essai sur une légende scientifique, Jurgis Baltrušaitis, Paris, 1978. ISBN 2020049856.
  • On reflection, Jonathan Miller, National Gallery Publications Limited (1998). ISBN 0-300-07713-0.
  • Lo specchio, la strega e il quadrante. Vetrai, orologiai e rappresentazioni del 'principium individuationis' dal Medioevo all'Età moderna, Francesco Tigani, Roma, 2012. ISBN 978-88-548-4876-4.
  • Shrum, Rebecca K. 2017. In the Looking Glass: Mirrors and Identity in Early America. Johns Hopkins University Press.

References[edit]

Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mirror

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These eight examples of effective Quick Response (QR) codes capitalize on a weapon already
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The square, 2-D barcodes aren't a newcomer to the trade show floor, but haphazardly slapping them onto exhibit graphics and marketing collateral is just wasting ink. "A lot of people use QR codes in ways that are not well thought out," says Tim Patterson, founder and owner of Salem, OR-based Communication One Exhibits LLP.

Both Patterson and Kristin Veach, senior vice president of marketing and business development at Live Marketing Inc., agree that there are two rules for the effective use of QR codes: 1) Codes must serve a specific purpose that is well communicated, and 2) the QR code's landing page must be optimized for smartphones.

So what does the future hold for these 2-D tools? Veach forecasts a shift from QR codes being used for "flat collateral," such as a PDF of a product spec sheet, to more dimensional content, such as augmented-reality experiences and videos. "QR codes will become more dynamic and more interactive. They'll be used to create more compelling experiences, especially at shows and events," she says.

If you're tempted to incorporate QR codes into your booth, here are eight examples that inspired our writers to start scanning.



Trading Cards
Printing QR codes on business cards is hardly a new idea, but often the card's design takes a back seat to the information-bearing codes. Fusion Imaging Inc.'s die-cut cards, however, took code-laden cards to a whole new level at EXHIBITOR2012. First, the cards featured an innovative 3-D design that immediately made them stand out among a stack of competitors' cards. Second, the brightly colored cards matched the hue of the company's exhibit buy avg antivirus - Crack Key For U the trade show floor, creating a memory aid to help attendees connect the cards with the exhibit – and their experience inside it – after the show. Finally, each Fusion employee received his or her own unique QR code, making it easy to identify where users encountered the code. Once scanned, the code linked to Fusion's website.
Scavenger Scan
To generate buzz and encourage attendees to download its free app onto their smartphones, barcode-scanning technology provider RedLaser, a division of eBay Inc., developed a treasure hunt of sorts at the International Consumer Electronics Show. But rather than attendees hunting for gold, RedLaser sent them in search of QR codes. Signage throughout the Las Vegas Convention Center, on coffee sleeves, and on T-shirts worn by food-service staff at restaurants inside the venue directed attendees to download the free barcode-scanning app and visit the company's booth to begin the RedLaser SCANenger hunt. Once inside the booth, attendees scanned a QR code printed on aisle-side signage, which informed them that if they followed the clues leading them to each of four more QR codes hidden in and around the convention center, they would be entered into a drawing for an Apple MacBook Air. Scanning the in-booth code prompted participants to register by providing their name, phone number, and email address. After registering, a clue appeared on participants' smartphones, directing them to the second QR code, and so on. Each clue referenced a product feature or RedLaser partner, further educating participants on the app. Hundreds of participants spent between 30 and 60 minutes hunting down all five codes. And because participants had to register, RedLaser was able to follow up with them after the show to offer additional company info.
Follow Me
All the tweets and status updates in the world won't do you much good if nobody's actually reading them. So to alert attendees at the International Association of Amusement Parks and Attractions Expo of its social-media presence, Qubica AMF Worldwide positioned a simple banner stand in its exhibit that asked passersby, "Are you ready to follow us?" Sporting the company's logo, along with URLs to its Facebook and Twitter pages, the banner also featured two QR codes. When scanned by attendees' smartphones, the QR codes instantly launched windows with Qubica's Facebook or Twitter pages, and prompted participants to "like" or "follow" the company, respectively. The simple strategy netted dozens of new followers on both sites who now receive daily updates containing company news.
Demo on Demand
Windo Displays, a retail-communications firm, wanted to prove to attendees at EuroShop that it knows which cues can influence shoppers' behavior from the moment they enter the store to the time they leave the checkout. So the company placed a simple floor mat in the aisle just outside its booth space. The floor mat featured a QR code and the text "Scan Me." When attendees scanned the QR code, the following message appeared on their phones: "We just proved to you that floor advertising really works!" The message also directed attendees to visit the Windo Displays website for additional product information and inspiration. Needless to say, attendees were floored by the effective demo/display hybrid.
Product Pages
Printing and shipping collateral literature is costly and time consuming. A portion of whatever you distribute at a show ends up in the trash, and the leftover literature is likely outdated by the time your next show rolls around. Those problems are compounded if your company features several different products, and if that product mix is regularly updated. Sega Arcade, a division of Sega Corp., sidestepped all those issues – and added a few new metrics to its dashboard – by simply printing the logos of the 16 arcade games it featured at the International Association of Amusement Parks and Attractions Expo on an easel-mounted sign in its booth. Each logo was positioned atop a unique QR code that, when scanned, took phpstorm eap - Activators Patch attendees directly to a product-specific page featuring product overviews, dimensions, shipping-related details, an information sheet, a user's manual, and a video trailer promoting the game. Plus, following the show, Sega was able to track the number of times each unique QR code was scanned, allowing it to quickly measure the interest level in each individual product.




CODE COMPENDIUM
Still trying to crack the code to successfully incorporate Quick Response (QR) code technology into your exhibit? Here are six tips for mastering the art of mobile marketing.

Color Coded
Contrary to popular opinion, QR codes don't have to be black on white. According to Evan Detskas, exhibit design manager at Skyline Exhibits, contrast, not color, is key. Instead of having a black and white code blemish a jewel-toned back wall, any color can be used, as long as the contrast between the QR code and its background is sufficient.

Bigger is Better
QRStuff, a QR-code-generation company, advises that printed codes shouldn't be smaller than 1 square inch. But a good rule of thumb is to maintain a 1-to-10 ratio between QR-code size and the optimum distance to scan it. So a code on the back wall of a 10-by-10-foot exhibit should be at least 1 foot wide if you anticipate attendees will be scanning it from the aisle.

Pixel Power
Using a URL-shortening service such as bit.ly or goo.gl reduces the pixel density in a QR code, making it easier to scan. Printing your code on a flat surface and at eye level also helps enhance its scanability.

Show and Tell
Most people are used to seeing QR codes, but not everyone has a code-scanner app on their phone. Kristin Veach, senior vice president of marketing and business development at Live Marketing Inc., recommends pairing codes with signage that explains where they lead and how to scan them. It also helps to have a staffer to facilitate the process.

Service Call
Cellphone coverage is everywhere these days unless you're in some metal and cement convention centers, says Tim Patterson of Communication One Exhibits LLP. If you're wary about the cell service at your next trade show, consider ordering in-booth Wi-Fi or, if that isn't an option, printing QR codes on fliers or business cards that attendees can scan when they're off the show floor.

Check, One, Two
This is one occasion where you should encourage staffers to use their smartphones on the trade show floor. Just because your QR code worked in the office doesn't mean that it will work on your finished, installed exhibit graphics. Patterson and Veach agree that testing the code using a variety of smartphones (iPhone and Android) and code-reader apps is critical.

Kodak Code
Sometimes you want to communicate more information to attendees than is possible with exhibit signage. At the International Consumer Electronics Show, Eastman Kodak Co. displayed nine different QR codes that could be scanned to access everything from additional product information to the schedule of presentations inside the exhibit's K-Zone theater. But to educate QR virgins and ensure interested attendees didn't miss any of the company's nine in-booth codes, Kodak posted signs throughout its space with instructions on how to download and use NeoReader, an app that scans QR codes, alongside a floor plan of the Kodak exhibit with callouts detailing the exact location of all nine codes.





Code Couture
For most exhibit managers, staff attire is little more than a pain in the butt. It's nearly impossible to satisfy all staffers' preferences and body types, and whatever booth uniforms you ultimately select often create more drama than they're worth. Poor Avant browser old version - Crack Key For U Promos Inc. turned its booth uniforms into buzz-worthy, brand-building implements at EXHIBITOR Show. Each staffer donned a T-shirt or jacket with a QR code printed on the back, beneath the tagline "Stop looking at my apps." When attendees scanned the codes, they were led to a page on the company's website featuring info on QR codes, including how and why attendees might use them. The coded couture drove more than 100 curious prospects to the Poor Richards Promos website, where they spent an average of four minutes learning more about QR code technology and the various promotional items that can be printed with the 2-D barcodes. When's the last time your booth uniform did that?

Paperless Press Kit
In today's world of e-lit and online press rooms, who needs a hard-copy kit anymore? Vin de Garde Cellar Systems Inc. bypassed boring old manila folders and press releases at the International Contemporary Furniture Fair in New York, by positioning a roughly 2-by-2-foot-square sign unobtrusively on the lower right-hand corner of a side wall in its exhibit. The sign featured a large QR code and the word "media" printed beneath it. When scanned, the code took writers and editors interested in more information to Vin de Garde's online press site. With a single scan using any smartphone loaded with a QR-code reader, press representatives could access product photos, a bio of the Vin de Garde's owner, and various links to additional company and product information – without having to lug home a hard-copy press kit or product catalogue.
Источник: http://www.exhibitoronline.com/topics/article.asp?ID=1496

Beijing

Capital of China

"Peking" redirects here. For other uses, see Beijing (disambiguation) and Peking (disambiguation).

"Beijinger" redirects here. For the magazine, see The Beijinger.

Municipality and capital city in China

Beijing

北京市

Peking

Clockwise from top: Beijing CBD skyline, Great Wall of Badaling, Temple of Heaven, Great Hall of the People (left) and National Centre for the Performing Arts (right), Beijing National Stadium, Tiananmen

Location of Beijing Municipality within China

Location of Beijing Municipality within China

Coordinates (Tian'anmen Squarenational flag): 39°54′24″N116°23′51″E / 39.90667°N 116.39750°E / 39.90667; 116.39750Coordinates: 39°54′24″N116°23′51″E / 39.90667°N 116.39750°E / 39.90667; 116.39750
CountryChina
Established1045 BC (Zhou Dynasty)
City seatTongzhou
Divisions[1]
 – County-level
 – Township-level

16 districts
289 towns and villages
 • TypeMunicipality
 • BodyBeijing Municipal People's Congress
 • CPC SecretaryCai Qi
 • Congress ChairmanLi Wei
 • MayorChen Jining
 • CPPCC ChairmanJi Lin
 • National People's Congress Representation54 deputies
 • Land16,410.5 km2 (6,336.1 sq mi)
 • Urban

 (2018)[3]

4,144 km2 (1,600 sq mi)
 • Rural12,266.5 km2 (4,736.1 sq mi)
Elevation43.5 m (142.7 ft)
Highest elevation

(Mount Ling)

2,303 m (7,556 ft)
 • Municipality21,893,095
 • Urban

 (2018)[5]

21,450,000
 • Ranks in ChinaPopulation: 27th;
Density: 4th
 • Han95%
 • Manchu2%
 • Hui2%
 • Mongol0.3%
 • Other0.7%
Time zoneUTC+8 (CST)
Postal codes

100000–102629

Area code(s)10
ISO 3166 codeCN-BJ
GDP (nominal)[6]2020
 - Total¥3.6 trillion
$553.9 billion
 – Per Capita¥167,832
$25,823
 – GrowthIncrease 6.6%
HDI (2018)0.904[7] (1st) – very high
License plate prefixes京A, C, E, F, H, J, K, L, M, N, P, Q, Y
京B (taxis)
京G (outside urban area)
京O, D (police and authorities)
AbbreviationBJ / 京 (jīng)
City treesChinese arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis)
 Pagoda tree (Sophora japonica)
City flowersChina rose (Rosa chinensis)
 Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium)
WebsiteBeijing Official Website International – eBeijing.gov.cn(in English)
首都之窗-北京市政务门户网站(in Chinese)

Beijing (bay-JING;[8][9]Chinese: 北京; pinyin: Běijīng; Mandarin pronunciation:[pèi.tɕíŋ] (About this soundlisten)), alternatively romanized as Peking[10] (pee-KING),[11] is the capital of the People's Republic of China. It is the world's most populous national capital city, with over 21 million residents within an administrative area of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.).[12] It is located in Northern China, and is governed as a municipality under the direct administration of the State Council with 16 urban, suburban, and rural districts.[13] Beijing is mostly surrounded by Hebei Province with the exception of neighboring Tianjin to the southeast; together, the three divisions form the Jingjinjimegalopolis and the national capital region of China.[14]

Beijing is a global city and one of the world's leading centres for culture, diplomacy and politics, business and economics, education, language, and science and technology. A megacity, Beijing is the second largest Chinese city by urban population after Shanghai and is the nation's cultural, educational, and political center.[15] It is home to the headquarters of most of China's largest state-owned companies and houses the largest number of Fortune Global 500 companies in the world, as well as the world's four biggest financial institutions by total assets.[16][17] Beijing is the "billionaire capital of the world" with the highest number of billionaires living in the city.[18][19] It is also a major hub for the national highway, expressway, railway, and high-speed rail networks. The Beijing Capital International Airport has been the second busiest in the world by passenger traffic (Asia's busiest) since 2010,[20] and, as of 2016[update], the city's subway network is the busiest and longest in the world. The Beijing Daxing International Airport, a second international airport in Beijing, is the largest single-structure airport terminal in the world.[21][22]

Combining both modern and traditional style architectures, Beijing is one of the oldest cities in the world, with a rich history dating back over three millennia. As the last of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China, Beijing has been the political center of the country for most of the past eight centuries,[23] and was the largest city in the world by population for much of the second millennium AD.[24] With mountains surrounding the inland city on three sides, in addition to the old inner and outer city walls, Beijing was strategically poised and developed to be the residence of the emperor and thus was the perfect location for the imperial capital. The city is renowned for its opulent palaces, temples, parks, gardens, tombs, walls and gates.[25] It has sevenUNESCOWorld Heritage Sites—the Forbidden City, Temple of Heaven, Summer Palace, Ming Tombs, Zhoukoudian, and parts of the Great Wall and the Grand Canal—all of which are popular tourist locations.[26]Siheyuans, the city's traditional housing style, and hutongs, the narrow alleys between siheyuans, are major tourist attractions and are common in urban Beijing.

Many of Beijing's 91 universities consistently rank among the best in the Asia-Pacific and the world.[27][28][29] Beijing is home to the two best C9 Leagueuniversities (Tsinghua and Peking) in the Asia-Pacific and emerging countries.[30][31]Beijing CBD is a center for Beijing's economic expansion, with the ongoing or recently completed construction of multiple skyscrapers. Beijing's Zhongguancun area is a world leading center of scientific and technological innovation as well as entrepreneurship. Beijing has been ranked the No.1 city in the world with the largest scientific research output as tracked by the Nature Index since 2016.[32][33] The city has hosted numerous international and national sporting events, the most notable being the 2008 Summer Olympics and 2008 Summer Paralympics Games. Beijing will become the first city ever to host both the Summer and Winter Olympics,[34] and also the Summer and Winter Paralympics.[35] Beijing hosts 175 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many organizations, including the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB), the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Silk Road Fund, the Chinese Academy of Science, the Chinese Academy of Engineering, the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences and the Red Cross Society of China.

Etymology[edit]

Main article: Names of Beijing

Over the past 3,000 years, the city of Beijing has had numerous other names. The name Beijing, which means "Northern Capital" (from the Chinese characters北 for north and 京 for capital), was applied to the city in 1403 during the Ming dynasty to distinguish the city from Nanjing (the "Southern Capital").[36] The English spelling Beijing is based on the government's official romanization (adopted in the 1980s) of the two characters as they are pronounced in Standard Mandarin. An older English spelling, Peking, is the postal romanization of the same two characters as they are pronounced in Chinese dialects spoken in the southern port towns first visited by European traders and missionaries.[37] Those dialects preserve the Middle Chinese pronunciation of 京 as kjaeng,[38] prior to a phonetic shift in the northern dialects to the modern pronunciation.[39] Although Peking is no longer the common name for the city, some of the city's older locations and facilities, such as Beijing Capital International Airport, with the IATA Code PEK, and Peking University, still retain the former romanization.

The single Chinese character abbreviation for Beijing is 京, which appears on automobile license plates in the city. The official Latin alphabetabbreviation for Beijing is "BJ".[40]

History[edit]

Main article: History of Beijing

Early history[edit]

The earliest traces of human habitation in the Peking municipality were found in the caves of Dragon Bone Hill near the village of Zhoukoudian in Fangshan District, where Peking Man lived. Homo erectus fossils from the caves date to 230,000 to 250,000 years ago. PaleolithicHomo sapiens also lived there more recently, about 27,000 years ago.[41] Archaeologists have found neolithic settlements throughout the municipality, including in Wangfujing, located in central Peking.

The first walled city in Beijing was Jicheng, the capital city of the state of Ji and was built in 1045 BC. Within modern Beijing, Jicheng was located around the present Guang'anmen area in the south of Xicheng District.[42] This settlement was later conquered by the state of Yan and made its capital.[43]

Early Imperial China[edit]

After the First Emperorunified China, Jicheng became a prefectural capital for the region.[1] During the Three Kingdoms period, it was held by Gongsun Zan and Yuan Shao before falling to the Wei Kingdom of Cao Cao. The AD 3rd-century Western Jin demoted the town, placing the prefectural seat in neighboring Zhuozhou.

During the Sixteen Kingdoms period when northern China was conquered and divided by the Wu Hu, Jicheng was briefly the capital of the XianbeiFormer Yan Kingdom.[44]

After China was reunified during the Sui dynasty, Jicheng, also known as Zhuojun, became the northern terminus of the Grand Canal. Under the Tang dynasty, Jicheng as Youzhou, served as a military frontier command center. During the An-Shi Rebellion and again amidst the turmoil of the late Tang, local military commanders founded their own short-lived Yan dynasties and called the city Yanjing, or the "Yan Capital." Also in the Tang dynasty, the city's name Jicheng was replaced by Youzhou or Yanjing. In 938, after the fall of the Tang, the Later Jin ceded the entire northern frontier to the KhitanLiao dynasty, which treated the city as Nanjing, or the "Southern Capital", one of four secondary capitals to complement its "Supreme Capital", Shangjing (modern Baarin Left Banner in Inner Mongolia). Some of the oldest surviving structures in Beijing date to the Liao period, including the Tianning Pagoda.

The Liao fell to the Jurchen Jin dynasty in 1122, which gave the city to the Song dynasty and then retook it in 1125 during its conquest of northern China. In 1153, the Jurchen Jin made Beijing their "Central Capital", or Zhongdu.[1] The city was besieged by Genghis Khan's invading Mongolian army in idm crack for pc - Activators Patch and razed to the ground two years later.[45] Two generations later, Kublai Khan ordered the construction of Dadu (or Daidu to the Mongols, commonly known as Khanbaliq), a new capital for his Yuan dynasty to the northeast of the Zhongdu ruins. The construction took from 1264 to 1293,[1][45][46] but greatly enhanced the status of a city on the northern fringe of China proper. The city was centered IOBIT Driver Booster Pro 8.4.0.496 Crack Free Key Latest the Drum Tower slightly to the north of modern Beijing and stretched from the present-day Chang'an Avenue to the northern part of Line 10 subway. Remnants of the Yuan rammed earth wall still stand and are known as the Tucheng.[47]

Ming dynasty[edit]

In 1368, soon after declaring the new Hongwu era of the Ming dynasty, the rebel leader Zhu Yuanzhang sent an army to Dadu/Khanbaliq and conquered it.[48] Since the Yuan continued to occupy Shangdu and Mongolia, Dadu was used to supply the military garrisons in the area and was renamed Beiping (Wade–Giles: Peip'ing, "Northern Peace").[49] Under the Hongwu Emperor's feudal policies Beiping was given to Zhu Di, one of his sons, who was created "Prince of Yan".

Overlapping layout of Beijing during the Liao, Jin, Yuan and Ming dynasties

The early death of Zhu Yuanzhang's heir led to a succession struggle on his death, one that ended with the victory of Zhu Di and the declaration of the new Yongle era. Since his harsh treatment of the Ming capital Yingtian (modern Nanjing) alienated many there, he established his fief as a new co-capital. The city of Beiping became Beijing (“Northern Capital”) or Shuntian[50] in 1403.[36] The construction of the new imperial residence, the Forbidden City, took from 1406 to 1420;[45] this period was also responsible for several other of the modern city's major attractions, such as the Temple of Heaven[51] and Tian'anmen. On 28 October 1420, the city was officially designated the capital of the Ming dynasty in the same year that the Forbidden City was completed.[52] Beijing became the empire's primary capital, and Yingtian, also called Nanjing (“Southern Capital”), became the co-capital. (A 1425 order by Zhu Di's son, the Hongxi Emperor, to return the primary capital to Nanjing was never carried out: he died, probably of a heart attack, the next month. He was buried, like almost every Ming emperor to follow him, in an elaborate necropolis to Beijing's north.)

By the 15th century, Beijing had essentially taken its current shape. The Ming city wall continued to serve until modern times, when it was pulled down and the 2nd Ring Road was built in its place.[53] It is generally believed that Beijing was the largest city in the world for most of the 15th, 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries.[54] The first known church was constructed by Catholics in 1652 at the former site of Matteo Ricci's chapel; the modern Nantang Cathedral was later built upon the same site.[55]

The capture of Beijing by Li Zicheng's peasant army in 1644 ended the dynasty, but he and his Shun court abandoned the city without a fight when the Manchu army of Prince Dorgon arrived 40 days later.

Qing dynasty[edit]

Summer Palaceis one of the several palatial gardens built by Qing emperors in the northwest suburb area

Dorgon established the Qing dynasty as a direct successor of the Ming (delegitimising Li Zicheng and his followers)[56] and Beijing became China's sole capital.[57] The Qing emperors made some modifications to the Imperial residence but, in large part, the Ming buildings and the general layout remained unchanged. Facilities for Manchu worship were introduced, but the Qing also continued the traditional state rituals. Signage was bilingual or Chinese. This early Qing Beijing later formed the setting for the Chinese novelDream of the Red Chamber. Northwest of the city, Qing emperors built several large palatial gardens including the Old Summer Palace and the Summer Palace.

During the Second Opium War, Anglo-French forces captured the outskirts of the city, looting and burning the Old Summer Palace in 1860. Under the Convention of Peking ending that war, Western powers for the first time secured the right to establish permanent diplomatic presences within the city. From 14 to 15 August 1900 the Battle of Peking was fought. This battle was part of the Boxer Rebellion. The attempt by the Boxers to eradicate this presence, as well as Chinese Christian converts, led to Beijing's reoccupation by eight foreign powers.[58] During the fighting, several important structures were destroyed, including the Hanlin Academy and the (new) Summer Palace. A peace agreement was concluded between the Eight-Nation Alliance and representatives of the Chinese government Li Hung-chang and Prince Ching on 7 September 1901. The treaty required China to pay an indemnity of US$335 million (over US$4 billion in current dollars) plus interest over a period of 39 years. Also required was the execution or exile of government supporters of the Boxers and the destruction of Chinese forts and other defenses in much of northern China. Ten days after the treaty was signed the foreign armies left Peking, although legation guards would remain there until World War II.[59]

With the treaty signed the Empress Dowager Cixi returned to Peking from her "tour of inspection" on 7 January 1902 and the rule of the Qing dynasty over China was restored, albeit much weakened by the defeat it had suffered in the Boxer Rebellion and by the indemnity and stipulations of the peace treaty.[60] The Dowager died in 1908 and the dynasty imploded in 1911.

Republic of China[edit]

The fomenters of the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 sought to replace Qing rule with a republic and leaders like Sun Yat-sen originally intended to return the capital to Nanjing. After the Qing general Yuan Shikai forced the abdication of the last Qing emperor and ensured the success of the revolution, the revolutionaries accepted him as president of the new Republic of China. Yuan maintained his capital at Beijing and quickly consolidated power, declaring himself emperor in 1915. His death less than a year later[61] left China under the control of the warlords commanding the regional armies. Following the success of the Kuomintang's Northern Expedition, the capital was formally moved to Nanjing in 1928. On 28 June the same year, Beijing's name was returned to Beiping (written at the time as "Peiping").[15][62]

On 7 July 1937, the 29th Army and the Japanese army in China exchanged fire at the Marco Polo Bridge near the Wanping Fortress southwest of the city. The Marco Polo Bridge Incident triggered the Second Sino-Japanese War, World War II as it is known in China. During the war,[15] Beijing fell to Japan on 29 July 1937[63] and was made the seat of the Provisional Government of the Republic of China, a puppet state that ruled the ethnic-Chinese portions of Japanese-occupied northern China.[64] This government was later merged into the larger Wang Jingwei government based in Nanjing.[65]

People's Republic of China[edit]

Mao Zedongproclaiming the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949

In the final phases of the Chinese Civil War, the People's Liberation Army seized control of the city peacefully on 31 January 1949 in the course of the Pingjin Campaign. On 1 October that year, Mao Zedong announced the creation of the People's Republic of China from atop Tian'anmen. He restored the name of the city, as the new capital, to Beijing,[66] a decision that had been reached by the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference just a few days earlier.

In the 1950s, the city began to expand beyond the old walled city and its surrounding neighborhoods, with heavy industries in the west and residential neighborhoods in the north. Many areas of the Beijing city wall were torn down in the 1960s to make way for the construction of the Beijing Subway and the 2nd Ring Road.

During the Cultural Revolution from 1966 to 1976, the Red Guard movement began in Beijing and the city's government fell victim to one of the first purges. By the autumn of 1966, all city schools were shut down and over a million Red Guards from across the country gathered in Beijing for eight rallies in Tian'anmen Square with Mao.[67] In April 1976, a large public gathering of Beijing residents against the Gang of Four and the Cultural Revolution in Tiananmen Square was forcefully suppressed. In October 1976, the Gang was arrested in Zhongnanhai and the Cultural Revolution came to an end. In December 1978, the Third Plenum of the 11th Party Congress in Beijing under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping reversed the verdicts against victims of the Cultural Revolution and instituted the "policy of reform and opening up."

Since the early 1980s, the urban area of Beijing has expanded greatly with the completion of the 2nd Ring Road in 1981 and the subsequent addition of the 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th Ring Roads.[68][69] According to one 2005 newspaper report, the size of newly developed Beijing was one-and-a-half times larger than before.[70]Wangfujing and Xidan have developed into flourishing shopping districts,[71] while Zhongguancun has become a major center of electronics in China.[72] In recent years, the expansion of Beijing has also brought to the forefront some problems of urbanization, such as heavy traffic, poor air quality, the loss of historic neighborhoods, and a significant influx of migrant workers from less-developed rural areas of the country.[73] Beijing has also been the location of many significant events in recent Chinese history, principally the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.[74] The city has also hosted major international events, including the 2008 Summer Olympics and the 2015 World Championships in Athletics, and was chosen to host the 2022 Winter Olympics, making it the first city to ever host both Winter and Summer Olympics.[75]

Geography[edit]

Main article: Geography of Beijing

Landsat 7Satellite image of Beijing Municipality with the surrounding mountains in dark brown

Beijing is situated at the northern tip of the roughly triangular North China Plain, which opens to the south and east of the city. Mountains to the north, northwest and west shield the city and northern China's agricultural heartland from the encroaching desert steppes. The northwestern part of the municipality, especially Yanqing County and Huairou District, are dominated by the Jundu Mountains, while the western part is framed by Xishan or the Western Hills. The Great Wall of China across the northern part of Beijing Municipality was built on the rugged topography to defend against nomadic incursions from the steppes. Mount Dongling, in the Western Hills and on the border with Hebei, is the municipality's highest point, with an altitude of 2,303 metres (7,556 ft).

Major rivers flowing through the municipality, including the Chaobai, Yongding, Juma, are all tributaries in the Hai River system, and flow in a southeasterly direction. The Miyun Reservoir, on the upper reaches of the Chaobai River, is the largest reservoir within the municipality. Beijing is also the northern terminus of the Grand Canal to Hangzhou, which was built over 1,400 years ago as a transportation route, and the South–North Water Transfer Project, constructed in the past decade to bring water from the Yangtze River basin.

The urban area of Beijing, on the plains in the south-central of the municipality with elevation of 40 to 60 metres (130–200 feet), occupies a relatively small but expanding portion of the municipality's area. The city spreads out in concentric ring skyline personal mobile app maker crack - Crack Key For U. The Second Ring Road traces the old city walls and the Sixth Ring Road connects satellite towns in the surrounding suburbs. Tian'anmen and Tian'anmen Square are at the center of Beijing, directly to the south of the Forbidden City, the former residence of the emperors of China. To the west of Tian'anmen is Zhongnanhai, the residence of China's current leaders. Chang'an Avenue, which cuts between Tiananmen and the Square, forms the city's main east–west axis.

Cityscape[edit]

Architecture[edit]

See also: List of tallest buildings in Beijing

Three styles of architecture are predominant in urban Beijing. First, there is the traditional architecture of imperial China, perhaps best exemplified by the massive Tian'anmen (Gate of Heavenly Peace), which remains the People's Republic of China's trademark edifice, the Forbidden City, the Imperial Ancestral Temple and the Temple of Heaven. Next, there is what is sometimes referred to as the "Sino-Sov" style, with structures tending to be boxy and sometimes poorly constructed, which were built between the 1950s and the 1970s.[76] Finally, there are much more modern architectural forms, most noticeably in the area of the Beijing CBD in east Beijing such as the new CCTV Headquarters, in addition to buildings in other locations around the city such as the Beijing National Stadium and National Center for the Performing Arts.

1940s NationalistBeijing with predominantly traditional architecture

Since 2007, buildings in Beijing have received the CTBUH Skyscraper Award for best overall tall building twice, for the Linked Hybrid building in 2009 and the CCTV Headquarters in 2013. The CTBUH Skyscraper award for best tall overall building is given to only one building around the world every year.

In the early 21st century, Beijing has witnessed tremendous growth of new building constructions, exhibiting various modern styles from international designers, most pronounced in the CBD region. A mixture of both 1950s design and neofuturistic style of architecture can be seen at the 798 Art Zone, which mixes the old with the new. Beijing's tallest building is the 528-meter China Zun.

The sign of Doujiao Hutong, one of the many traditional alleyways in the inner city

Beijing is famous for its siheyuans, a type of residence where a common courtyard is shared by the surrounding buildings. Among the more grand examples are the Prince Gong Mansion and Residence of Soong Ching-ling. These courtyards are usually connected by alleys called hutongs. The hutongs are generally straight and run east to west so that doorways face north and south for good Feng Shui. They vary in width; some are so narrow only a few pedestrians can pass through at a time. Once ubiquitous in Beijing, siheyuans and hutongs are rapidly disappearing,[77] as entire city blocks of hutongs are replaced by high-rise buildings.[78] Residents of the hutongs are entitled to live in the new buildings in apartments of at least the same size as their former residences. Many complain, however, that the traditional sense of community and street life of the hutongs cannot be replaced,[79] and these properties are often government owned.[80]

Climate[edit]

Beijing has a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate (Köppen: Dwa), characterized by hot, humid summers due to the East Asian monsoon, and brief but cold, dry winters that reflect the influence of the vast Siberian anticyclone.[81] Spring can bear witness to sandstorms blowing in from the Gobi Desert across the Mongolian steppe, accompanied by rapidly warming, but generally dry, conditions. Autumn, similar to spring, is a season of transition and minimal precipitation. The monthly daily average temperature in January is −2.9 °C (26.8 °F), while in July it is 26.9 °C (80.4 °F). Precipitation averages around 570 mm (22 in) annually, with close to three-quarters of that total falling from June to August. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 47% in July to 65% in January and February, the city receives 2,671 hours of bright sunshine annually. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −27.4 °C (−17.3 °F) on 22 February 1966 to 41.9 °C (107.4 °F) on 24 July 1999 (unofficial record of 42.6 °C (108.7 °F) was set on 15 June 1942).[82][83]

Climate data for Beijing (normals 1986–2015, extremes 1951–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.3
(57.7)
25.6
(78.1)
29.5
(85.1)
33.5
(92.3)
41.1
(106.0)
40.6
(105.1)
41.9
(107.4)
38.3
(100.9)
35.0
(95.0)
31.0
(87.8)
23.3
(73.9)
19.5
(67.1)
41.9
(107.4)
Average high °C (°F) 2.1
(35.8)
5.8
(42.4)
12.6
(54.7)
20.7
(69.3)
26.9
(80.4)
30.5
(86.9)
31.5
(88.7)
30.5
(86.9)
26.2
(79.2)
19.4
(66.9)
10.3
(50.5)
3.8
(38.8)
18.4
(65.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) −2.9
(26.8)
0.4
(32.7)
7.0
(44.6)
14.9
(58.8)
21.0
(69.8)
25.0
(77.0)
26.9
(80.4)
25.8
(78.4)
20.8
(69.4)
13.8
(56.8)
5.1
(41.2)
−0.9
(30.4)
13.1
(55.5)
Average low °C (°F) −7.1
(19.2)
−4.3
(24.3)
1.6
(34.9)
8.9
(48.0)
14.9
(58.8)
19.8
(67.6)
22.7
(72.9)
21.7
(71.1)
16.0
(60.8)
8.8
(47.8)
0.6
(33.1)
−4.9
(23.2)
8.2
(46.8)
Record low °C (°F) −22.8
(−9.0)
−27.4
(−17.3)
−15
(5)
−3.2
(26.2)
2.5
(36.5)
9.8
(49.6)
15.3
(59.5)
11.4
(52.5)
3.7
(38.7)
−3.5
(25.7)
−12.3
(9.9)
−18.3
(−0.9)
−27.4
(−17.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 2.7
(0.11)
5.0
(0.20)
10.2
(0.40)
23.1
(0.91)
39.0
(1.54)
76.7
(3.02)
168.8
(6.65)
120.2
(4.73)
57.4
(2.26)
24.1
(0.95)
13.1
(0.52)
2.4
(0.09)
542.7
(21.38)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)1.8 2.3 3.3 4.7 6.1 9.9 12.8 10.9 7.6 4.8 2.9 2.0 69.1
Average relative humidity (%) 44 43 41 43 49 59 70 72 65 58 54 47 54
Mean monthly sunshine hours186.2 188.1 227.5 242.8 267.6 225.6 194.5 208.2 207.5 205.2 174.5 172.3 2,500
Percent possible sunshine65 65 63 64 64 59 47 52 63 64 62 62 60
Average ultraviolet index2 3 4 6 8 9 9 8 6 4 2 1 5
Source: China Meteorological Administration [84], China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System[85], all-time record high[83], May record high[86] and Weather Atlas[87]

Environmental issues[edit]

Beijing has a long history of environmental problems.[88] Between 2000 and 2009 Beijing's urban extent quadrupled, which not only strongly increased the extent of anthropogenic emissions, but also changed the meteorological situation fundamentally, even if emissions of human society are not included. For example, surface albedo, wind speed and humidity near the surface were decreased, whereas ground and near-surface air temperatures, vertical air dilution and ozone levels were increased.[89] Because of the combined factors of urbanization and pollution caused by burning of fossil fuel, Beijing is often affected by serious environmental problems, which lead to health issues of many inhabitants. In 2013 heavy smog struck Beijing and most parts of northern China, impacting a total of 600 million people. After this "pollution shock" air pollution became an important economic and social concern in China. After that the government of Beijing announced measures to reduce air pollution, for example by lowering the share of coal from 24% in 2012 to 10% in 2017, while the national government ordered heavily polluting vehicles to be removed from Zoom Player Max Patch to 2017 and increased its efforts to transition the energy system to clean sources.[90]

Air quality[edit]

Joint research between American and Chinese researchers in 2006 concluded that much of the city's pollution comes from surrounding cities and provinces. On average 35–60% of the ozone can be traced to sources outside the city. Shandong Province and Tianjin Municipality have a "significant influence on Beijing's air quality",[91] partly due to the prevailing south/southeasterly flow during the summer and the mountains to the north and northwest.

Heavy air pollution has resulted in widespread smog. These photographs, taken in August 2005, show the variations in Beijing's air quality.

In preparation for the 2008 Summer Olympics and to fulfill promises to clean up the city's air, nearly US$17 billion was spent.[92] Beijing implemented a number of air improvement schemes for the duration of the Games, including halting work at all construction sites, closing many factories in Beijing permanently, temporarily shutting industry in neighboring regions, closing some gas stations,[93] and cutting motor traffic by half by limiting drivers to odd or even days (based on their license plate numbers),[94] reducing bus and subway fares, opening new subway lines, and banning high-emission vehicles.[95][96] The city further assembled 3,800 natural gas-powered buses, one of the largest fleets in the world.[92] Beijing became the first city in China to require the Chinese equivalent to the Euro 4 emission standard.[97]

Coal burning accounts for about 40% of the PM 2.5 in Beijing and is also the chief source of nitrogen and sulphur dioxide.[98] Since 2012, the city has been converting coal-fired power stations to burn natural gas[99] and aims to cap annual coal consumption at 20 million tons. In 2011, the skyline personal mobile app maker crack - Crack Key For U burned 26.3 million tons of coal, 73% of which for heating and power generation and the remainder for industry.[99] Much of the city's air pollutants are emitted by neighboring regions.[98] Coal consumption in neighboring Tianjin is expected to increase from 48 to 63 million tons from 2011 to 2015.[100] Hebei Province burned over 300 million tons of coal in 2011, more than all of Germany, of which only 30% were used for power generation and a considerable portion for steel and cement making.[101] Power plants in the coal-mining regions of Shanxi, Inner Mongolia and Shaanxi, where coal consumption has tripled since 2000, and Shandong also contribute to air pollution in Beijing.[98] Shandong, Shanxi, Hebei and Inner Mongolia, respectively rank from first to fourth, among Chinese provinces by coal consumption.[100] There were four major coal-fired power plants in the city to provide electricity as well as heating during the winter. The first one (Gaojing Thermal Power Plant) was shut down in 2014.[102] Another two were shut in March 2015. The last one (Huaneng Thermal Power Plant) would be shut in 2016.[103] Between 2013 and 2017, the city planned to reduce 13 million tons of coal consumption and cap coal consumption to 15 million tons in 2015.[103]

The government sometimes uses cloud-seeding measures to increase the likelihood of rain showers in the region to clear the air prior to large events, such as prior to the 60th anniversary parade in 2009 as well as to combat drought conditions in the area.[104] More recently, however, the government has increased its usage of such measures as closing factories temporarily and implementing greater restrictions for cars on the road, as in the case of "APEC blue" and "parade blue," short periods during and immediately preceding the APEC China 2014 and the 2015 China Victory Day Parade, respectively.[105] During and prior to these events, Beijing's air quality improved dramatically, only to fall back to unhealthy levels shortly after.

Beijing air quality is often poor, especially in winter. In mid-January 2013, Beijing's air quality was measured on top of the city's US embassy at a PM2.5 density of 755 micrograms per cubic meter, which is more than 75 times the safe level established by the WHO, and went off the US Environmental Protection Agency's air quality index. It was widely reported, originally through a Twitter account, that the category was "crazy bad". This was later changed to "beyond index".[106]

On 8 and 9 December 2015 Beijing had its first smog alert which shut down a majority of the industry and other commercial businesses in the city.[107] Later in the month another smog "red alert" was issued.[108]

According to Beijing's environmental protection bureau's announcement in November 2016, starting from 2017 highly polluting old cars will be banned from being driven whenever Smog "red alerts" are issued in the city or neighboring regions.[109]

In recent years, there has been measurable reductions in pollutants after the "war on pollution" was declared in 2014, with Beijing seeing a 35% reduction in fine particulates in 2017.[110]

Readings[edit]

Due to Beijing's high level of air pollution, there are various readings by different sources on the subject. Daily pollution readings at 27 monitoring stations around the city are reported on the website of the Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau (BJEPB).[111] The American Embassy of Beijing also reports hourly fine particulate (PM2.5) and ozone levels on Twitter.[112] Since the BJEPB and US Embassy measure different pollutants according to different criteria, the pollution levels and the impact to human health reported by the BJEPB are often lower than that reported by the US Embassy.[112]

The smog is causing harm and danger to the population. The air pollution does directly result in significant impact on the mobility rate of cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease in Beijing.[113] Exposure to large concentrations of polluted air can cause respiratory and cardiovascular problems, emergency room visits, and even death.[114]

Dust storms[edit]

Dust from the erosion of deserts in northern and northwestern China results in seasonal dust storms that plague the city; the Beijing Weather Modification Office sometimes artificially induces rainfall to fight such storms and mitigate their effects.[115] In the first four months of 2006 alone, there were no fewer than eight such storms.[116] In April 2002, one dust storm alone dumped nearly 50,000 tons of dust onto the city before moving on to Japan and Korea.[117]

Government[edit]

Main article: Politics of Beijing

The municipal government is regulated by the local Communist Party of China (CPC), led by the Beijing CPC Secretary (Chinese: 中共北京市委书记). The local CPC issues administrative orders, collects taxes, manages the economy, and directs a standing committee of the Municipal People's Congress in making policy decisions and overseeing the local government.

Government officials include the mayor (Chinese: 市长) and vice-mayor. Numerous bureaus focus on law, public security, and other affairs. Additionally, as the capital of China, Beijing houses all of the important national governmental and political institutions, including the National People's Congress.[118]

Administrative divisions[edit]

For a more comprehensive list, see List of administrative divisions of Beijing and List of township-level divisions of Beijing.

Beijing Municipality currently comprises 16 administrative county-level subdivisions including 16 urban, suburban, and rural districts. On 1 July 2010, Chongwen and Xuanwu were merged into Dongcheng and Xicheng, respectively. On 13 November 2015 Miyun and Yanqing were upgraded to districts.

Administrative divisions of Beijing
Division code[119]Division Area in km2[120]Total population 2010[121]Urban area
population 2010[122]
Seat Postal code Subdivisions[123][full citation needed]
SubdistrictsTownsTownships
[n 1]
Residential communitiesVillages
110000Beijing 16406.1619,612,36816,858,692Dongcheng / Tongzhou1000001491433825383857
110101Dongcheng41.82919,253Jingshan Subdistrict10000017  216 
110102Xicheng50.331,243,315Jinrong Street Subdistrict10000015  259 
110105Chaoyang454.783,545,1373,532,257Chaowai Subdistrict10000024 193585
110106Fengtai305.532,112,1622,098,632Fengtai Subdistrict100000162325473
110107Shijingshan84.38616,083Lugu Subdistrict1000009  130 
110108Haidian430.773,280,6703,208,563Haidian Subdistrict100000227 60384
110109Mentougou1447.85290,476248,547Dayu Subdistrict10230049 124179
110111Fangshan1994.73944,832635,282Gongchen Subdistrict1024008146108462
110112Tongzhou905.791,184,256724,228Beiyuan Subdistrict101100610140480
110113Shunyi1019.51876,620471,459Shengli Subdistrict101300619 61449
110114Changping1342.471,660,5011,310,617Chengbei Subdistrict102200814 180303
110115Daxing1036.341,365,112965,683Xingfeng Subdistrict102600514 64547
110116Huairou2122.82372,887253,088Longshan Subdistrict101400212227286
110117Pinggu948.24415,958219,850Binhe Subdistrict101200214223275
110118Miyun2225.92467,680257,449Gulou Subdistrict101500217157338
110119Yanqing1994.89317,426154,386Rulin Subdistrict102100311434376

Towns[edit]

Main article: List of township-level divisions of Beijing

Beijing's 16 county-level divisions (districts) are further subdivided into 273 lower third-level administrative units at the township level: 119 towns, 24 townships, 5 ethnic townships and 125 subdistricts. Towns within Beijing Municipality but outside the urban area include (but are not limited to):

Several place names in Beijing end with mén (门), meaning "gate", as they were the locations of gates in the former Beijing city wall. Other place names end in cūn (村), meaning "village", as they were originally villages outside the city wall.

Judiciary and procuracy[edit]

The judicial system in Beijing consists of the Supreme People's Court, the highest court in the country, the Beijing Municipal High People's Court, the high people's court of the municipality, three intermediate people's courts, one intermediate railway transport court, 14 basic people's court (one for each of the municipality's districts and counties), and one basic railway transport court. The Beijing No. 1 Intermediate People's Court in Shijingshan oversees the basic courts of Haidian, Shijingshan, Mentougou, Changping and Yanqing.[124] The Beijing No. 2 Intermediate People's Court in Fengtai oversees the basic courts of Dongcheng, Xicheng, Fengtai, Fangshan and Daxing.[124] The Beijing No. 3 Intermediate People's Court in Laiguangying, is the newest of the three intermediate people's courts and opened on 21 August 2013.[124] It oversees the district courts of Chaoyang, Tongzhou, Shunyi, Huairou, Pinggu and Miyun.[124][125] Each court wirecast pro 13 crack mac - Free Activators Beijing has a corresponding people's procuratorate.

Economy[edit]

Main article: Economy of Beijing

Xidanis one of the oldest and busiest shopping areas in Beijing.

As of 2018[update], Beijing's nominal Ashampoo Music Studio Download - Crack Key For U was US$458 billion (CN¥3.0 trillion), about 3.45% of the country's GDP and ranked 12th among province-level administrative units; its nominal GDP per capita was US$21,261 (CN¥140,748) and ranked the 1st in the country.[126] Beijing's nominal GDP is projected to be among the world top 10 largest cities in 2035 (together with Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen in China) according to a study by Oxford Economics,[127] and its nominal GDP per capita will reach US$45,000 in 2030.[128]

Due to the concentration of state owned enterprises in the national capital, Beijing in 2013 had more Fortune Global 500 Company headquarters than any other city in the world.[129] Beijing has also been described as the "billionaire capital of the world".[18][19] Beijing is classified as an Alpha+ (global first-tier) city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and worldwide and making it one of the world's Top 10 major cities.[130] In the 2021 Global Financial Centres Index, Beijing was ranked as having the sixth-most competitive financial center in the world and fourth-most competitive in the whole Asia & Oceania region (behind Shanghai, Hong Kong and Singapore).[131]

As of 2021, Beijing was ranked first globally in terms of "Global City Competitiveness" in the 2020–2021 Global Urban Competitiveness Report jointly released by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS) and the United Nations Programme for Human Settlements (UN-Habitat).[132] Beijing is also a large hub of the Chinese and global technology industry and ranked as having the strongest global startup ecosystem in the whole of Asia-Oceania region, ranking 3rd globally by the Global Startup Ecosystem Index.[133]

Year CNY
(millions)
USD
(millions)
PPP
(Int'l$)
(millions)
Real growth
(%)
CNY
per capita*
USD
per capita*
PPP
(Int'l$.)
per capita*
Reference index:
USD 1
to CNY
Reference index:
Int'l$. 1
to CNY
2016 2,566,910386,449733,2146.8118,19817,79533,7626.64233.5009
2015 2,368,570380,285667,2976.9109,60217,59730,8786.22843.5495
2014 2,194,410357,233618,0747.4102,87016,74628,9746.14283.5504
2013 2,033,010328,265568,3727.797,17815,69127,1686.19323.5769
2012 1,835,010290,695516,7888.089,77814,22225,2846.31253.5508
2011 1,662,790257,446474,3378.183,54712,93523,8336.45883.5055
2010 1,444,160213,333436,22310.475,57211,16422,8276.76953.3106
2009 1,241,900181,804393,31710.068,40510,01421,6646.83103.1575
2008 1,139,200164,029358,6009.066,0989,51720,8076.94513.1768
2007 1,007,190132,455334,07114.461,4708,08420,3897.60403.0149
2006 831,260104,275288,86312.852,9636,64418,4057.97182.8777
2005 714,14087,178249,78712.347,1275,75316,4848.19172.8590
2000 321,28038,809118,14812.024,5172,9629,0168.27842.7193
1995 150,77018,05455,23912.012,6901,5204,6498.35102.7294
1990 50,08010,47029,4145.24,6359692,7224.78321.7026
1985 25,7108,75518,3428.72,6439001,8862.93661.4017
1980 13,9109,2839,30111.81,5441,0301,0321.49841.4955
1978 10,8806,46210.51,2577471.6836

* Per-capita GDP is based on mid-year population.

Sector composition[edit]

The city has a post-industrial economy that is dominated by the tertiary sector (services), which generated 76.9% of output, followed by the secondary sector (manufacturing, construction) at 22.2% and the primary sector (agriculture, mining) at 0.8%.

The services sector is broadly diversified with professional services, wholesale and retail, information technology, commercial real estate, scientific research, and residential real estate each contributing at least 6% to the city's economy in 2013.[135]

The single largest sub-sector remains industry, whose share of overall output has shrunk to 18.1% in 2013.[135] The mix of industrial output has changed significantly since 2010 when the city announced that 140 highly-polluting, energy and water resource intensive enterprises would be relocated from the city in five years.[136] The relocation of Capital Steel to neighboring Hebei province had begun in 2005.[137][138] In 2013, output of automobiles, aerospace products, semiconductors, pharmaceuticals, and food processing all increased.[135]

In the farmland around Beijing, vegetables and fruits have displaced grain as the primary crops under cultivation.[135] In 2013, the tonnage of vegetable, edible fungus and fruit harvested was over three times that of grain.[135] In 2013, overall acreage under cultivation shrank along with most categories of produce as more land was reforested for environmental reasons.[135]

Economic zones[edit]

For a more comprehensive list, see List of economic and technological development zones in Beijing.

In 2006, the city government identified six high-end economic output zones around Beijing as the primary engines for local economic growth. In 2012, the six zones produced 43.3% of the city's GDP, up from 36.5% in 2007.[139][140] The six zones are:

  1. Zhongguancun, China's silicon village in Haidian District northwest of the city, is home to both established and start-up tech companies. In the first two quarters of 2014, 9,895 companies registered in the six zones, among which 6,150 were based in Zhongguancun.[141] Zhongguancun is also the center of Beijing-Tianjin-Shijiazhuang Hi-Tech Industrial Belt.
  2. Beijing Financial Street, in Xicheng District on the west side of the city between Fuxingmen and Fuchengmen, is lined with headquarters of large state banks and insurance companies. The country's financial regulatory agencies including the central bank, bank regulator, securities regulator, and foreign exchange authority are located in the neighborhood.
  3. Beijing Central Business District (CBD), is actually located to the east of downtown, near the embassies along the eastern Third Ring Road between Jianguomenwai and Chaoyangmenwai. The CBD is home to most of the city's skyscraper office buildings. Most of the city's foreign companies and professional service firms are based in the CBD.
  4. Beijing Economic and Technological Development Area, better known as Yizhuang, is an industrial park the straddles the southern Fifth Ring Road in Daxing District. It has attracted pharmaceutical, information technology, and materials engineering companies.[142]
  5. Beijing Airport Economic Zone was created in 1993 and surrounds the Beijing Capital International Airport in Shunyi District northeast of the city. In addition to logistics, airline services, and trading firms, this zone is also home to Beijing's automobile assembly plants.
  6. Beijing Olympic Center Zone surrounds the Olympic Green due north of downtown and is developing into an entertainment, sports, tourism and business convention center.

Shijingshan, on the western outskirts of the city, is a traditional heavy industrial base for steel-making.[143] Chemical plants are concentrated in the far eastern suburbs.

Less legitimate enterprises also exist. Urban Beijing is known for being a center of infringed goods; anything from the latest designer clothing to DVDs can be found in markets all over the city, often marketed to expatriates and international visitors.[144]

Demographics[edit]

Main article: Demographics of Beijing

YearPop.±% p.a.
19532,768,149—    
19647,568,495+9.57%
19829,230,687+1.11%
199010,819,407+2.00%
200013,569,194+2.29%
201019,612,368+3.75%
201321,150,000+2.55%
2014[145]21,516,000+1.73%
Population size may be affected by changes on administrative divisions.

In 2013, Beijing had a total population of 21.148 million within the municipality, of which 18.251 million resided in urban districts or suburban townships and 2.897 million lived in rural villages.[135] The encompassing metropolitan area was estimated by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) to have, as of 2010[update], a population of 24.9 million.[146][147]

Within China, the city ranked second in urban population after Shanghai and the third in municipal population after Shanghai and Chongqing. Beijing also ranks among the most populous cities in the world, a distinction the city has held for much of the past 800 years, especially during the 15th to early 19th centuries when it was the largest city in the world.

About 13 million of the city's residents in 2013 had local hukou permits, which entitles them to permanent residence in Beijing.[135] The remaining 8 million residents had hukou permits elsewhere and were not eligible to receive some social benefits provided by the Beijing municipal government.[135]

The population increased in 2013 by 455,000 or about 7% from the previous year and continued a decade-long trend of rapid growth.[135] The total population in 2004 was 14.213 million.[148] The population gains are driven largely by migration. The population's rate of natural increase in 2013 was a mere 0.441%, based on a birth rate of 8.93 and a mortality rate of 4.52.[135] The gender balance was 51.6% males and 48.4% females.[135]

Working age people account for nearly 80% of the population. Compared to 2004, residents age 0–14 as a proportion of the population dropped from 9.96% to 9.5% in 2013 and residents over the age of 65 declined from 11.12% to 9.2%.[135][148] From 2000 to 2010, the percentage of city residents with at least some college education nearly doubled from 16.8% to 31.5%.[149] About 22.2% have some high school education and 31% had reached middle school.[149]

Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beijing

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6 Month's Placement Program is Just Rs 5833/month.

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I realized that I do not really have enough knowledge about various algorithms and frankly, I improved a lot. Earlier I wasn't able to solve much competitive coding questions but now I have confidence that i can. Thanks to Rishabh Bhaiya who motivated us so much and came up with such self descriptive and informative videos every week, in fact several times a week. I'm glad i joined this course.

Normally ,I won't be able to give time to competitive programming due to my projects, internship and other things. But coding mafia is the best way for me to continue my practice of competitive programming. This helps me in polishing my concepts. Now I had solved 190 questions in just 10 daystargeting the coding platforms like codechef and leetcode.

This is an excellent course for anyone new to programming. One can learn all concepts about coding in a month which usually takes several months for one to learn.

I realised that the journey to cracking a company is easy, it is all about practice and getting familiar with the variety of questions and in this 1 month i did a lot more than i think i could do. Did 2 questions which came in Amazon cloud profile in under 15 min. Thank you coding club.

Next batch: 19th November

Источник: https://codingclub.tech/

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This free app finally lets you post to Instagram from your computer

Photographer and programmer Felix Sun has designed an app called Windowed that finally allows you to post images to your Instagram account straight from your computer—no tablet, smartphone, or strange loophole workaround required.

Instagram is a great way to build an audience and even earn yourself a commission or two, but the app's mobile-only upload has been a thorn in every professional photographer's side from the very beginning. Most of us don't shoot our best photos on our phones, and many camera brands don't have the best systems (read: some downright suck) in place for getting those photos off of your main camera and onto your smartphone.

Enter Windowed, a simple app that allows you to upload images straight to Instagram from your Mac or PC. And best of all, the application is open source and "100% free."

The app is able to provide this functionality thanks to a semi-recent update to Instagram that allows you to post photos from a mobile browser. Under normal circumstances, you're unable to access this functionality from your Mac or PC; Windowed pretends to be a mobile browser to get around this limitation.

There have been workarounds posted online for ages that make it possible to post to Instagram from your desktop, but this is the first implementation we've seen that's truly easy. In fact, it's no different than posting to IG using Chrome or Safari on your smartphone.

To learn more about Windowed, see the source code, or download it for yourself, head over to the app's website by clicking here.

Источник: https://www.dpreview.com/news/4964221130/this-free-app-finally-lets-you-post-to-instagram-from-your-computer

Is America Any Safer?

Fifteen years ago this September 11, 19 terrorists, using four jetliners as guided missiles, killed 2,977 people—and enveloped the country in fear. It was the first sustained attack on American soil since the bombing of Pearl Harbor, which was a far-off military base. This massacre hit the center of our government and blasted away part of our most iconic skyline. It left a stench that New Yorkers could smell weeks later as remains continued to be recovered from the ashes.

Suddenly, we were vulnerable. Not just to disease, tornadoes, accidents, or criminals, but to the kinds of enemies that had always threatened others but never us.

Barack Obama remembers that after the second plane hit, he left the Chicago building that housed his state-Senate office. “I stood in the street and looked up at the Sears Tower, fearing it might be a target, too,” he told me in a recent email exchange, adding, “I remember rocking Sasha to sleep that night, wondering what kind of world our daughters were going to grow up in.” He continued, “With nearly 3,000 people killed in the places where we lived our daily lives, there was a feeling that our homeland was truly vulnerable for the first time.”

This is the story of the first 15 years of how we have dealt with that newfound fear—how we have confronted, sometimes heroically and sometimes irrationally, the mechanics, the politics, and the psychic challenges of the September 12 era.

From our September 2016 issue

Check out the full table of contents and find your next story to read.

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Have we succeeded in toughening up what overnight became known as “homeland security”? Absolutely. But not without a series of extravagant boondoggles along the way.

Are we safer? Yes, we’re safer from the kind of orchestrated attack that shocked us on that September morning. It’s harder for terrorists to get into the country, and harder for them to pull off something spectacular if they do. But we have not plugged some of the most threatening security gaps. Worse, as the Orlando massacre reminded us, the world has become more populated by those who want to exploit those gaps, including those living among us—and who, in the United States, can easily obtain military-grade weapons. They are not deterred by the prospect of their own death, and they are happy to commit acts less ambitious than those of 9/11. That makes their attacks much harder to detect in advance. Our defenses are far stronger, but what we have to defend against has outpaced our progress.

Have we adjusted, politically and emotionally, so that we can make rational decisions as a government and as a people to deal with the ongoing threat? Not yet. In a bitterly divided democracy, where attention spans are short and civic engagement is low and the potential for oversimplification and governing-by-headlines is high, that is hardly a surprise.

But in those first hours after the planes hit their targets, we did answer the call—which required an almost complete turnaround of America’s mind-set and produced just as stunning a turnaround in our security posture.

Part I: The Good News

On September 10, 2001, then–Attorney General John Ashcroft rejected an FBI request to increase anti-terrorism personnel for the coming fiscal year beyond a fraction of the bureau’s overall staff. The next morning, Ashcroft headed to Milwaukee to read to schoolchildren while his boss, President George W. Bush, was doing the same at an elementary school in Sarasota, Florida.

Also on September 10, FBI officials declared at a congressional briefing that the most imminent domestic terrorism threat was from animal-rights activists. Fifteen years later, the Justice Department has a national-security division, set up in 2006, that has consolidated and fortified all the department’s counterespionage and counterterrorism litigation and related legal-policy decisions. The overall FBI budget has nearly tripled since 2001, and its mission of investigating and prosecuting federal crimes that have already happened has been expanded to stopping terrorists before they strike. Most of the new resources—for intelligence analysts, technology upgrades, and additional agents—have been directed at prevention. “About half” of all agents are now assigned to national security, FBI Director James Comey told me, up from “maybe a quarter before the attacks.”

Connecting the Dots

On September 10, 2001, the Federal Aviation Administration, which was responsible for air-travel security, had a watch list of 12 people, even though the FBI and the CIA had identified hundreds more in their databases. A proposal to expand the FAA list to include those additional names had been sitting for months in the inbox of an FAA security official. In reporting for a book about the nation’s recovery efforts in the first year after 9/11, After: How America Confronted the September 12 Era (2003), I discovered that two of the hijackers had been on that expanded list. Distribution of their names to the airlines had been delayed because the FBI and the FAA had not resolved which organization’s letterhead should be attached to the memo bearing the new list.

On the day the World Trade Center fell and the Pentagon was left smoldering, the CIA knew that two suspected terrorists whom it was tracking around the world—and who ended up on the 9/11 planes—had come to the U.S. months earlier. But the agency never told the FBI. When this came to light, the September 12–era phrase failure to connect the dots was born.

Today, all U.S. security agencies share the same watch lists and threat databases, which are constantly updated. They share intelligence tips with one another (though sometimes still grudgingly), and federal officials even sit on task forces with their local counterparts. With some lingering exceptions, we do connect the dots.

Safety in the Air

On September 11, the airlines themselves were responsible for airport-security lines. They employed 16,000 poorly trained, low-wage private screeners, who operated under guidelines, approved by the FAA, that allowed the kind of box cutters and knives (up to four inches long) that the hijackers used. The airlines had lobbied the FAA for these and other accommodations to keep costs down and the security lines moving.

Today, there are 46,000 screeners, almost all federal employees, trained by the Transportation Security Administration. Although management failures have produced security gaps in fast-moving lines, followed by—especially this spring and summer—long wait times resulting from efforts to plug those gaps, the screening process is undeniably tighter than it was on the morning of September 11. And cockpit doors have been fortified to block anyone who slips past the screeners, making a repeat of the 9/11 plot to commandeer planes and turn them into missiles hard to imagine.

In the 1970s, hundreds of federal air marshals—undercover cops in the air—were deployed on American planes to thwart hijackings to Cuba. By 2001, the number of marshals had been reduced to 33—negligible coverage for the more than 20,000 flights leaving 440 airports in America every day. Within a month of 9/11, an emergency program had recruited 600 new marshals, and by 2005 approximately 5,000 were on planes. (The actual number is classified.)

Securing the Ports

When Kevin McCabe, the chief inspector of the U.S. Customs contraband team at the giant Elizabeth, New Jersey, freight port, looked across the water at the World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan and saw the second plane hit, he knew his country was under assault.

McCabe stared out his office window at the pier below, loaded with more than 7,000 cargo containers that had arrived from all over the world, and began what was probably America’s first exercise in post-9/11 profiling. He directed his 70 inspectors to move every container that had arrived from the Middle East or North Africa—about 600 of them—to a far-off section of the pier. They then began the days-long process of X‑raying and, if anything seemed untoward, hand-searching all 600.

The X-rays and searches, however, had always been geared to looking for smuggled drugs. The inspectors were great at finding cocaine hidden in limes from Ecuador. But they had little training in looking for bombs—and little equipment for detecting material that could be used for a radiation-laced “dirty bomb.”

Fifteen years later, every American port screens cargo using billions of dollars’ worth of technology, including radiation detectors. Containers that register high on a threat matrix (based on information sent in advance about the content and its shippers) are singled out for additional screening; many containers are screened in foreign ports by U.S. Customs inspectors before they set sail.

The system is far from airtight. But the port inspectors have come a long way from McCabe’s panicked game of musical containers.

Preparing for a Biological Attack

A week after the attacks, America was again caught flat-footed, when envelopes containing deadly anthrax were sent to several media outlets and two U.S. Senate offices, ultimately killing five people and hospitalizing 17. When Tom Ridge, the Pennsylvania governor, whom President Bush had just recruited to become the White House homeland-security adviser, convened his first meeting about anthrax in the Roosevelt Room, across from the Oval Office, he was stunned by the cluelessness of those assembled at the table. There was no playbook. No list of medical experts to call. No emergency supply of antidotes and no plan to produce one.

Today, a collection of federal agencies—so many that, if anything, there is bureaucratic overlap—has playbooks for a variety of biological and chemical outbreaks, and billions have been spent to stockpile antidotes.

Part II: The Spirit of September 12

Beginning September 12, 2001, crash efforts were the order of the day.

Reconstituting the air-marshals program.

Doubling the number of Border Patrol agents.

A Victim Compensation Fund was conceived of and passed by Congress in 10 days and became the nation’s single greatest act of tort reform. To the dismay of many trial lawyers, it allowed victims’ families to seek millions each in uncontested claims directly from the federal Treasury (and also bailed out the airlines).

The TSA was legislated and launched within months, led by a fresh group of recruits from the private sector. They held their first meetings standing in an empty room in the Department of Transportation’s headquarters, clutching laptops—until someone gave up on the glacial government procurement system and went to a local Staples and ordered chairs and desks with his own credit card.

Tom Ridge was emblematic of the September 12 mind-set. He’d been the governor of Pennsylvania for nearly seven years, and loved his work. But he took the job heading homeland-security efforts within hours, on September 19, not knowing where he would live or what his salary would be. This same spirit moved members of Congress to pass piles of bipartisan legislation and assemble on the Capitol steps the night of the attacks, holding hands and singing “God Bless America.”

Video: The Inevitability of Dirty Bombs

Of course, that has changed. The initial September 12 spirit was like a rush of adrenaline. Much of what Americans in and out of government did was extraordinary; in hours worked, helping hands extended, immediate problems solved, they stretched beyond what they might have expected of themselves.

Then the rush subsided. When the headlines—the adrenaline that fuels Washington—died down, Beltway norms returned. Contractors, consultants, academics, and bureaucrats swarmed in to co-opt the new big thing, while the politicians retreated to their respective corners.

In April 2002, working as a reporter, I watched as a spirited band of new recruits got the TSA up and running at its first airport, in Baltimore. They timed passenger throughput, and high-fived each other when it stayed below four minutes per person. When the sun glared through a glass wall, killing the view of a carry-on-bag X‑ray machine, someone found a piece of cardboard to shade it. More high fives.

When I visited TSA headquarters five years later to discuss a business I was starting that would expedite prescreened passengers through the security lines, administrators and other back-office employees—who by now numbered about 5,000, in addition to the 44,000 screeners working in airports—had their own building, near the Pentagon. As I rode the elevator, two people with TSA ID badges got on. One groused to the other that his parking-space assignment was unfair.

“Even I think the pendulum has swung way too far” in the direction of overspending and bureaucracy, says Richard Clarke, the anti-terror chief on President Bush’s National Security Council, who had been derided for being the guy in the White House most obsessed with the threat of an al-Qaeda attack. “Beginning almost the morning after, the consultants and contractors came out of the woodwork.”

Billions of dollars awaited contractors who promised infallible new technology: bio-threat and radiation detectors in towers to catch border-jumpers, upgraded Coast Guard cutters, biometric identification cards, $1 million baggage-screening machines, new data-collection software.

Billions more would go to cities and towns savvy enough to slap a homeland-security label on grant proposals.

A burgeoning industry of homeland-security conferences and trade shows sprang up.

Across the country, colleges and universities went after research grants aimed at everything from how to make office windows blast-proof to how to secure international shipping channels. Academic institutions began offering degrees in homeland security. I counted 308 such programs when I scanned the web a few weeks ago.

“Sure, we’re safer than we were 15 years ago,” says one senior auditor at the Government Accountability Office (GAO), whose 3,000 auditors independently monitor federal agencies. “But we’ve spent hundreds of billions since 9/11. The question is how much of that was wasted and how much should have been used on other programs to address other security gaps.”

Bioterror and "Failures of Imagination"

Here are excerpts from an eye-opening report highlighting one of those continuing gaps, which I bet you never heard about, even though it was issued less than a year ago:

Nine weeks ago, terrorists unleashed insidious biological attacks on our Nation’s Capitol during our Independence Day celebrations. The infectious agent they used ultimately led to the deaths of 6,053 Americans …

We discovered later that other attacks had already begun elsewhere in the Nation, using methods we have yet to identify that spread the disease among livestock in rural communities.

The report then offered a stinging indictment of America’s security apparatus:

The terrorists were successful because the government—including Congress—failed. They took advantage of our failure to achieve early environmental detection of the agent, failure to quickly recognize its occurrence in livestock, failure to rapidly diagnose the disease caused in sick patients, failure to consistently fund public health and health care preparedness, failure to establish sufficient medical countermeasure stockpiles, failure to make sure that non-traditional partners communicate. Ultimately, they took advantage of our failure to make biodefense a top national priority.

Sadly, much as the 9/11 Commission observed in its analysis of the attacks of 2001, the attacks of 2016 occurred because of another “failure of imagination.”

The report was written by an all-star bipartisan panel consisting of, among others, Tom Ridge, the founding secretary of the Department of Homeland Security; Joe Lieberman, the former chair of the Senate Homeland Security Committee; Donna Shalala, who served as the secretary of health and human services under Bill Clinton; and Tom Daschle, the Democratic former Senate majority leader. They were organized by Lewis “Scooter” Libby, who now works at the Hudson Institute, a conservative think tank. As Vice President Dick Cheney’s national-security adviser, Libby led the country’s bioterrorism-defense initiatives following 9/11 and the anthrax attacks.

No, the attack described in the report didn’t actually happen. Rather, the authors introduced the scenario as something that could happen, because, they wrote, “the threat is real and growing” and “carries with it the possibility of millions of fatalities and billions of dollars in economic losses.” It was meant to be a “wake-up call” to get the nation’s attention, Ridge told me.

It didn’t work. The rest of the report drew on dozens of experts’ testimony and reams of data to present the case for renewed attention and national leadership to address the threat of bioterrorism, which Libby says is “still the most likely game-changing terrorist attack.” Yet the report received scant news coverage when it was issued on October 28.

The Obama administration had the same nonreaction. The panel’s primary recommendation—to put one senior person in charge of consolidating the hodgepodge of agencies that have some role in biodefense—has never been acted on. “I read the report, and I respect it,” Jeh Johnson, the Obama administration’s current secretary of homeland security, told me. “But it’s a lot like everything else I deal with. We have to make choices every day about risk and priorities.”

What a difference 15 years makes. The bioterror threat hasn’t receded; if anything, as the panel pointed out, advances in science and technology have made it easier to launch these kinds of weapons. But the nation’s attention has receded—which is emblematic of the roller-coaster way our democracy and its leaders deal with risks. As suggested by the report’s rhetoric about “failures of imagination,” our imagination is limited to the day’s headlines. Policy makers fight the war that made those headlines, not the war that might come next.

A week before the 9/11 attacks, three New York Times reporters—Judith Miller, William J. Broad, and Stephen Engelberg—published an article in The Times adapted from their book, Germs, a vivid account of the danger of bioterrorism that would be published the following month. After the Twin Towers fell and the anthrax envelopes were delivered, Germs shot to the top of best-seller lists and the media were filled with reports about how a successful biological attack could kill as many people as a nuclear weapon—yet would be far easier to pull off, a point that had been made earlier, by the 1999–2001 commission led by former Senators Gary Hart and Warren Rudman, whose pre-9/11 warnings about a terrorist attack on the U.S. were widely ignored.

The inspectors’ specialty was finding cocaine hidden in limes from Ecuador. They had little training in looking for bombs.

Immediately after the anthrax attacks in September 2001, Libby got Cheney and the rest of the Bush administration behind an urgent biodefense drive. Within months, during which there were several false alarms signaling apparent follow-on germ attacks (including one that officials feared had penetrated the White House), what would become a program costing hundreds of millions was launched to buy dozens of BioWatch detectors. These were deployed at pedestrian gathering places in 20 major cities to collect air samples. By 2005, 36 metropolitan areas were covered.

The instinct to do something, anything, about the threat was understandable. But collecting and analyzing BioWatch air samples could take up to 36 hours. By then, of course, an aerosolized attack could have infected thousands of victims who would have long since dispersed. Besides, samples of only six possible pathogens were even theoretically detectable, and that was only if the offending germs were sprayed close to the detectors.

Worse, it wasn’t clear that even those six pathogens would be detected at any distance. According to GAO reports about BioWatch and a study by the National Academy of Science, the devices had never been tested in real-world conditions, because officials hadn’t determined how to avoid the obvious risks during the testing process. The sensors deployed indoors (at places like Grand Central Terminal) seemingly had a better chance of working than those scattered outside along busy streets. But no one knew for sure whether any of them worked.

A new BioWatch program was launched in 2003 to develop systems that could cut down the analysis process to six hours and broaden the range of threats that could be detected. The effort lasted 11 years and ate up another $200 million in fees to Beltway contractors. But it was canceled in 2014 because the new devices didn’t work.

Meantime, the original sensors are still deployed. Whether they work is still not known; many experts doubt they do unless the aerosol is released in intimate proximity. The continuing 36-hour sample-collection process and related maintenance cost $80 million a year—more than $1 billion over the past 15 years.

As of the end of 2014, the BioWatch sensors had produced a total of 149 alarms—none of which, according to a 2015 GAO report, “was linked to an attack or to a public health threat.” In fact, BioWatch is considered such a dud that local officials routinely ignore any alarms that federal homeland-security officials pass along from it.

“We knew it was a stopgap, but we felt we had to put something out there” at the time, says Ridge, who was the homeland-security secretary until the beginning of 2005. “But 13 years, and nothing better? Come on!”

This past February, when a House homeland-security subcommittee held a hearing on BioWatch, senior DHS officials assured their inquisitors that they were working on the problem. “We seem to be having the same hearings over and over again,” Bennie Thompson, a longtime Democratic subcommittee member, complained.

The subcommittee’s then-chair, Martha McSally, a Republican freshman from Arizona and a former Air Force fighter pilot, seemed more upbeat, until she noted that industry vendors had told her they’d responded to DHS requests for information about possible new versions of the technology two years earlier but never heard back. Reginald Brothers, the Homeland Security Department’s undersecretary for science and technology, replied that he was now sending out still more such requests. Testifying in a near-empty committee room that would have been filled with bioterror-obsessed media 15 years earlier, the undersecretary said his team was engaged in an “exploratory process” and hoped to have a fix in place in “three to eight years.”

“This kind of stuff just drives you crazy. It’s all so slow and bureaucratic,” McSally told me. “We rolled something out in a panic after 9/11 and then it lingered in a substandard place because attention shifted.”

When I asked Jeh Johnson about his deputy’s apparent acceptance of a process whereby exchanges of information with the private sector stretch out over years and whereby a fix to an urgent problem is still three to eight years off, he sighed in what seemed to be exasperation, then offered this: “I can think of a number of instances where the best technology is a ways off.”

“When germs were sexy right after 9/11, they focused on it,” says Judith Miller, one of the co-authors of Germs. “But until someone engineers one of these pathogens and releases it, we’re not likely to do anything more.”

“Jack Bauer Syndrome”

The story of BioWatch’s exercise in hope over reality illustrates what one GAO auditor calls “Jack Bauer Syndrome,” referring to the counterterrorism agent who was featured in 24, the hit TV series.

“If you’re shocked and scared and you know there’s a threat out there, you’ll do anything, spend anything, to deal with it,” the auditor explained, “even if what you spend it on hasn’t been tested and you haven’t even set any standards to evaluate it.”

Chip Fulghum, the Department of Homeland Security’s chief financial officer, who took the job in 2013 and says he considers himself part of a “cleanup operation,” puts it this way: “Right after 9/11, the spigot got turned on and a fire hose of money poured out. Much of it was badly monitored and much of it was for stuff that just didn’t work.”

Multiple programs—salivated over by Beltway contractors, who formed “capture teams” to reel in business—were launched with exuberant announcements, after which they quietly tailspinned into implementation delays, revised promises, and finally failure.

“We rolled something out in a panic after 9/11 and then it lingered in a substandard place because attention shifted,” Martha McSally says.

Two billion dollars was doled out to improve the TSA’s screening of checked bags for bombs, but the new equipment yielded no discernible improvement.

Another $1 billion was wasted on a network of motion sensors and camera towers across just a fraction of the U.S. border with Mexico as the first step in what was to be a $5 billion program. When the government awarded the coveted contract to Boeing in 2006 (to replace a failed $2.5 billion program started in 2004), President Bush heralded it as “the most technologically advanced border project ever.” Once deployed, however, the system’s sensors set off alarms when all varieties of wildlife moved around, and its cameras swayed in the wind and failed to provide visibility in areas where the land wasn’t level. The program was finally euthanized in 2011, after which an Israeli firm was brought in to provide a system that apparently works.

Similarly, a $2.5 billion plan to replace drive-through radiation detectors at border crossings with a new model that would cut the high false-alarm rate was killed in 2011 after $230 million in prototype tests showed no improvement.

A long-running contract awarded to Northrop Grumman and Lockheed Martin to build new Coast Guard cutters has so far come in $1 billion above its $4.7 billion budget and four years late.

And a $400 million program (also feasted on mostly by Lockheed Martin) to distribute 3.5 million tamperproof biometric ID cards to truck drivers hauling hazardous material and to workers at seaports and airports was completed five years behind schedule, in 2011. Worse, the ID-card readers have never worked and are not being used, making the high-tech credentials no more secure than a library card.

The granddaddy of all the misbegotten big ideas may be something called FirstNet, a project set up to provide a telecommunications system exclusively for firefighters, police officers, and other first responders that would cost as much as $47 billion.

“Attack 2” Versus a Flaming Bagel

Clarke, the former White House anti-terror chief, has a weekend house in Rappahannock County, Virginia (population 7,400). He says that one Sunday morning a few years after the 9/11 attacks, he burned a bagel in his toaster and his smoke alarm went off. “This monster fire truck with four volunteer firemen—two teenagers and two guys my age—arrived,” Clarke recalls. “They could barely drive the thing. It had a logo on it calling it ‘Attack 2.’ ” Clarke was stunned to find out that the truck had been paid for in part by a $160,000 federal homeland-security grant.*

“Want to see how your homeland-security money was spent?” a longtime anti-terror official who was one of Tom Ridge’s senior aides asked me. “Go to your local Fourth of July parade anywhere in small-town America and you’ll see a logo on a spiffed-up fire truck or armored police truck saying we paid for it.”

The largesse has hardly been limited to souped-up emergency vehicles. Across the country, small towns have loaded up on everything from a “latrine on wheels” in Fort Worth, to fish tanks in Seguin, Texas (presumably to help counterterrorism cops relax?), to unspecified equipment in American Samoa. In all, more than $40 billion has been spent on homeland-security grants since 9/11.

Everything in the grant applications was linked to terror, an exercise in which the grant writers suffered no failures of imagination. A Senate report documenting this spending found that one law-enforcement website offered “a how-to guide, Tapping Into Federal Funds, advising public safety officials to amplify the frightening ‘what ifs’ in their request for funds by pointing out ‘the worst case scenario’ … that the project for which you’re seeking funds would help.”

The arrival of Attack 2 to extinguish Clarke’s bagel was proof that homeland security had morphed from an emergency mission into politics as usual. When asked during a 2004 Senate hearing what kind of formula governed decisions about who received grants, Tom Ridge, himself a former congressman, replied in a burst of candor that he was looking for something that gets “218 votes in the House or 51 votes in the Senate.” This explains why Congress mandated that each of the 56 states and territories had to receive some grant money, regardless of actual risk of terrorism.

Today, the grants continue, though at a reduced rate, and they are mostly restricted to high-risk metropolitan areas.

Which is the other side of the story.

Money Well Spent

The flow of federal funds to major cities has plugged innumerable security gaps.

In New York City, federal grants enabled newly elected Mayor Michael Bloomberg and his police commissioner, Raymond Kelly, to set up a 1,000-person Counterterrorism Bureau that includes specially armed quick-response units and intelligence officers assigned overseas.

On September 12, 2001, the train tunnels under New York’s rivers could have been breached by a bomb small enough to fit in a backpack. Thousands could have been drowned. The most vulnerable were PATH trains running under the Hudson River to New Jersey. Hundreds of millions of dollars were quietly allocated to reinforce the tunnels’ roofs.

More federal money went to reinforcing subway tunnels, installing cameras to detect intruders, and assigning undercover officers to ride the trains.

Money from Washington helped pay for the hardening of the Madison Square Garden–Penn Station complex, a venue that had been easy prey for even a small car bomb and that—because it is a high-profile, crowded hub sitting atop crucial subway junctions and Amtrak’s Northeast Corridor rail lines—was feared to be a prime terrorist target.

On the Upper West Side, an exposed bit of a pipeline running natural gas up the East Coast was encased in a protective shed, as was a vulnerable water main in the Bronx that could have flooded much of that borough.

Federal money helped pay for a team of consultants to work with Kelly’s Counterterrorism Bureau to produce a smartly written manual called “Engineering Security.” Now widely used across the country, it provides those responsible for the security of office buildings and other facilities guidance on everything from gauging the blast resistance of different grades of glass to determining a venue’s overall risk profile.

Washington also paid for cops to be posted at key targets. At the Brooklyn Bridge, according to Kelly, these officers staved off a plot to cut its cables—which intelligence officials learned about when questioning Khalid Sheik Mohammed, al-Qaeda’s 9/11 mastermind.

Overall, anti-terror money sent from Washington to New York has exceeded $6 billion.

The federal government made similar investments in other cities and other high-profile venues across the country. Joint Terrorism Task Forces—which had previously consisted of small groups of FBI agents, representatives of other federal law-enforcement agencies, and a few local police officers—were beefed up with funding from Washington. The number of detectives and intelligence analysts on Ray Kelly’s task force in New York went from 17 to 120.

In 2001, there were 35 Joint Terrorism Task Forces around the country; today, there are 104. The federal government has also funded broader groups of law-enforcement and emergency-response agencies, called fusion centers.

The feds have sponsored drills and other exercises to help state and local police departments, and other first responders, rehearse how they would work together in an emergency. One full-scale, 24-hour exercise in Massachusetts, six months before the April 15, 2013, bombing of the Boston Marathon, is credited with helping officials do such a good job of stationing medical personnel at the site before the event began and mapping out how mass casualties would be distributed to the city’s multiple trauma centers that, amazingly, none of even the most grievously injured among the 264 victims was added to the death toll of the three who died immediately at the scene.

Part III: Washington’s Most Maligned Agency

By my calculation, over the past 15 years, the American government has spent $100 billion to $150 billion on failed or unworthy homeland-security programs and on acquiring and maintaining equipment that hasn’t worked. However, as with the equipment procured for port inspections, launching the TSA, and grants for protecting New York’s subway tunnels and running emergency drills in Boston, much more than that was well spent.

The same mixed verdict applies to the agency created to dole out that money and manage the programs. President Bush’s decision to combine 22 far-flung government agencies into the Department of Homeland Security belatedly followed a primary recommendation of the Hart-Rudman commission, whose warning, in three reports starting in 1999 and culminating on January 31, 2001, about the need for the government to prepare for terrorist attacks had been largely ignored. The details of the reorganization are still being debated. Should the FBI have been left out? Should the Secret Service have been included? But combining agencies such as Border Patrol, Customs, the new TSA, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency into one department responsible for putting the people and systems in place to defend against or recover from an attack made sense, as did enabling the still-separate FBI to gather intelligence in order to stop the people planning attacks or track them down after an attack occurred.

Nonetheless, the result, especially at first, was management disarray and ineffectiveness that could fill a textbook on bureaucratic dysfunction.

DHS—which has had seven undersecretaries or acting undersecretaries for management—has perennially been on the GAO’s list of agencies whose overall management is considered “at risk.” From the beginning, the agencies thrown into the new superagency fought to keep their turf, often calling on congressional allies to help. “At one meeting early on, I mumbled something about why should the Coast Guard and Customs each have their own helicopters and planes,” Tom Ridge recalls. “Why couldn’t they combine to purchase the same stuff? Within a few days, we had calls from Capitol Hill warning us not to mess with the Coast Guard’s or Customs’ procurements.” (The two agencies still have their own air forces.)

Ridge was preoccupied during his tenure with organizing the new agency and launching urgent programs, like the BioWatch detectors and the posting of U.S. Customs inspectors overseas. His successor, Michael Chertoff, a former federal appeals judge and head of the U.S. Justice Department’s Criminal Division, prioritized tighter management, but ended up overwhelmed during most of his tenure by his department’s failures in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. Chertoff, who declined repeated requests to be interviewed, was succeeded during President Obama’s first term by Janet Napolitano, who resigned as governor of Arizona to head the department. Napolitano focused, she told me, on rebuilding FEMA following the Katrina disaster, border security, and the (unsuccessful) effort to pass a broad immigration-reform bill.

The border-control system’s sensors set off alarms when wildlife moved around. The program was finally euthanized in 2011.

Only Jeh Johnson, who succeeded Napolitano when she left to take over the University of California system in late 2013, seems to have made forging a cohesive organization—he calls it “unity of effort”—a priority.

Johnson, who turns 59 on September 11, was the first African American to make partner at Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison, a New York law firm that has long been a home for prominent Democrats who rotate in and out of government. A former general counsel for the Defense Department, Johnson seems to have become a smart, tough manager. He has made significant progress in rationalizing DHS, which today is a $64.9-billion-a-year colossus with 240,000 employees. But the challenges of fusing so many long-standing independent bureaucracies remain, even 14 years after they were first thrown together.

Dealing with these multiple agencies is further complicated by the fact that DHS’s senior executives and staff are spread among 120 offices, scattered, wherever space has been available, throughout Virginia, Maryland, and the District of Columbia. Most work far from Johnson’s office, a shabby, converted naval facility in Northwest D.C. that is itself far from downtown Washington. (After many false starts, a closer-in, massive $600 million headquarters seems likely to be built within the next two or three years.)

The Office of Personnel Management’s latest annual survey of employee morale across all government agencies ranks DHS in the bottom tier across multiple measures of employee satisfaction and sense of mission. In a category called “intrinsic work experience,” DHS somehow scored below the Federal Elections Commission, an agency so famously paralyzed by partisan deadlock that its mission has basically been put on hold.

“I really care about that survey, and we’re going to improve those numbers,” Johnson told me. “But it’s going to take time.”

An approachable boss who has made a habit of mingling with his troops wherever he goes, Johnson seems well suited to the challenge. At a town-hall meeting for DHS employees in New York, I watched him connect with those who asked questions, inquiring about their families and then demonstrating that he was immersed in the issues they cared about. Last March, Johnson was a big hit at the Baltimore-Washington International airport when he played undercover boss, acting as a TSA screener.

“I wasn’t planning to be a manager when I came into this job,” Johnson said. “But during my [Senate] confirmation-oversight process, I kept hearing ‘management reform, management reform,’ so this is something I’ve had to focus on.”

Although the GAO recently reported that DHS has made significant progress in tightening management, Johnson still has work to do, starting with customer service. In June, a friend tried to call Customs and Border Protection with a complaint about a Global Entry card that he should have been able to use when entering the United States after an international flight. The line was constantly busy, so he tried the agency’s email complaint system, only to receive a reply telling him that the response time for emails like his was “16–20 business weeks.” I followed up and called three different DHS customer-service lines. No one ever picked up the phone.

Last winter, a House subcommittee hearing about a DHS human-resources IT program produced another installment of a C-SPAN drama that has played out in dozens of episodes since the agency was put together: indignant inquisitors lacerating their witness. Noting that the IT program had so far cost $180 million over 13 years without yet being operational—and that there is no set schedule for when it would be—Scott Perry, a Pennsylvania Republican, told Chip Fulghum, DHS’s chief financial officer, that the program was the “poster child for inept management.”

Congressional Malpractice

As Perry’s scolding of Fulghum demonstrates, members of Congress in both parties have never been shy about criticizing, even mocking, the Department of Homeland Security for mismanagement and low staff morale. But the longest-running failure of management when it comes to homeland security—a failure that is deliberate, self-centered, and easy to fix—has to do with Congress itself.

When Congress voted in 2002 to consolidate 22 federal agencies into a unified DHS, each of those agencies and their dozens of subunits was overseen by different congressional committees and subcommittees. 
“We figured congressional leaders would reorganize things,” says Ridge, referring to how, after the departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force were put into the new Defense Department, congressional oversight was consolidated accordingly.

That never happened. “There is no committee chairman or subcommittee chairman or ranking member who will give up jurisdiction over something that they had jurisdiction over, especially something as sexy as homeland security,” Martha McSally, the House subcommittee chair, told me. Thus, four House and Senate transportation subcommittees oversee the TSA and the Coast Guard, but subcommittees of the House and Senate homeland-security committees oversee them too. In all, 119 congressional committees or subcommittees assert some kind of jurisdiction over DHS.

Those committees and subcommittees held 300 hearings in 2011 and 2012 alone, according to a tally compiled by DHS. Each hearing required DHS secretaries, undersecretaries, assistant secretaries, or agency heads to sit for hours, listening to the members read ponderous opening speeches and then responding to questions. It adds up to one or more senior DHS officials sitting through these hearings about three times a week. And that’s not counting the many more informal briefings conducted for members of Congress.

“It’s outrageous,” says Napolitano. “You get all those directions and priorities from all those committees and subcommittees. It’s a huge burden and a huge waste of time.”

When then-Speaker John Boehner was asked during a December 2014 press conference why oversight hadn’t been consolidated under the homeland-security committees, he chuckled and said, “I’ve been working on this for about six years … It should have been done.”

I could find no member of Congress or congressional staffer willing to defend the current setup. Rather, unlike any other issue when it comes to terrorism—where urgency and indignation at even the slightest failing is the order of the day on Capitol Hill—everyone I talked with seemed to accept their own bipartisan failure to act as an immovable fact of life.

The Duct-Tape Dilemma

Some morale problems at DHS may have less to do with management and congressional harassment and more to do with the nature of DHS’s mission. There are few noticeable victories—but multiple opportunities for failure, embarrassment, and ridicule.

“The FBI are the stars and the DHS people basically are seen as the garbagemen,” Richard Clarke told me. While the FBI, he explains, does high-profile detective work, DHS mostly screens people and things at airports and borders, reviews claims for cleanup grants after disasters, and does the unsung work of advising the private sector on how to protect its infrastructure. Even DHS’s arguably most glamorous agency, the Secret Service, makes headlines only when it fails.

“In law enforcement,” says Johnson, who is a former federal prosecutor, “you get a big takedown and you get a big press conference.” You get headlines like “Eight Charged in Check-Kiting Mob.” But the nature of homeland security “is different. We’re on defense.”

Although DHS mostly makes the news when it fails, it also gets attention when it becomes the butt of comedy monologues about mindless bureaucracy.

Early on, the jokes had to do with color codes and duct tape. Both illustrate the no-win proposition of having a government agency try to deal with the changing impulses of the September 12 era.

The much-ridiculed color codes—public pronouncements that the country was at a green, blue, yellow, orange, or red state of alert—came about because Ridge insisted that federal officials should share threat information with the local police agencies who would be on the front lines. But the information the locals got was leaked, spurring outcries that the public deserved to know at least something about potential threats.

The resulting color scheme, announced in 2002, was derided as so vague as to be meaningless. But it was seen as better than the alternatives of saying nothing or telling everyone, including the bad guys, specifically what the government knew. Ten years after the attacks, the color advisories were abandoned in favor of equally vague but wordy “bulletins” that are infrequently updated on the DHS website, where they are largely ignored but are no longer a source of derision.

Duct tape was about a more important, if equally ridiculed, initiative. In the aftermath of the anthrax crisis, amid growing fears of bioterror attacks, Ridge’s office urged citizens to prepare emergency “ready” kits. One of the suggested ingredients—in addition to flashlights, a portable radio, water bottles, and nonperishable food—was duct tape, which could be used along with plastic sheeting to seal doors and windows so that people could safely “shelter in place.”

This was, and remains, a prudent security precaution. But Ridge and his team were almost immediately lampooned, perhaps because joking about a possible disaster relieved nerves. Of course, if Ridge had discarded experts’ recommendation that he tout duct tape because it could protect people during a bio attack and then an attack had occurred, he would have been denounced for his failure of imagination.

The Agency That’s Always Wrong

DHS’s most visible unit is the Transportation Security Administration, which has more daily interactions with more Americans than any other federal agency. Those encounters are inherently a source of public cynicism: They’re inconvenient, and to many they seem an exercise in bureaucratic rigidity.

In June 2015, news leaked that testers from the DHS Office of the Inspector General had been able to smuggle simulated weapons or explosives through checkpoints 67 out of 70 times at airports across the U.S. Johnson was so incensed that he removed the acting TSA administrator and replaced him with Peter Neffenger, a highly regarded Coast Guard vice admiral. Since taking over, Neffenger has completely redone the TSA training program and required all current staff members to be retrained to focus on the agency’s primary mission—security.

“We were worried too much about throughput,” Neffenger told me. “We had to go back to basics.”

Neffenger said he is also determined to expand the PreCheck program. Launched in 2012, PreCheck provides expedited TSA clearance for the 3 million people (so far) who have agreed to be prescreened. Neffenger is determined to improve its marketing, open more-convenient enrollment centers, and give government officials who already have a security clearance automatic enrollment.

PreCheck is “the most popular thing I’ve ever done in public service,” Napolitano, the former DHS secretary who initiated the program, told me. But it will be popular only until a PreCheck member does something bad—which is bound to happen today or 10 years from today, because no security process is perfect. Making homeland-security decisions based on logical weighing of risks makes sense and avoids public frustration and ridicule—until something bad happens.

As those who have flown lately know, the problem of slow airport-security lines was exacerbated this spring and summer by record air-travel volume and by the fact that three years ago, the TSA began to trim its airport staff. The staff cuts came because letting up on its tight process, which ultimately allowed the inspector general’s testers to slip through with their simulated weapons and bombs, had given DHS the false sense that it could keep the lines moving while getting by with fewer people. Hiring and training to get back to staffing levels sufficient to cut the current wait times while maintaining security will take at least until the beginning of next year.

Costs Versus Benefits

In the immediate aftermath of 9/11, fewer people flew, because they feared more aviation attacks. However, once the TSA was operating, people resumed flying instead of driving. According to a study done by the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, there were likely 1,018 more traffic fatalities in the three months following 9/11 than there would have been had people believed flying was safe. In other words, the reassurance provided by the establishment of the TSA arguably saved more than 300 lives a month.

Put differently, terrorists can kill 300 people a month by scaring us off airplanes—and that’s in addition to the economic havoc that fear of flying produces.

All of which suggests that judging the TSA’s efficacy—and the claims about the agency’s bureaucratic bloat and its pointless “security theater”—is complicated.

Of course, the TSA gets no credit for those 300 lives a month. Turning that theoretical math into congratulatory high fives is a stretch. But other, more direct measures of homeland-security success are no easier to calculate.

“How many terrorist attacks has TSA thwarted? We’re never going to know the true answer to that question,” Jeh Johnson says. “I do know that last year TSA seized in carry-on luggage 2,500 guns—83 percent of which were loaded.”

Just before Tom Coburn, a Republican senator from Oklahoma famous for being waste-averse, left office in 2015, he issued a 162-page report on DHS that attacked almost every aspect of the agency for wasting money while “not successfully executing any of its … main missions.”

Coburn’s argument boiled down to a recitation of the obvious: American taxpayers have spent $1 trillion since 9/11 (on DHS and on terror-related work at other agencies), but Americans are still not safe from terrorist attacks. Which is like declaring that a health-care system doesn’t work because people still get sick and die.

“People ask, ‘How many terrorist attacks has TSA thwarted?,’ ” Jeh Johnson said. “We’re never going to know the true answer to that question. I do know that last year TSA seized in carry-on luggage 2,500 guns—83 percent of which were loaded.”

Coburn’s attempt at more-detailed cost-benefit analyses highlighted how complicated that exercise can be. One of his most intriguing critiques was directed at the Federal Air Marshal Service, which, he pointed out, was spending about $800 million a year (equal to about 40 percent of the Secret Service budget and nearly 10 percent of the FBI’s). That adds up to more than $10 billion since the 9/11 attacks. Yet, Coburn wrote, “it is unclear to what extent the … program is reducing risk to aviation security.”

Air marshals are supposed to prevent terrorist hijackings. There have been no hijackings. Why complain about that? Isn’t that the best possible proof that the program works? How do we know how many hijackers were deterred by the well-publicized air-marshal buildup?

Then again, even for $800 million a year, the air marshals can be on only a fraction of all flights—maybe about 5 percent, depending on the number of air marshals, which is classified. No marshal was on board either shoe bomber Richard Reid’s plane or the one carrying underwear bomber Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab.

And what about the flights that air marshals were on? On the hundreds of thousands of flights carrying undercover air marshals since 9/11, not a single hijacker has been taken down. In fact, there have been more arrests of air marshals since 9/11 (for off-duty conduct such as drunk driving) than by air marshals for conduct in airports or on planes.

This is what makes any cost-benefit analysis so challenging. There have been no hijackings since 9/11—and the deterrent value of having even a small percentage of flights protected by marshals might account for that. Yet training thousands of men (and some women) for armed combat in the sky and then having them travel (mostly in first class, to be near the cockpit) on endless flights every day does seem to be overkill, especially when all cockpits have been fortified to prevent the kind of forced entry that precipitated the buildup of the marshal force.

That would seem to be a good argument for at least dropping the Federal Air Marshal Service down on the DHS priority list. Yet only in the past four years have any members of Congress even mildly urged cuts in its budget.

Part IV: Everything Is a Priority

At least in the case of the air marshals, there is a tactical argument for cutting the program: The fortifying of cockpit doors and the arming of thousands of pilots may have eliminated the threat that the marshal program was supposed to address. But no one in Washington seems willing to rank threats in terms of the relative risk they pose. Saying that something is less of a threat than something else is a political third rail. Everything is always a priority.

Kathryn Brinsfield, a former emergency-room doctor and administrator of EMS services in Boston, is the DHS assistant secretary running the agency’s bioterror-prevention programs, including the BioWatch sensors that have been waiting 15 years for next-generation technology. Those are the upgrades that one of her colleagues told Congress he hoped to have within the next “three to eight years.” When I asked her to discuss the obvious—that her bailiwick had lost the priority status it had in the months following the anthrax crisis—she gamely replied, “No, BioWatch is a major priority.”

Jeh Johnson is only a bit more forthcoming: “We have to be concerned about all ranges of attacks,” he says. “I never categorize anything as low priority, but we have to look at what’s high risk and what’s less high risk and spend our time accordingly.”

The problem with ducking a real discussion about priorities is that it allows for decisions to get made ad hoc and out of the limelight, typically based more on what’s “hot” or on what’s a political priority than on what the evidence might dictate.

“Not Your Father’s Terrorism”

What’s hot today is the threat of lone wolves.

Even before the Orlando massacre, every government official or television pundit was talking about how lone wolves—terrorists acting on their own, or in small groups—are the major threat to homeland security, rather than the kind of centrally managed, patiently planned shock-and-awe attacks al-Qaeda launched on 9/11. Although the Brussels and Paris massacres were, in fact, organized by sizable cells emanating from ISIL in Syria, multiple one-off attacks have become relatively common, from the Boston Marathon to Orlando to San Bernardino to Fort Hood to Garland to Chattanooga.

It adds up to what Johnson calls “an entirely different global environment.”

“This is not your father’s terrorism,” says John Miller, a former CBS News senior correspondent who is now the deputy commissioner for intelligence and counterterrorism at the New York Police Department.

Miller has a newsman’s flair for describing the current situation pungently: “Al-Qaeda was an elite organization. They would turn people away,” he says. “ISIL does no screening; they do mass marketing … Their attitude is ‘We don’t care if you’re a loser. And we don’t care about some apocalyptic event. Just go do your thing.’ ”

“You do not have to be smart to kill people this way,” Miller continues. “The fact that they’re morons is academic. Any moron could make the pressure-cooker bomb those idiots used in Boston. The San Bernardino couple were idiots. If they had been directed by anyone, they’d have picked something a lot more crowded than the place where the guy worked. But ISIL latches on to people like that, telling them, ‘It’s okay to lash out at people you hate—in our name. It’s okay that you’re a loser. You can still have an impact. You can be a hero.’ It’s elixir for someone sitting in the glow of their laptop in their parents’ basement.”

Al-Qaeda’s biggest failing was ego, Miller says. “Bin Laden thought of himself as a historic figure and that if he just blew something up that wasn’t spectacular, he’d be just like the Palestinians. So they didn’t go after malls or anything ordinary. ISIL is just the opposite.”

“Al-Qaeda was an elite organization. They would turn people away. ISIL does no screening; they do mass marketing,” John Miller says. “Their attitude is ‘We don’t care if you’re a loser.’ ”

So how do we guard against would-be killers sitting in their parents’ basements?

Miller’s team includes a crew of several dozen multilingual people sifting through websites and social media. “We have an easier time getting Arabic speakers than the FBI, because we don’t have to put them through the security clearances that the bureau does,” he says.

According to Miller, who served as the head of public affairs at the FBI from 2005 to 2009, 15 of the past 19 cases in which the FBI made arrests charging people with offenses such as planning to join ISIL stemmed from leads developed by his NYPD unit.

Carlos T. Fernandez, the FBI special agent in charge of the New York–based counterterrorism division, which runs the city’s Joint Terrorism Task Force, told me he is “not sure” of Miller’s count, and that “there were many [cases] where we were both working leads”—which, he added, “is really the point: The big change since 9/11 is how we work together.”

Strengthening the FBI

Fernandez’s New York operation is on three floors of an old office building overlooking the Meatpacking District in Lower Manhattan. The task force—whose major wins include the 2009 disruption of a bomb plot by a homegrown terrorist who had driven to Queens from Denver—now numbers some 400 federal, state, and local agents and investigators from the FBI, the NYPD, and all the metropolitan area’s other law-enforcement agencies. That’s a dramatic upgrade from when the unit was formed in 1980 with 10 FBI agents and 10 city detectives in response to threats from Croatian extremists and the Jewish Defense League. “Those were the good old days,” says Fernandez, whose work as an agent on the task force in the months after 9/11 had him spending much of his time overseas chasing leads.

Divided into 17 squads, the office has jurisdiction not only over New York, but also over cases emanating out of Canada, western Europe, and Africa.

One squad chases down any and all tips from the public and refers those that seem credible to more-specialized units. Others hunt terrorists on the internet. Separate squads track ISIL and al-Qaeda. Has Fernandez’s al-Qaeda team lost focus in the wake of ISIL’s rise to prominence? “That’s why we keep separate squads,” Fernandez says, “so that they don’t.”

A weapons-of-mass-destruction unit looks for intelligence about dirty bombs and bioweapons, keeping tabs on, as Fernandez puts it, “the potential players in bio or nuclear who, if we got a tip, we would look at first.”

“The threat information bubbles up from the units,” Carl Ghattas, the head of the FBI’s counterterrorism division at headquarters in Washington, told me. “It’s a triage process. You look at the patients in the emergency room and decide what needs your immediate attention or what needs some kind of longer-term initiative.” That raises the question of whether—as with DHS paying inadequate attention to bioterror vulnerabilities and, as we will see later, other federal agencies not doing enough to secure potential dirty-bomb material—the FBI’s triage process is allowing lower-profile, higher-impact threats to fester.

“You have to worry about all the marginal, stupid people that ISIL may motivate here,” James Comey, the FBI director, told me. “But there are still smart people waking up every day over there trying to kill us. We know ISIL is trying to develop chemical weapons. And you have to worry about that, too. Balancing those threats is a challenge today.”

Comey was a chief federal prosecutor in New York and then the deputy attorney general under George W. Bush until he left for the private sector in 2005. He recalled that when he returned to government to run the bureau eight years later, “I felt like Rip Van Winkle.” His predecessor as FBI director, Robert Mueller, “had totally transformed the place.” The agency now has something like 3,000 intelligence analysts. “The way we use local police is probably the biggest single change. All in all, I think we really are a well-oiled anti-terror machine.”

However, Comey acknowledged that even in the brief time since he took over the bureau in 2013, the rise of lone wolves has changed the nature of the intelligence his agents have to try to collect. Detecting the plans of a lone wolf or a small group can’t be done by monitoring a known foreign terror cell. The bureau has tools to sift through social media to try to connect the dots—but the volume of the traffic and possible connections between all those dots make this a hit-or-miss proposition where only hindsight provides clarity. As of this writing, it’s unclear whether Omar Mateen, who massacred 49 people in Orlando, was in contact with anyone about his plans. True, certain clues suggested that Mateen might be a threat—but they were no clearer than the hints about the thousands of people like him who hit the FBI’s now-vigilant radar screens every week. No amount of resources, let alone compromises in constitutional rights, would make it possible for the bureau to detain or even surveil all these people.

“It’s hard,” said Comey, who spoke with me a few weeks before the Orlando massacre. “But I’m not ready to give up. We have to keep trying.”

The FBI had interrogated Mateen twice in the past, but never had cause to arrest him, or to keep him under constant surveillance. “We are looking for needles in a nationwide haystack,” Comey said at a press conference the day after the Orlando massacre. “But we’re also called upon to figure out which pieces of hay might someday become needles.”

In the aftermath of attacks like those in Orlando and San Bernardino, some critics charge that Comey and his people were not aggressive enough in monitoring or arresting the perpetrators of those attacks before they occurred. Others argue that the FBI has overstepped constitutional boundaries in its drive to find out what people might be planning, often by entrapping suspected terrorists into actually creating attack plans they might otherwise never have thought of.

“Since 9/11 the FBI has organized more jihadist terror plots in the United States than any other organization,” Peter Bergen, a longtime terrorism analyst, wrote in United States of Jihad: Investigating America’s Homegrown Terrorists, published early this year. Bergen cites several cases in which defendants have argued that while they might have expressed hostile thoughts to someone who ended up informing on them, the FBI stepped in and, through informants or undercover agents, created an attack plan for them, encouraged them to try to carry it out—and then arrested them when they proceeded with the attempted attack. In June, a New York Times report calculated that two-thirds of the bureau’s recent prosecutions of suspected ISIL supporters have involved undercover agents or informants engaged in aggressive sting operations.

“Think about it from our perspective,” Comey said when I asked about this. “Suppose someone is overheard in a restaurant saying that he wants to blow something up. And someone tells us about it. What should we do? Don’t we need to find out if he was serious? Or was he drunk? The way to do that is to have someone engage him in an undercover way, not show up with a badge and say, ‘What are your thoughts in regard to terrorism?’ ”

“Plenty of times it’s a wing nut or some drunk, and we drop it,” he continued. In fact, an informant was assigned to sound out Mateen two years before the Orlando attack, after co-workers reported that he had allegedly made inflammatory comments about terrorists. But Mateen did not seem to be a threat.

“People have had plenty of opportunities to try that [entrapment] defense, and it hasn’t worked,” Comey added. The FBI has charged approximately 90 individuals with plotting a terrorist attack since 2013. So far, no entrapment defense has been successful.

Reaching the Kid in His Basement

Because finding such homegrown cases is difficult (not everyone blabs online, let alone in a restaurant, about their bad intentions), a new homeland-security acronym has come into vogue: CVE, or “countering violent extremism.” CVE is a program that aims to reach people who are so alienated or unstable that they may be susceptible to ISIL’s appeals.

Last September, President Obama authorized the creation of the $50 million CVE program, to be run by a new Office for Community Partnerships at DHS. A big part of the effort has been making DHS’s “If you see something, say something” campaign more effective. Beginning as a billboard tagline created by the New York City transit system’s ad agency, the program has become an effective message enlisting the public to alert authorities if they notice something or someone that seems suspicious, such as a suitcase left unattended on a train. George Selim, the director of the Office for Community Partnerships, works with a staff of about 30—as well as with Jeh Johnson personally—to encourage leaders in Muslim communities to look for signs of trouble more subtle and further upstream than abandoned luggage, such as teenagers in schools or at mosques who appear disaffected.

“All the data from Boston to Garland to San Bernardino indicate that someone around them knew something but didn’t want to or know how to report it,” Selim, a former Justice Department community-relations liaison, told me.

Johnson, who has thrown himself into the CVE effort, says that when he goes into Muslim communities, he tells people that he understands profiling. His grandfather, he explains, was called to testify before the House Un-American Activities Committee, because “in 1949 any black man with a Ph.D. was suspected of being a Communist.” He says he tells Muslim community leaders that he “will be your public champion, but that I have an ask, too, which is ‘Help us help you with homeland security. It’s your homeland too.’ ”

Another aspect of Selim’s work involves reaching out directly to that kid “sitting in the glow of their laptop in their parents’ basement.”

His office has been giving grants and running contests at colleges and universities that form student teams to compete for prizes in internet and social-media messaging aimed at countering ISIL’s online recruiting. “We recognize that government is not a credible messenger for that demographic,” Selim explains. “So we have recruited peer-to-peer messengers.” With the State Department—and Facebook (“to add to the cool factor,” Selim says)—as co-sponsors, he contracted with a private consulting firm that has now persuaded 101 colleges and universities around the world to establish courses, backed by a $2,000 U.S.-government stipend per school, offering academic credit to students who create these peer-to-peer anti-jihad social-media campaigns.

Cyberterror

The other hot new threat is cyberterrorism.

Because 87 percent of the country’s critical infrastructure is owned by the private sector—power plants, financial institutions, water companies—much of the Department of Homeland Security’s lower-profile work involves sharing information and convening forums and sponsoring drills aimed at helping industries help themselves.

Meantime, the government’s efforts to protect its own digital infrastructure have provided steady fodder for cynics. To take the latest examples, neither a data-hosting service at the Department of the Interior—whose technology setup was declared by federal officials to be a “Center of Excellence”—nor the Office of Personnel Management detected the hacking in 2014 and 2015 of 25 million records kept by the OPM. A $1 billion cybersecurity program designed by DHS, called “Einstein,” was, according to the GAO, so ineffective that it missed the hacking of the OPM records. In fact, most government agencies initially defied a presidential directive and refused to even install the much-derided Einstein.

It’s a bad sign when a program called Einstein turns into a clown show, and it’s tempting to make that a metaphor for the government’s cybersecurity efforts more generally. However, since taking over DHS’s cybersecurity and communications unit three years ago, Phyllis Schneck, a highly regarded cybersecurity engineer who came from the private sector, seems to have put the agency on a better track. She has worked to professionalize the National Cybersecurity and Communications Integration Center, which, although it has produced yet another mind-numbing acronym (NCCIC), has the potential to be effective, according to one Silicon Valley star programmer who has advised the Obama White House on cyberissues. “With counterterrorism, I have an expectation, and it’s met every day, that I will get a full report on threats across the spectrum, because we put in place structures … to ensure information-sharing across the intelligence community, as well as with state and local law enforcement,” says Lisa Monaco, President Obama’s White House homeland-security and counterterrorism adviser. “With cyber, we’re not there yet, but we’re getting there.”

Hidden on four floors in a nondescript office building in Virginia (it’s not listed in the lobby directory), Schneck’s operation includes a heavily guarded floor with space for 150 cyberdetectives, many recruited from the private sector.

Some sit at screens looking for trouble as they monitor the innards of dozens of federal agencies (except the Defense Department, which has its own cybersecurity apparatus). For example, a dramatic upsurge in traffic at the IRS during tax time, in mid-April, would mean nothing, but the same spike on Commerce Department servers could spell trouble.

Others monitor web traffic around the world, looking for similar regional or countrywide anomalies that could indicate attempted sabotage.

“These savages have so far only figured out how to use the internet to proselytize … What happens when they figure out how to use it to break into a chemical plant, or a blood bank?,” James Comey says.

Schneck, whose father was a computer scientist at the National Security Agency, describes one approach she is applying as “biological.” The Continuous Diagnostics and Mitigation program, for which $275 million has been budgeted for the coming fiscal year, will reject a virus that makes it onto a government network “in real time, even if we don’t know what it is,” Schneck says.

Using data-analytics tools from the private sector, she is also augmenting Einstein (which has been allocated $460 million in this year’s budget and $471 million for next year) with software that will prevent such intrusions in the first place by implementing what she calls “a cyber no-fly list.” There are now ways of using data, she explains, to target the address of a machine that has been the source of other hacks, and to keep it from accessing the emails or websites of the agencies she is protecting.

I asked Schneck whether cyberattacks on the government would be impossible or nearly impossible anytime soon. “Of course not,” she said. “But we are going to try to stay ahead of them most of the time, and if they do get in, we’ll have ways to mitigate, fast. This is not yesterday’s government.”

Schneck’s command center also acts as a real-time clearinghouse for threat information from cybersecurity chiefs in the private sector. The voluntary information-sharing process has been made easier by recent legislation that shields private companies from liability for sharing the information.

For his part, the FBI’s Comey worries more about a cyberterror onslaught directed at the private sector than one directed at the government. “These savages,” he says, “have so far only figured out how to use the internet to proselytize, not to wreak physical damage. What happens when they figure out how to use it to break into a chemical plant, or a blood bank and change the blood types? We know they are trying. And they don’t have to come here to do it.”

Last fall Ted Koppel, the former ABC News correspondent and Nightline anchor, published Lights Out, a short, alarming book that makes the case that the United States is unprepared for a cyberattack on its electric grid. Tens of millions of Americans could be left without power for weeks or even months—and, therefore, also without access to water, ATMs, the towers that transmit their cellphone messages, and other lifelines. Koppel argues that neither the power companies nor the government has sufficient protective measures or backup plans to avert or recover from this kind of disaster.

Because much has improved in the two years since Koppel began his research, the odds of us facing a sustained power outage are lower than Koppel calculates.

To be sure, the power industry has successfully resisted regulations requiring safeguards and backup plans that could render Koppel’s book almost moot. However, with prodding and assistance from DHS’s infrastructure-protection office (and obviously wanting to ward off regulation), the industry seems to have taken measures to head off catastrophe. Koppel writes that a smartly directed cyberattack could disable enough giant transformers to cause huge swaths of the country to lose power—and that it would take months to procure and ship replacements to get the grid back online. But according to Gerry Cauley, the president of the North American Electric Reliability Corporation, an industry trade group, there are now reserves of these transformers placed strategically across the country. Moreover, Cauley told me, cyber-repair teams are prepared to spring into action much the way that power-line repair teams from across the country did in response to Hurricane Sandy.

These and other arrangements have been coordinated through DHS’s energy-infrastructure-sector team, one of 16 such units covering sectors from information technology to financial services to commercial facilities, such as shopping malls and sports arenas.

The energy-infrastructure team helps organize a biennial attack exercise, during which energy-company executives, along with relevant law-enforcement and other officials, convene for two days to simulate how they would work together in the event of an attack. The most recent exercise, held in November, “stressed us to the point of failure, with multiple cyber- and kinetic attacks across the country,” says Thomas Fanning, the chief executive of Southern Company, the giant Atlanta-based utility. In all, more than 4,000 people participated in the exercise. Along with executives and officials in Washington, local law-enforcement and power-company personnel across the country helped defend and recover from simulated cyberattacks, bomb blasts, and gunfire at multiple facilities.

Fanning, an industry leader in cybersecurity, has been a consistent campaign contributor to conservative Republican candidates over the years, which makes this comment notable: “When it comes to these issues, the capability of these government officials in this administration is terrific.”

Part V: The Gaps That Remain

One way to measure how far both DHS and the private sector have come since 9/11 against how far they still need to go is to imagine the inevitable report citing our next failure of imagination, much the way that the bipartisan panel organized by Scooter Libby last year reminded us of the threat of a catastrophic bio attack. It’s a parlor game that’s easy to play; we can never be completely safe from people who are willing to commit suicide to hurt us. Yet it’s worth playing not only because some vulnerabilities are far more serious and likely to be exploited than others, but because the two most-talked-about threats of the moment—lone wolves and cyberterrorism—so dominate headlines that they may have unduly diverted our focus from bigger dangers. As Tom Ridge told me, “Democracies tend to be reactive, not prescriptive, and that’s a homeland-security problem that will be with us forever.”

Exploiting some of our vulnerabilities requires more expertise and planning than a one-off shooting spree in a mall. However, the small groups necessary to take advantage of them could easily be trained in countries where ISIL, or new groups we haven’t heard of yet, hold territory. And, of course, they could be homegrown.

Many such threats remain, including the bioterror attack that the Libby panel warned of last year. The potential for sabotaging a freight train carrying oil or toxic chemicals, which could kill thousands, would also be on my list.

But my reporting leads me to conclude that the most ominous terrorist threat—based on the relative ease of pulling off such an attack, the possible damage it could do, and, most of all, the danger of overreaction to it—is the dirty bomb.

The Bomb That Lasts for Decades

In March 2002, Joe Biden, who was then the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, held a hearing in which the president of the Federation of American Scientists used a study recently completed by his organization to describe a doomsday scenario unfolding a few blocks from Capitol Hill.

Biden had convened the committee to hear testimony about the threat of dirty bombs—a conventional explosive mixed with commonly available radiological material, such as that used in hospitals and industrial facilities. Henry Kelly, then the president of the federation, which was formed by scientists in 1945 to study ways to prevent nuclear catastrophes, described for the committee what would happen if a small conventional bomb mixed with a small amount of cesium-137—which can be found in everything from nuclear reactors to radiation therapy for cancer patients—were set off at the National Gallery of Art. The explosion might kill only a few people, but it would create an area with contamination levels as dangerous as a “Superfund” site—a venue designated as having high levels of toxic waste that demand immediate government intervention and often evacuation. The contaminated area would cover 40 city blocks that include the Supreme Court, the Library of Congress, and the Capitol. Those buildings could have to “be abandoned for decades,” Kelly warned.

According to Kelly, an extra one in 10,000 people would die of cancer if people were not evacuated and if the area were not completely scrubbed. The decontamination process could take years and cost billions, because radioactive material adheres stubbornly to cement, which means that many roads, sidewalks, and buildings would have to be replaced.

However, that prospective death toll is worse than it sounds. Indeed, as the hearing proceeded, it became clear that dirty bombs present less a safety challenge than a perception challenge. In a city of 500,000, the contamination level Kelly cited would mean an extra 50 cancer deaths over a period of years—an incremental casualty rate that could probably be offset by an antismoking campaign in one or two D.C. office buildings.

Even concentrations of radiation higher than what Kelly posited would still not endanger masses of people. But because of popular perception, an explosion would unleash panic—which is why many experts are surprised that a dirty-bomb attack has not happened.

The ingredients are readily available. According to a recent white paper from the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI)—the nonprofit dedicated to fighting proliferation founded by Ted Turner and Sam Nunn, the former Democratic senator from Georgia—“the ingredients for a radioactive dirty bomb are in tens of thousands of radiological sources located in more than 100 countries around the world.” The report cited a database that had documented 325 instances of nuclear or radiological material having been publicly reported lost or stolen in 2013 and 2014 alone. And those are just the publicly reported losses and thefts.

The release of the NTI’s white paper was timed to coincide with the Nuclear Security Summit hosted by President Obama in March. This was the last of a series of meetings of world leaders that Obama had initiated in 2010 to address nuclear proliferation. Lately, the threat of dirty bombs—whose radiological material isn’t potent enough to make actual nuclear weapons—has become a significant part of the nuclear-security agenda. Twenty-three of the summit’s 52 countries, including the United States, have made commitments, according to the NTI, “to secure their most dangerous radiological sources.”

That’s significant progress, and it has been accompanied by clandestine efforts around the world by U.S. and allied counterterror agents who, I learned in reporting this story, have blocked multiple attempts by would-be terrorists to obtain radiological material and, in some cases, nuclear material. But if only 23 countries have committed to securing their radioactive material, that leaves most of the world uncommitted to securing widely dispersed ingredients for dirty bombs.

Last October, DHS officials testified before a House transportation subcommittee on whether someone from one of those countries could ship such material through an American port. They tried to put the best gloss on a scary reality. Todd Owen, a Customs official, said that all 11 million containers arriving at U.S. seaports are “analyzed” and “screened.” What he meant was that all containers are subject to a data-based threat matrix. Scanning every container—which is what that Customs supervisor at the New Jersey port wanted to do on the afternoon of September 11—at least with X-rays, if not by hand-searching them, was mandated by Congress in 2007. But it has never been done for every container—and arguably can’t be done, given the delays in international commerce such a process would precipitate. Only about 3 percent of containers (those that register high on the threat matrix) are now X-rayed.

One hundred percent do pass through some kind of radiation monitor, Owen said—but those monitors cannot detect radiological material wrapped in lead or other protective covering. This is why the thousands of small radiation monitors that police in cities like New York now carry may be an important tool for detecting unshielded illicit material, but are unlikely to detect a dirty bomb, because the low levels of radiation necessary for such a device are not difficult to shield. The shielding material could likely be detected in an X-ray—but, as noted, only about 3 percent of containers are X‑rayed.

Moreover, hundreds of thousands of a different kind of potential container—cars coming into American ports from factories abroad—are never X-rayed at all or subject to any kind of actual threat-matrix analysis.

I asked John P. Wagner, a deputy assistant Customs commissioner, why a terrorist couldn’t simply put shielded dirty-bomb material in the trunk of a BMW. Wagner explained that car exporters are in his agency’s “trusted shipper” program, meaning that “we inspect those factories regularly to make sure they have adequate security plans in place.” When I followed up and asked for details about the last time Customs had inspected an auto factory, Wagner’s office said there was no record of any such inspection.

So it doesn’t require a wild leap to imagine someone with terrorist sympathies planting shielded radioactive material in a car or a cargo container that then makes its way through one of our ports. But it’s even easier to imagine a dirty bomb being constructed from material that doesn’t have to be snuck through the ports—because, despite significant work done by the Obama administration, large quantities of radioactive material already sit unguarded in the U.S.

According to the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), approximately 1,400 industrial facilities in the United States house high-risk radiological sources. The material is used for everything from testing the ground for oil drilling to irradiating food in order to kill germs. In addition, some 1,500 hospitals and other medical facilities use high-risk radiological material.

Responsibility for guarding this material is split between the NNSA, a unit of the Energy Department, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).** According to multiple GAO reports, efforts to secure radioactive material have been hamstrung by turf battles between the two agencies. The NRC regulates all entities that use radiological material and imposes security requirements on them. But those requirements have been consistently criticized by independent security experts—and by the government’s own experts at the NNSA—as dangerously lax.

“We choose not to be prescriptive in our regulations,” says the head of the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards. “We take a more general approach, offering guidelines.”

The NNSA is responsible for maintaining the safety of the American nuclear arsenal and also for providing expertise related to counterproliferation. In that context, it conducts security surveys and encourages facilities to enforce standards that are much tighter than those required by the NRC. But the NNSA itself can impose no security requirements.

If a dirty bomb goes off in Washington or on Wall Street, the question of why the standards that one federal agency (the NNSA) believes are necessary are higher than those of the federal agency (the NRC) that can actually regulate toxic material will no doubt be the subject of another blue-ribbon commission.

What this new commission will find is that once the adrenaline flowing from the September 11 attacks receded, the industries licensed by the NRC began to push back against those sounding the terror alarm.

“The NRC is basically a captive of the industry,” says Andrew Bieniawski, a veteran proliferation expert who is the vice president for material security and minimization at the Nuclear Threat Initiative. “They get 90 percent of their funding from licensing fees from the industry, and they’re always saying they’re worried that tougher requirements would put licensees out of business.”

“Just a Matter of Time”

The NNSA has persuaded 796 of the 1,503 hospitals that use radiological material to implement security upgrades that extend well beyond the NRC’s vague requirements. That is a major improvement; in 2012, the GAO noted that only 321 hospitals had made these upgrades. Other hospitals and medical facilities have been persuaded to make the transition from high-risk material to newer, safer substitutes. But that still leaves hundreds of medical facilities with threadbare security, many in highly populated urban areas.

It is astonishing that so many hospitals have refused to spend what Bieniawski says is the $300,000 to $400,000 necessary per site to increase security, and the $250,000 necessary to replace a cesium-chloride blood irradiator with an equivalent FDA-approved nonradiological device, especially because the hospitals that use this material for advanced treatments are typically large enterprises with tens of millions of dollars in annual operating profit.

“It’s just a matter of time until someone puts two and two together and sees that you don’t have to go to Syria or Iran for this material, that you can get it in New York,” Bieniawski says.

Nonmedical industrial users remain an even bigger threat. In 2014, the GAO issued a report that will be another proverbial smoking gun if something catastrophic happens. Independent auditors roundly criticized the NRC’s regulations as weak and inconsistently enforced. Some trucks carrying radiological devices used by oil-drilling companies, for example, were found to have cheap padlocks to secure the equipment. Background checks of drivers and warehouse employees were not standardized. GPS devices for the trucks, which could track them down if they were stolen, were not required. Storerooms containing material that could be used to turn Disney World into a ghost town had no entry alarms and were protected by simple padlocks—if they were locked at all. Even when storerooms and trucks did have alarms, many were found to be inoperable or shut off. After a truck went missing in Washington State, the governor’s request to get the NRC to require GPS devices was rejected.

“We choose not to be prescriptive in our regulations,” Scott Moore, the acting director of the NRC’s Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, told me when I asked about the GPS requirement. “We take a more general approach, offering guidelines,” which he believes “are adequate to assure public health and safety.” As for the apparent disconnect between the security measures the NNSA believes are necessary and the NRC’s requirements, Moore said, the “NRC’s approach provides adequate security; NNSA’s suggestions are for additional security.”

Part VI: The End of “Never Again”

The TSA spends about 98 percent of its budget on one transportation sector, aviation. Why does it make sense to screen airplane passengers and not the millions more people getting on trains and subways every day? And why place all those resources at our big freight ports when a pleasure boat carrying a dirty bomb can arrive in Florida from the Bahamas with no inspection? What about the ferries that each haul thousands of people through the waters off New York City and Seattle? A well-placed explosive could kill many more people on a train or boat than on a jetliner.

In May, the inspector general of DHS sharply criticized the TSA for failing to implement legislation passed in 2007 requiring a variety of security measures for Amtrak, including checking to see if railroad employees were on terrorist watch lists. In response, the TSA promised that it had “assigned the highest of priorities” to implementing the nine-year-old law. However, the reality is that although we have stepped up police monitoring of trains (and ferries), we can’t treat trains like planes.

Why not? The math doesn’t allow it. The New York City subway system has about as many entrances as there are checkpoints at all the airports in the country. To secure the subways in New York, we would have to create a whole other TSA. Beyond the $7-billion-a-year tab that would come with a New York TSA, the new security process would probably double travel times. (Imagine: shoes off before boarding the subway.) It’s such a ridiculous notion that even typing this paragraph is embarrassing.

The security measures that do make sense are those that local and federal officials implemented after 9/11 to make the subway tunnels more secure, helping to ensure that a potentially catastrophic September 11–level massacre following a huge explosion and subsequent flood is more likely to be limited to a routine semi-mass casualty.

Routine?

I use the word deliberately.

The morning after 9/11, President Bush famously directed then–Attorney General John Ashcroft to make sure “this can’t happen again.” It was an understandable sentiment. But it was a fantasy then—and it is even more of a fantasy now, despite everything we’ve done.

The reality we face 15 years after the September 11 attacks is that for all the people and money we have thrown at the cause of “never again”—much of it heroically and wisely, and much that in hindsight looks desperate, stupid, or corrupt—the threat of terror hasn’t been eliminated. In fact, despite our best efforts, terror is destined to become, yes, routine—a three- or four-times-a-year headline event, perhaps almost as routine in this country as people with mental-health problems buying a semiautomatic and going hunting at a school or movie theater. But if, as seems to be the case, Americans have come to accept mass killings carried out by those who are mentally unstable as horrifying but not apocalyptic, why do they perceive an attack linked—even if just rhetorically by the perpetrator—to Islamist terrorism differently?

President Obama described the difference to me this way: “If the perpetrator is a young white male, for instance—as in Tucson, Aurora, and Newtown—it’s widely seen as yet another tragic example of an angry or disturbed person who decided to lash out against his classmates, co-workers, or community. And even as the nation is shaken and mourns, these kinds of shootings don’t typically generate widespread fear. I’d point out that when the shooter or victims are African American, it is often dismissed with a shrug of indifference—as if such violence is somehow endemic to certain communities. In contrast, when the perpetrators are Muslim and seem influenced by terrorist ideologies—as at Fort Hood, the Boston Marathon bombing, San Bernardino, and Orlando—the outrage and fear is much more palpable. And yet, the fact is that Americans are far more likely to be injured or killed by gun violence than a terrorist attack.”

The FBI’s Comey agrees. “That the shooter in San Bernardino said he was doing it in the name of ISIL changed everything,” he told me. “It generates anxiety that another shooting incident, where the shooter isn’t a terrorist, doesn’t. That may be irrational, but it’s real.”

In that instance, the sheer ordinariness of the venue—a meeting room at a family-services center—exacerbated the anxiety. “For me, San Bernardino was the game changer,” Ray Kelly, the former New York City police commissioner, told me. “It put the whole country in the target zone.”

“Engineering Security,” the manual that Kelly’s department published in 2009, urged building owners to consider the status of their venue in assessing how much protection it needed. Iconic structures or those housing high-profile businesses should be the most fortified, as should those where an attack could cause inordinate damage.

That ranking system still makes sense, “but the kind of place attacked in San Bernardino means that everything is a target,” Kelly explained. “The FBI and the NYPD can do a great job finding and rolling up some people who are even thinking about doing something bad, but they can’t find everyone, and they can’t be everywhere. Imagine if just a few of these people got together and shot up a few malls the same day around the country. Then no one would feel safe.”

Yes, we can take steps to harden those softer targets a bit. We can improve surveillance technology and add guards. We can keep doing our best to identify those among us who are susceptible to online jihadist recruitment pitches, by persuading neighbors and family members who “see something” to “say something.” We can keep improving how we connect the intelligence dots around the world.

But there is a limit. We can’t turn every Macy’s or high-school basketball game into a TSA operation.

And even if we did, those terrorists who don’t care about dying—for whom there is no such thing as deterrence—will still shoot people on the street.

Or bomb them. Or use a truck to mow them down.

We have to accept that that is going to happen.

A favorite September 12 mantra in the anti-terror community is: “The terrorists have to be right only once—but we have to be right 100 percent of the time.”

We can’t be right 100 percent of the time. The FBI and the Joint Terrorism Task Forces have stopped between three and five dozen plots since 9/11, depending on one’s definition of a plot. Comey’s “well-oiled anti-terror machine” has indeed improved our defenses. And the TSA, Customs, the air marshals, and other DHS units have undoubtedly deterred attacks. But we can’t catch everything.

Layers

That’s why those in the anti-terrorism business focus on another post-9/11 buzz phrase: layers of security.

When it comes to flying, that means first checking prospective passengers’ watch-list status. Then, when passengers arrive at the airport, undercover security agents look for suspicious people in the departure lobby. That’s a layer now being fortified following the Brussels and Istanbul airport bombings, although it is difficult to see why airport lobbies should get more security attention than other similarly crowded venues.

The third layer is at the security checkpoint, where passengers are screened for valid identity credentials and to make sure they are not carrying anything dangerous. Fourth, an air marshal might be on board the plane to interrupt a possible attack. The fortified cockpit door offers a final security layer. The fact that we have all these layers is our tacit admission that no single layer of defense is perfect—but the odds of getting through all of them, while not zero, are pretty steep.

Think of the process as a funnel, in which we start with a large population and whittle it down, layer by layer, to those allowed to board a plane. 
“Sometimes I think that the lid has come off the world,” Comey told me. “People are unsettled, unmoored. I worry that as we squeeze ISIL in Syria—and we are—their troops will go to Libya or Europe,” he continued. “There will be a terrorist diaspora. Trained fighters will go there and then be more easily able to come here, or if they can’t get here directly they’ll get to Canada and try to drive over the northern border.”

That so many could pour into the top of the funnel—including those recruited online, at home in America, without having to cross any border—is as important in calculating our odds of avoiding an attack as assessing the remaining gaps in even our most porous layers.

The New Reality

Those who have enlisted since 9/11 to maintain those security layers—the infrastructure-security coaches at DHS advising and cajoling stadiums, utilities, water plants, and other private-sector venues; the TSA airport screeners; the cyberdetectives; the FBI dot-connectors—have no control over how many would-be killers pour into the top of that funnel. And they get little attention from the rest of us until something goes wrong. We go about our lives oblivious to the threats that are their obsession—until the next catastrophe produces headlines. Meantime, we often dismiss their work that is visible to us, such as at the airports, as excessive. Yet we remain so ready to be retroactively indignant if something goes wrong that political leaders, encouraged by a Beltway culture that tries to keep the spigot always turned on, are afraid to make any choices other than to declare everything a priority.

Sooner or later we have to realize that “never again” is a fantasy, and that it is not an excuse to make everything a priority. A democracy must make rational decisions, even when that’s not easy, and especially when security is involved.

Can the tens of billions for FirstNet or for “homeland security” grants for toys like that monster fire truck in rural Virginia be justified as smarter investments than replacing the lead pipes in a significant portion of the nation’s water systems? Wouldn’t the $800 million a year for air marshals be better spent on more TSA staffing to cut wait times? Can’t we have tougher procurement contracts, so that Boeing and Lockheed Martin would have to give the money back when their products don’t work, so the country could direct those billions to hiring more FBI agents or perhaps to expanding early-childhood education?

Conversely, does it make sense that Congress has decided that giving everyone, including deranged people and terrorists, free rein to buy assault weapons at gun shows is the one situation where “never again” is not the highest priority?

Getting past “never again” doesn’t just mean making tough choices about priorities; it also means preparing for the inevitable.

In theory, a realistic approach should be uncontroversial. For example, conceding the usefulness of drills because some attacks will inevitably succeed is not an admission that we don’t care about prevention, any more than having ambulances on call is a sign that we don’t care about preventing traffic accidents or violent crime.

But when it comes to terrorism, the balance between prevention and accepting the reality that prevention will not always work is trickier.

President Obama is the first post-9/11 president, and he and his administration have made significant, if often muted, progress in adding two dimensions to the homeland-security mission beyond the first goal of prevention: mitigation (lessening damage from a successful attack) and recovery.

In his 2015 report on DHS, Senator Coburn demonstrated how officials who make mitigation and recovery a priority can be political targets. He acknowledged that the terrorism drill conducted in Boston before the marathon bombing might have played a “constructive” role, but he criticized a DHS report about the drill because it suggested that the Obama administration was more focused on “preparing state and local first responders for the emergency and swift response” than on “what additional roles DHS could play in preventing future terrorist attacks.” That “raises questions,” Coburn concluded, about whether “terrorism prevention truly is the Department’s first mission and whether that mission has been transformed into preparing to recover from terrorist attacks.”

I asked President Obama about Coburn’s critique. “Part of keeping the American people safe is making sure we’re ready for all contingencies,” he told me. “So it’s not ‘either/or’—preventing attacks or being able to respond to and recover from attacks. We have to do both. In fact, to focus solely on prevention while ignoring response and recovery—or vice versa—would be irresponsible.”

“After all,” President Obama continued, “from Boston to San Bernardino to Orlando, we’ve seen how important it is for communities and first responders to be ready if and when tragedy strikes. That’s a critical part of preventing attacks from causing even greater loss of life. It’s a key part of our resilience. It’s one of the ways we can show terrorists that they will not succeed—that Americans get back up and we carry on, no matter what.”

Mitigation and recovery need to be about more than repairing physical damage. After all, terrorism’s first goal is inflicting psychic damage—scaring us into changing our way of life and even turning against one another.

President Bush’s strategy was simply to tell us not to worry—that we should fearlessly keep on shopping. As a short-term measure, it was a sensible effort to calm a shocked nation. But the longer term requires a more nuanced, and politically perilous, message, because there is no such thing as “never again.” Attacks will happen, and, as San Bernardino and Orlando portend, they will happen in random venues—where part of what’s so frightening is the randomness, suggesting that anyone, anywhere, anytime could be vulnerable.

In the April issue of this magazine, Jeffrey Goldberg reported that President Obama “frequently reminds his staff that terrorism takes far fewer lives in America than handguns, car accidents, and falls in bathtubs do.” Goldberg also wrote that the president had frequently expressed to him “his admiration for Israelis’ ‘resilience’ in the face of constant terrorism, and it is clear that he would like to see resilience replace panic in American society.”

When The Atlantic published this account, Obama was immediately attacked by Republicans in Congress and on the presidential campaign trail for not taking terrorism seriously and for admitting defeat.

“President Obama’s job is to keep us safe,” Tom Cotton, a Republican senator from Arkansas, said on Morning Joe. “It’s not to minimize the fear Americans justly fear about terrorism … President Obama goes around telling people that more Americans die in bathtub falls than are killed by terrorists. It’s that mentality that we have to change and get on offense against the Islamic State if we don’t want to see a Brussels-style attack here.”

One of Obama’s senior security advisers countered in a conversation with me: “If we overreact to these relatively small attacks, it creates more incentive for someone else to try one, but that’s what the media does and what most politicians do.

“What if those militiamen who took over that park in Oregon had been Muslims? We’d have had wall-to-wall coverage,” the adviser added. “The president sees trying to get Americans to take a more nuanced view of terror as part of his job.”

Dirty Bombs

Obama’s ambition to give Americans a realistic understanding of terror threats is certainly more advanced than his predecessor’s “never again” posture. But when it comes to the weapon in the terrorist arsenal that is most about perception versus reality—the dirty bomb—he has recognized the problem yet fallen short of the challenge.

Beyond forcing his Nuclear Regulatory Commission to promulgate security regulations at least as strict as the measures his National Nuclear Security Administration is stuck trying to persuade custodians of radiological material to adopt, the president ought to launch an education campaign about dirty bombs from his own bully pulpit. Removing the public’s untoward fear of the bomb can defuse its power to terrorize.

The Bush administration’s sole contribution to public understanding of dirty bombs went in the opposite direction. In 2002, when John Ashcroft announced the detention, with no hearing or charges brought, of José Padilla, an American citizen, for allegedly being part of “an unfolding terrorist plot” to detonate a dirty bomb (an allegation later dropped for lack of evidence), he sought to justify depriving Padilla of due-process rights by warning that a dirty bomb could cause “mass death and injury.” Tom Ridge, as well as two senior members of Bush’s White House staff, told me at the time that they were appalled by Ashcroft’s hyping of the danger, though they did nothing publicly to correct his message.

President Obama and his administration obviously understand the perception problem. In 2013, the Environmental Protection Agency, in a move coordinated by the National Security Council, softened its Protective Action Guides related to radiation incidents. These are the radiation metrics, originally published by the EPA in 1992, that first responders would use to determine what area, if any, had to be evacuated in the event of a radiological-contamination event. With the change in these guidelines, the bomb hypothesized in the 2002 Senate testimony of the Federation of American Scientists president—which would have forced the abandonment of a 40-block area around Capitol Hill—might now dictate the clearing of a smaller area or no area at all, depending on the type of bomb.

The guideline revisions, which were published in the Federal Register, cited advances in understanding the science of radiation and also a new focus on a “broader range of radiological emergencies, including terrorist acts.”

What that means, according to a senior White House security official, is that the Obama administration decided that the original guidelines for handling the aftermath of a dirty bomb’s detonation were unreasonably extreme—that evacuating downtown Washington to avert the possibility of 50 cancer deaths would be an absurd overreaction.

All of which makes sense—except that the Obama administration squandered an opportunity by flinching when it came to announcing the change. There was no press release. No public explanation at all. Just changes described mostly with physics jargon and numbers dropped into the Federal Register. As a result, what could have been an ambitious, gutsy exercise in public education—a “teachable moment”—now risks being discredited as an anticipatory cover-up if a dirty-bomb attack occurs. Breathless press reports will “reveal” that the guidelines were changed sub rosa, and that—based on the guidelines in place before President Obama’s staff quietly tinkered with them—much of Washington is being asked to live and work atop land as dangerous as a Superfund site. In the aftermath of a dirty-bomb explosion, explaining the guideline changes in a way that calms anyone would likely be impossible.

The president has failed to finish the job of securing radiological material in hospitals and other facilities—and taken only tentative steps toward leveling with the public.

Following Donald Trump’s criticism of President Obama and Hillary Clinton in the wake of the Orlando massacre for not being “tough,” political commentators called the attack a “June surprise” that could affect the presidential election. Imagine the eruption from the Trump campaign that could come from an administration attempt to explain the loosened guidelines the day after an ISIL-inspired group used a dirty bomb as the ultimate October surprise aimed at disrupting the coming election.

“People inside and outside the government who worked on these guidelines went back and forth over whether to announce it or bury it, and they decided to bury it,” says Charles Ferguson, who, as the president of the Federation of American Scientists, now occupies the post previously held by Henry Kelly, who laid out the Washington evacuation scenario during the 2002 Biden Senate hearing. “On the merits, they did everything right—but then they went into duck-and-cover mode.”

When I asked President Obama why his administration didn’t announce the change in guidelines and use it as an opportunity to begin a public discussion about dirty bombs, he referred me to Laura Holgate, a senior National Security Council official. Holgate provided a statement saying that publishing the revisions in the Federal Register had attracted “public comment” from interested parties and was a “normal process” that was “not, in any way, secret.”

How Washington has coped with the threat of dirty bombs is a microcosm of how the country has dealt with terror overall in the past 15 years.

First, by bringing proliferation to the international stage through the summits he has hosted, Obama improved on his predecessor’s prevention efforts—much as he has done by hunting down terrorist leaders abroad while hardening targets and tightening homeland-security management at home.

However, the president has failed to finish the job of securing radiological material in hospitals and industrial facilities, or to crack down on the threats from bioweapons and toxic chemicals. Second, with his revised EPA guidelines on dirty-bomb damage, Obama has taken a tentative but insufficient step toward leveling with the public in a way that deprives terrorists of their ability to spread hysteria. That mirrors what he has tried to do more generally: tentatively steer Americans toward the realistic view that while terrorism is inevitable, it is not an existential or apocalyptic threat—unless we treat it like the apocalypse.

This is a politically perilous path—which may explain why the administration proceeded so quietly when announcing the revised radiological-contamination guidelines.

In fact, this may be a path only a lame duck could risk. The politically easier path is to promise “never again.” As Trump’s hard-line rhetoric about the president being weak on terrorism demonstrates, Obama and anyone who follows him and tries to continue on that path will be an easy target for opponents who will claim that transforming homeland security from the fantasy of never-again prevention to a combination of prevention and mitigation and recovery is throwing in the towel.

That this is still a debate in an election season 15 years after the 9/11 attacks is evidence that although we’ve made progress, we’re still a long way from adjusting—politically and psychically—to this new normal, where, unlike during the Cold War, there is no relying on deterrence for protection.


* This article originally stated that the Attack 2 truck was paid for with a $185,000 federal homeland-security grant. In fact, the grant was $160,000. The total cost of the truck is $375,000, and the fire department is covering the remainder. We regret the error. ^

** This article originally stated that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is a unit of the Energy Department. We regret the error. ^

Источник: https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2016/09/are-we-any-safer/492761/

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We are lucky to have some amazing local breweries minutes away, including Migration Brewing, Coalition Brewing, and Cascade Brewing. Kerns is also home to a wide array of bars, comedy clubs, and music venues. Our bike-friendly neighborhood includes many locally-owned shops, including Palace and Artemisia.

Have the munchies? Sandy28 is at the heart of Portland’s Restaurant Row, and with so much to choose from, including Pie Spot and Le Pigeon, friends will be begging to come hang out in your new neighborhood.

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Источник: https://www.sandy28apartments.com/sandy28-portland-oregon

Beijing

Capital of China

"Peking" redirects here. For other uses, see Beijing (disambiguation) and Peking (disambiguation).

"Beijinger" redirects here. For the magazine, see The Beijinger.

Municipality and capital city in China

Beijing

北京市

Peking

Clockwise from top: Beijing CBD skyline, Great Wall of Badaling, Temple of Heaven, Great Hall of the People (left) and National Centre for the Performing Arts (right), Beijing National Stadium, Tiananmen

Location of Beijing Municipality within China

Location of Beijing Municipality within China

Coordinates (Tian'anmen Squarenational flag): 39°54′24″N116°23′51″E / 39.90667°N 116.39750°E / 39.90667; 116.39750Coordinates: 39°54′24″N116°23′51″E / 39.90667°N 116.39750°E / 39.90667; 116.39750
CountryChina
Established1045 BC (Zhou Dynasty)
City seatTongzhou
Divisions[1]
 – County-level
 – Township-level

16 districts
289 towns and villages
 • TypeMunicipality
 • BodyBeijing Municipal People's Congress
 • CPC SecretaryCai Qi
 • Congress ChairmanLi Wei
 • MayorChen Jining
 • CPPCC ChairmanJi Lin
 • National People's Congress Representation54 deputies
 • Land16,410.5 km2 (6,336.1 sq mi)
 • Urban

 (2018)[3]

4,144 km2 (1,600 sq mi)
 • Rural12,266.5 km2 (4,736.1 sq mi)
Elevation43.5 m (142.7 ft)
Highest elevation

(Mount Ling)

2,303 m (7,556 ft)
 • Municipality21,893,095
 • Urban

 (2018)[5]

21,450,000
 • Ranks in ChinaPopulation: 27th;
Density: 4th
 • Han95%
 • Manchu2%
 • Hui2%
 • Mongol0.3%
 • Other0.7%
Time zoneUTC+8 (CST)
Postal codes

100000–102629

Area code(s)10
ISO 3166 codeCN-BJ
GDP (nominal)[6]2020
 - Total¥3.6 trillion
$553.9 billion
 – Per Capita¥167,832
$25,823
 – GrowthIncrease 6.6%
HDI (2018)0.904[7] (1st) – very high
License plate prefixes京A, C, E, F, H, J, K, L, M, N, P, Q, Y
京B (taxis)
京G (outside urban area)
京O, D (police and authorities)
AbbreviationBJ / 京 (jīng)
City treesChinese arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis)
 Pagoda tree (Sophora japonica)
City flowersChina rose (Rosa chinensis)
 Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium)
WebsiteBeijing Official Website International – eBeijing.gov.cn(in English)
首都之窗-北京市政务门户网站(in Chinese)

Beijing (bay-JING;[8][9]Chinese: 北京; pinyin: Běijīng; Mandarin pronunciation:[pèi.tɕíŋ] (About this soundlisten)), alternatively romanized as Peking[10] (pee-KING),[11] is the capital of the People's Republic of China. It is the world's most populous national capital city, with over 21 million residents within an administrative area of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.).[12] It is located in Northern China, and is governed as a municipality under the direct administration of the State Council with 16 urban, suburban, and rural districts.[13] Beijing is mostly surrounded by Hebei Province with the exception of neighboring Tianjin to the southeast; together, the three divisions form the Jingjinjimegalopolis and the national capital region of China.[14]

Beijing is a global city and one of the world's leading centres for culture, diplomacy and politics, business and economics, education, language, and science and technology. A megacity, Beijing is the second largest Chinese city by urban population after Shanghai and is the nation's cultural, educational, and political center.[15] It is home to the headquarters of most of China's largest state-owned companies and houses the largest number of Fortune Global 500 companies in the world, as well as the world's four biggest financial institutions by total assets.[16][17] Beijing is the "billionaire capital of the world" with the highest number of billionaires living in the city.[18][19] It is also a major hub for the national highway, expressway, railway, and high-speed rail networks. The Beijing Capital International Airport has been the second busiest in the world by passenger traffic (Asia's busiest) since 2010,[20] and, as of 2016[update], the city's subway network is the busiest and longest in the world. The Beijing Daxing International Airport, a second international airport in Beijing, is the largest single-structure airport terminal in the world.[21][22]

Combining both modern and traditional style architectures, Beijing is one of the oldest cities in the world, with a rich history dating back over three millennia. As the last of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China, Beijing has been the political center of the country for most of the past eight centuries,[23] and was the largest city in the world by population for much of the second millennium AD.[24] With mountains surrounding the inland city on three sides, in addition to the old inner and outer city walls, Beijing was strategically poised and developed to be the residence of the emperor and thus was the perfect location for the imperial capital. The city is renowned for its opulent palaces, temples, parks, gardens, tombs, walls and gates.[25] It has sevenUNESCOWorld Heritage Sites—the Forbidden City, Temple of Heaven, Summer Palace, Ming Tombs, Zhoukoudian, and parts of the Great Wall and the Grand Canal—all of which are popular tourist locations.[26]Siheyuans, the city's traditional housing style, and hutongs, the narrow alleys between siheyuans, are major tourist attractions and are common in urban Beijing.

Many of Beijing's 91 universities consistently rank among the best in the Asia-Pacific and the world.[27][28][29] Beijing is home to the two best C9 Leagueuniversities (Tsinghua and Peking) in the Asia-Pacific and emerging countries.[30][31]Beijing CBD is a center for Beijing's economic expansion, with the ongoing or recently completed construction of multiple skyscrapers. Beijing's Zhongguancun area is a world leading center of scientific and technological innovation as well as entrepreneurship. Beijing has been ranked the No.1 city in the world with the largest scientific research output as tracked by the Nature Index since 2016.[32][33] The city has hosted numerous international and national sporting events, the most notable being the 2008 Summer Olympics and 2008 Summer Paralympics Games. Beijing will become the first city ever to host both the Summer and Winter Olympics,[34] and also the Summer and Winter Paralympics.[35] Beijing hosts 175 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many organizations, including the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB), the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Silk Road Fund, the Chinese Academy of Science, the Chinese Academy of Engineering, the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences and the Red Cross Society of China.

Etymology[edit]

Main article: Names of Beijing

Over the past 3,000 years, the city of Beijing has had numerous other names. The name Beijing, which means "Northern Capital" (from the Chinese characters北 for north and 京 for capital), was applied to the city in 1403 during the Ming dynasty to distinguish the city from Nanjing (the "Southern Capital").[36] The English spelling Beijing is based on the government's official romanization (adopted in the 1980s) of the two characters as they are pronounced in Standard Mandarin. An older English spelling, Peking, is the postal romanization of the same two characters as they are pronounced in Chinese dialects spoken in the southern port towns first visited by European traders and missionaries.[37] Those dialects preserve the Middle Chinese pronunciation of 京 as kjaeng,[38] prior to a phonetic shift in the northern dialects to the modern pronunciation.[39] Although Peking is no longer the common name for the city, some of the city's older locations and facilities, such as Beijing Capital International Airport, with the IATA Code PEK, and Peking University, still retain the former romanization.

The single Chinese character abbreviation for Beijing is 京, which appears on automobile license plates in the city. The official Latin alphabetabbreviation for Beijing is "BJ".[40]

History[edit]

Main article: History of Beijing

Early history[edit]

The earliest traces of human habitation in the Peking municipality were found in the caves of Dragon Bone Hill near the village of Zhoukoudian in Fangshan District, where Peking Man lived. Homo erectus fossils from the caves date to 230,000 to 250,000 years ago. PaleolithicHomo sapiens also lived there more recently, about 27,000 years ago.[41] Archaeologists have found neolithic settlements throughout the municipality, including in Wangfujing, located in central Peking.

The first walled city in Beijing was Jicheng, the capital city of the state of Ji and was built in 1045 BC. Within modern Beijing, Jicheng was located around the present Guang'anmen area in the south of Xicheng District.[42] This settlement was later conquered by the state of Yan and made its capital.[43]

Early Imperial China[edit]

After the First Emperorunified China, Jicheng became a prefectural capital for the region.[1] During the Three Kingdoms period, it was held by Gongsun Zan and Yuan Shao before falling to the Wei Kingdom of Cao Cao. The AD 3rd-century Western Jin demoted the town, placing the prefectural seat in neighboring Zhuozhou.

During the Sixteen Kingdoms period when northern China was conquered and divided by the Wu Hu, Jicheng was briefly the capital of the XianbeiFormer Yan Kingdom.[44]

After China was reunified during the Sui dynasty, Jicheng, also known as Zhuojun, became the northern terminus of the Grand Canal. Under the Tang dynasty, Jicheng as Youzhou, served as a military frontier command center. During the An-Shi Rebellion and again amidst the turmoil of the late Tang, local military commanders founded their own short-lived Yan dynasties and called the city Yanjing, or the "Yan Capital." Also in the Tang dynasty, the city's name Jicheng was replaced by Youzhou or Yanjing. In 938, after the fall of the Tang, the Later Jin ceded the entire northern frontier to the KhitanLiao dynasty, which treated the city as Nanjing, or the "Southern Capital", one of four secondary capitals to complement its "Supreme Capital", Shangjing (modern Baarin Left Banner in Inner Mongolia). Some of the oldest surviving structures in Beijing date to the Liao period, including the Tianning Pagoda.

The Liao fell to the Jurchen Jin dynasty in 1122, which gave the city to the Song dynasty and then retook it in 1125 during its conquest of northern China. In 1153, the Jurchen Jin made Beijing their "Central Capital", or Zhongdu.[1] The city was besieged by Genghis Khan's invading Mongolian army in 1213 and razed to the ground two years later.[45] Two generations later, Kublai Khan ordered the construction of Dadu (or Daidu to the Mongols, commonly known as Khanbaliq), a new capital for his Yuan dynasty to the northeast of the Zhongdu ruins. The construction took from 1264 to 1293,[1][45][46] but greatly enhanced the status of a city on the northern fringe of China proper. The city was centered on the Drum Tower slightly to the north of modern Beijing and stretched from the present-day Chang'an Avenue to the northern part of Line 10 subway. Remnants of the Yuan rammed earth wall still stand and are known as the Tucheng.[47]

Ming dynasty[edit]

In 1368, soon after declaring the new Hongwu era of the Ming dynasty, the rebel leader Zhu Yuanzhang sent an army to Dadu/Khanbaliq and conquered it.[48] Since the Yuan continued to occupy Shangdu and Mongolia, Dadu was used to supply the military garrisons in the area and was renamed Beiping (Wade–Giles: Peip'ing, "Northern Peace").[49] Under the Hongwu Emperor's feudal policies Beiping was given to Zhu Di, one of his sons, who was created "Prince of Yan".

Overlapping layout of Beijing during the Liao, Jin, Yuan and Ming dynasties

The early death of Zhu Yuanzhang's heir led to a succession struggle on his death, one that ended with the victory of Zhu Di and the declaration of the new Yongle era. Since his harsh treatment of the Ming capital Yingtian (modern Nanjing) alienated many there, he established his fief as a new co-capital. The city of Beiping became Beijing (“Northern Capital”) or Shuntian[50] in 1403.[36] The construction of the new imperial residence, the Forbidden City, took from 1406 to 1420;[45] this period was also responsible for several other of the modern city's major attractions, such as the Temple of Heaven[51] and Tian'anmen. On 28 October 1420, the city was officially designated the capital of the Ming dynasty in the same year that the Forbidden City was completed.[52] Beijing became the empire's primary capital, and Yingtian, also called Nanjing (“Southern Capital”), became the co-capital. (A 1425 order by Zhu Di's son, the Hongxi Emperor, to return the primary capital to Nanjing was never carried out: he died, probably of a heart attack, the next month. He was buried, like almost every Ming emperor to follow him, in an elaborate necropolis to Beijing's north.)

By the 15th century, Beijing had essentially taken its current shape. The Ming city wall continued to serve until modern times, when it was pulled down and the 2nd Ring Road was built in its place.[53] It is generally believed that Beijing was the largest city in the world for most of the 15th, 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries.[54] The first known church was constructed by Catholics in 1652 at the former site of Matteo Ricci's chapel; the modern Nantang Cathedral was later built upon the same site.[55]

The capture of Beijing by Li Zicheng's peasant army in 1644 ended the dynasty, but he and his Shun court abandoned the city without a fight when the Manchu army of Prince Dorgon arrived 40 days later.

Qing dynasty[edit]

Summer Palaceis one of the several palatial gardens built by Qing emperors in the northwest suburb area

Dorgon established the Qing dynasty as a direct successor of the Ming (delegitimising Li Zicheng and his followers)[56] and Beijing became China's sole capital.[57] The Qing emperors made some modifications to the Imperial residence but, in large part, the Ming buildings and the general layout remained unchanged. Facilities for Manchu worship were introduced, but the Qing also continued the traditional state rituals. Signage was bilingual or Chinese. This early Qing Beijing later formed the setting for the Chinese novelDream of the Red Chamber. Northwest of the city, Qing emperors built several large palatial gardens including the Old Summer Palace and the Summer Palace.

During the Second Opium War, Anglo-French forces captured the outskirts of the city, looting and burning the Old Summer Palace in 1860. Under the Convention of Peking ending that war, Western powers for the first time secured the right to establish permanent diplomatic presences within the city. From 14 to 15 August 1900 the Battle of Peking was fought. This battle was part of the Boxer Rebellion. The attempt by the Boxers to eradicate this presence, as well as Chinese Christian converts, led to Beijing's reoccupation by eight foreign powers.[58] During the fighting, several important structures were destroyed, including the Hanlin Academy and the (new) Summer Palace. A peace agreement was concluded between the Eight-Nation Alliance and representatives of the Chinese government Li Hung-chang and Prince Ching on 7 September 1901. The treaty required China to pay an indemnity of US$335 million (over US$4 billion in current dollars) plus interest over a period of 39 years. Also required was the execution or exile of government supporters of the Boxers and the destruction of Chinese forts and other defenses in much of northern China. Ten days after the treaty was signed the foreign armies left Peking, although legation guards would remain there until World War II.[59]

With the treaty signed the Empress Dowager Cixi returned to Peking from her "tour of inspection" on 7 January 1902 and the rule of the Qing dynasty over China was restored, albeit much weakened by the defeat it had suffered in the Boxer Rebellion and by the indemnity and stipulations of the peace treaty.[60] The Dowager died in 1908 and the dynasty imploded in 1911.

Republic of China[edit]

The fomenters of the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 sought to replace Qing rule with a republic and leaders like Sun Yat-sen originally intended to return the capital to Nanjing. After the Qing general Yuan Shikai forced the abdication of the last Qing emperor and ensured the success of the revolution, the revolutionaries accepted him as president of the new Republic of China. Yuan maintained his capital at Beijing and quickly consolidated power, declaring himself emperor in 1915. His death less than a year later[61] left China under the control of the warlords commanding the regional armies. Following the success of the Kuomintang's Northern Expedition, the capital was formally moved to Nanjing in 1928. On 28 June the same year, Beijing's name was returned to Beiping (written at the time as "Peiping").[15][62]

On 7 July 1937, the 29th Army and the Japanese army in China exchanged fire at the Marco Polo Bridge near the Wanping Fortress southwest of the city. The Marco Polo Bridge Incident triggered the Second Sino-Japanese War, World War II as it is known in China. During the war,[15] Beijing fell to Japan on 29 July 1937[63] and was made the seat of the Provisional Government of the Republic of China, a puppet state that ruled the ethnic-Chinese portions of Japanese-occupied northern China.[64] This government was later merged into the larger Wang Jingwei government based in Nanjing.[65]

People's Republic of China[edit]

Mao Zedongproclaiming the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949

In the final phases of the Chinese Civil War, the People's Liberation Army seized control of the city peacefully on 31 January 1949 in the course of the Pingjin Campaign. On 1 October that year, Mao Zedong announced the creation of the People's Republic of China from atop Tian'anmen. He restored the name of the city, as the new capital, to Beijing,[66] a decision that had been reached by the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference just a few days earlier.

In the 1950s, the city began to expand beyond the old walled city and its surrounding neighborhoods, with heavy industries in the west and residential neighborhoods in the north. Many areas of the Beijing city wall were torn down in the 1960s to make way for the construction of the Beijing Subway and the 2nd Ring Road.

During the Cultural Revolution from 1966 to 1976, the Red Guard movement began in Beijing and the city's government fell victim to one of the first purges. By the autumn of 1966, all city schools were shut down and over a million Red Guards from across the country gathered in Beijing for eight rallies in Tian'anmen Square with Mao.[67] In April 1976, a large public gathering of Beijing residents against the Gang of Four and the Cultural Revolution in Tiananmen Square was forcefully suppressed. In October 1976, the Gang was arrested in Zhongnanhai and the Cultural Revolution came to an end. In December 1978, the Third Plenum of the 11th Party Congress in Beijing under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping reversed the verdicts against victims of the Cultural Revolution and instituted the "policy of reform and opening up."

Since the early 1980s, the urban area of Beijing has expanded greatly with the completion of the 2nd Ring Road in 1981 and the subsequent addition of the 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th Ring Roads.[68][69] According to one 2005 newspaper report, the size of newly developed Beijing was one-and-a-half times larger than before.[70]Wangfujing and Xidan have developed into flourishing shopping districts,[71] while Zhongguancun has become a major center of electronics in China.[72] In recent years, the expansion of Beijing has also brought to the forefront some problems of urbanization, such as heavy traffic, poor air quality, the loss of historic neighborhoods, and a significant influx of migrant workers from less-developed rural areas of the country.[73] Beijing has also been the location of many significant events in recent Chinese history, principally the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.[74] The city has also hosted major international events, including the 2008 Summer Olympics and the 2015 World Championships in Athletics, and was chosen to host the 2022 Winter Olympics, making it the first city to ever host both Winter and Summer Olympics.[75]

Geography[edit]

Main article: Geography of Beijing

Landsat 7Satellite image of Beijing Municipality with the surrounding mountains in dark brown

Beijing is situated at the northern tip of the roughly triangular North China Plain, which opens to the south and east of the city. Mountains to the north, northwest and west shield the city and northern China's agricultural heartland from the encroaching desert steppes. The northwestern part of the municipality, especially Yanqing County and Huairou District, are dominated by the Jundu Mountains, while the western part is framed by Xishan or the Western Hills. The Great Wall of China across the northern part of Beijing Municipality was built on the rugged topography to defend against nomadic incursions from the steppes. Mount Dongling, in the Western Hills and on the border with Hebei, is the municipality's highest point, with an altitude of 2,303 metres (7,556 ft).

Major rivers flowing through the municipality, including the Chaobai, Yongding, Juma, are all tributaries in the Hai River system, and flow in a southeasterly direction. The Miyun Reservoir, on the upper reaches of the Chaobai River, is the largest reservoir within the municipality. Beijing is also the northern terminus of the Grand Canal to Hangzhou, which was built over 1,400 years ago as a transportation route, and the South–North Water Transfer Project, constructed in the past decade to bring water from the Yangtze River basin.

The urban area of Beijing, on the plains in the south-central of the municipality with elevation of 40 to 60 metres (130–200 feet), occupies a relatively small but expanding portion of the municipality's area. The city spreads out in concentric ring roads. The Second Ring Road traces the old city walls and the Sixth Ring Road connects satellite towns in the surrounding suburbs. Tian'anmen and Tian'anmen Square are at the center of Beijing, directly to the south of the Forbidden City, the former residence of the emperors of China. To the west of Tian'anmen is Zhongnanhai, the residence of China's current leaders. Chang'an Avenue, which cuts between Tiananmen and the Square, forms the city's main east–west axis.

Cityscape[edit]

Architecture[edit]

See also: List of tallest buildings in Beijing

Three styles of architecture are predominant in urban Beijing. First, there is the traditional architecture of imperial China, perhaps best exemplified by the massive Tian'anmen (Gate of Heavenly Peace), which remains the People's Republic of China's trademark edifice, the Forbidden City, the Imperial Ancestral Temple and the Temple of Heaven. Next, there is what is sometimes referred to as the "Sino-Sov" style, with structures tending to be boxy and sometimes poorly constructed, which were built between the 1950s and the 1970s.[76] Finally, there are much more modern architectural forms, most noticeably in the area of the Beijing CBD in east Beijing such as the new CCTV Headquarters, in addition to buildings in other locations around the city such as the Beijing National Stadium and National Center for the Performing Arts.

1940s NationalistBeijing with predominantly traditional architecture

Since 2007, buildings in Beijing have received the CTBUH Skyscraper Award for best overall tall building twice, for the Linked Hybrid building in 2009 and the CCTV Headquarters in 2013. The CTBUH Skyscraper award for best tall overall building is given to only one building around the world every year.

In the early 21st century, Beijing has witnessed tremendous growth of new building constructions, exhibiting various modern styles from international designers, most pronounced in the CBD region. A mixture of both 1950s design and neofuturistic style of architecture can be seen at the 798 Art Zone, which mixes the old with the new. Beijing's tallest building is the 528-meter China Zun.

The sign of Doujiao Hutong, one of the many traditional alleyways in the inner city

Beijing is famous for its siheyuans, a type of residence where a common courtyard is shared by the surrounding buildings. Among the more grand examples are the Prince Gong Mansion and Residence of Soong Ching-ling. These courtyards are usually connected by alleys called hutongs. The hutongs are generally straight and run east to west so that doorways face north and south for good Feng Shui. They vary in width; some are so narrow only a few pedestrians can pass through at a time. Once ubiquitous in Beijing, siheyuans and hutongs are rapidly disappearing,[77] as entire city blocks of hutongs are replaced by high-rise buildings.[78] Residents of the hutongs are entitled to live in the new buildings in apartments of at least the same size as their former residences. Many complain, however, that the traditional sense of community and street life of the hutongs cannot be replaced,[79] and these properties are often government owned.[80]

Climate[edit]

Beijing has a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate (Köppen: Dwa), characterized by hot, humid summers due to the East Asian monsoon, and brief but cold, dry winters that reflect the influence of the vast Siberian anticyclone.[81] Spring can bear witness to sandstorms blowing in from the Gobi Desert across the Mongolian steppe, accompanied by rapidly warming, but generally dry, conditions. Autumn, similar to spring, is a season of transition and minimal precipitation. The monthly daily average temperature in January is −2.9 °C (26.8 °F), while in July it is 26.9 °C (80.4 °F). Precipitation averages around 570 mm (22 in) annually, with close to three-quarters of that total falling from June to August. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 47% in July to 65% in January and February, the city receives 2,671 hours of bright sunshine annually. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −27.4 °C (−17.3 °F) on 22 February 1966 to 41.9 °C (107.4 °F) on 24 July 1999 (unofficial record of 42.6 °C (108.7 °F) was set on 15 June 1942).[82][83]

Climate data for Beijing (normals 1986–2015, extremes 1951–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.3
(57.7)
25.6
(78.1)
29.5
(85.1)
33.5
(92.3)
41.1
(106.0)
40.6
(105.1)
41.9
(107.4)
38.3
(100.9)
35.0
(95.0)
31.0
(87.8)
23.3
(73.9)
19.5
(67.1)
41.9
(107.4)
Average high °C (°F) 2.1
(35.8)
5.8
(42.4)
12.6
(54.7)
20.7
(69.3)
26.9
(80.4)
30.5
(86.9)
31.5
(88.7)
30.5
(86.9)
26.2
(79.2)
19.4
(66.9)
10.3
(50.5)
3.8
(38.8)
18.4
(65.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) −2.9
(26.8)
0.4
(32.7)
7.0
(44.6)
14.9
(58.8)
21.0
(69.8)
25.0
(77.0)
26.9
(80.4)
25.8
(78.4)
20.8
(69.4)
13.8
(56.8)
5.1
(41.2)
−0.9
(30.4)
13.1
(55.5)
Average low °C (°F) −7.1
(19.2)
−4.3
(24.3)
1.6
(34.9)
8.9
(48.0)
14.9
(58.8)
19.8
(67.6)
22.7
(72.9)
21.7
(71.1)
16.0
(60.8)
8.8
(47.8)
0.6
(33.1)
−4.9
(23.2)
8.2
(46.8)
Record low °C (°F) −22.8
(−9.0)
−27.4
(−17.3)
−15
(5)
−3.2
(26.2)
2.5
(36.5)
9.8
(49.6)
15.3
(59.5)
11.4
(52.5)
3.7
(38.7)
−3.5
(25.7)
−12.3
(9.9)
−18.3
(−0.9)
−27.4
(−17.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 2.7
(0.11)
5.0
(0.20)
10.2
(0.40)
23.1
(0.91)
39.0
(1.54)
76.7
(3.02)
168.8
(6.65)
120.2
(4.73)
57.4
(2.26)
24.1
(0.95)
13.1
(0.52)
2.4
(0.09)
542.7
(21.38)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)1.8 2.3 3.3 4.7 6.1 9.9 12.8 10.9 7.6 4.8 2.9 2.0 69.1
Average relative humidity (%) 44 43 41 43 49 59 70 72 65 58 54 47 54
Mean monthly sunshine hours186.2 188.1 227.5 242.8 267.6 225.6 194.5 208.2 207.5 205.2 174.5 172.3 2,500
Percent possible sunshine65 65 63 64 64 59 47 52 63 64 62 62 60
Average ultraviolet index2 3 4 6 8 9 9 8 6 4 2 1 5
Source: China Meteorological Administration [84], China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System[85], all-time record high[83], May record high[86] and Weather Atlas[87]

Environmental issues[edit]

Beijing has a long history of environmental problems.[88] Between 2000 and 2009 Beijing's urban extent quadrupled, which not only strongly increased the extent of anthropogenic emissions, but also changed the meteorological situation fundamentally, even if emissions of human society are not included. For example, surface albedo, wind speed and humidity near the surface were decreased, whereas ground and near-surface air temperatures, vertical air dilution and ozone levels were increased.[89] Because of the combined factors of urbanization and pollution caused by burning of fossil fuel, Beijing is often affected by serious environmental problems, which lead to health issues of many inhabitants. In 2013 heavy smog struck Beijing and most parts of northern China, impacting a total of 600 million people. After this "pollution shock" air pollution became an important economic and social concern in China. After that the government of Beijing announced measures to reduce air pollution, for example by lowering the share of coal from 24% in 2012 to 10% in 2017, while the national government ordered heavily polluting vehicles to be removed from 2015 to 2017 and increased its efforts to transition the energy system to clean sources.[90]

Air quality[edit]

Joint research between American and Chinese researchers in 2006 concluded that much of the city's pollution comes from surrounding cities and provinces. On average 35–60% of the ozone can be traced to sources outside the city. Shandong Province and Tianjin Municipality have a "significant influence on Beijing's air quality",[91] partly due to the prevailing south/southeasterly flow during the summer and the mountains to the north and northwest.

Heavy air pollution has resulted in widespread smog. These photographs, taken in August 2005, show the variations in Beijing's air quality.

In preparation for the 2008 Summer Olympics and to fulfill promises to clean up the city's air, nearly US$17 billion was spent.[92] Beijing implemented a number of air improvement schemes for the duration of the Games, including halting work at all construction sites, closing many factories in Beijing permanently, temporarily shutting industry in neighboring regions, closing some gas stations,[93] and cutting motor traffic by half by limiting drivers to odd or even days (based on their license plate numbers),[94] reducing bus and subway fares, opening new subway lines, and banning high-emission vehicles.[95][96] The city further assembled 3,800 natural gas-powered buses, one of the largest fleets in the world.[92] Beijing became the first city in China to require the Chinese equivalent to the Euro 4 emission standard.[97]

Coal burning accounts for about 40% of the PM 2.5 in Beijing and is also the chief source of nitrogen and sulphur dioxide.[98] Since 2012, the city has been converting coal-fired power stations to burn natural gas[99] and aims to cap annual coal consumption at 20 million tons. In 2011, the city burned 26.3 million tons of coal, 73% of which for heating and power generation and the remainder for industry.[99] Much of the city's air pollutants are emitted by neighboring regions.[98] Coal consumption in neighboring Tianjin is expected to increase from 48 to 63 million tons from 2011 to 2015.[100] Hebei Province burned over 300 million tons of coal in 2011, more than all of Germany, of which only 30% were used for power generation and a considerable portion for steel and cement making.[101] Power plants in the coal-mining regions of Shanxi, Inner Mongolia and Shaanxi, where coal consumption has tripled since 2000, and Shandong also contribute to air pollution in Beijing.[98] Shandong, Shanxi, Hebei and Inner Mongolia, respectively rank from first to fourth, among Chinese provinces by coal consumption.[100] There were four major coal-fired power plants in the city to provide electricity as well as heating during the winter. The first one (Gaojing Thermal Power Plant) was shut down in 2014.[102] Another two were shut in March 2015. The last one (Huaneng Thermal Power Plant) would be shut in 2016.[103] Between 2013 and 2017, the city planned to reduce 13 million tons of coal consumption and cap coal consumption to 15 million tons in 2015.[103]

The government sometimes uses cloud-seeding measures to increase the likelihood of rain showers in the region to clear the air prior to large events, such as prior to the 60th anniversary parade in 2009 as well as to combat drought conditions in the area.[104] More recently, however, the government has increased its usage of such measures as closing factories temporarily and implementing greater restrictions for cars on the road, as in the case of "APEC blue" and "parade blue," short periods during and immediately preceding the APEC China 2014 and the 2015 China Victory Day Parade, respectively.[105] During and prior to these events, Beijing's air quality improved dramatically, only to fall back to unhealthy levels shortly after.

Beijing air quality is often poor, especially in winter. In mid-January 2013, Beijing's air quality was measured on top of the city's US embassy at a PM2.5 density of 755 micrograms per cubic meter, which is more than 75 times the safe level established by the WHO, and went off the US Environmental Protection Agency's air quality index. It was widely reported, originally through a Twitter account, that the category was "crazy bad". This was later changed to "beyond index".[106]

On 8 and 9 December 2015 Beijing had its first smog alert which shut down a majority of the industry and other commercial businesses in the city.[107] Later in the month another smog "red alert" was issued.[108]

According to Beijing's environmental protection bureau's announcement in November 2016, starting from 2017 highly polluting old cars will be banned from being driven whenever Smog "red alerts" are issued in the city or neighboring regions.[109]

In recent years, there has been measurable reductions in pollutants after the "war on pollution" was declared in 2014, with Beijing seeing a 35% reduction in fine particulates in 2017.[110]

Readings[edit]

Due to Beijing's high level of air pollution, there are various readings by different sources on the subject. Daily pollution readings at 27 monitoring stations around the city are reported on the website of the Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau (BJEPB).[111] The American Embassy of Beijing also reports hourly fine particulate (PM2.5) and ozone levels on Twitter.[112] Since the BJEPB and US Embassy measure different pollutants according to different criteria, the pollution levels and the impact to human health reported by the BJEPB are often lower than that reported by the US Embassy.[112]

The smog is causing harm and danger to the population. The air pollution does directly result in significant impact on the mobility rate of cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease in Beijing.[113] Exposure to large concentrations of polluted air can cause respiratory and cardiovascular problems, emergency room visits, and even death.[114]

Dust storms[edit]

Dust from the erosion of deserts in northern and northwestern China results in seasonal dust storms that plague the city; the Beijing Weather Modification Office sometimes artificially induces rainfall to fight such storms and mitigate their effects.[115] In the first four months of 2006 alone, there were no fewer than eight such storms.[116] In April 2002, one dust storm alone dumped nearly 50,000 tons of dust onto the city before moving on to Japan and Korea.[117]

Government[edit]

Main article: Politics of Beijing

The municipal government is regulated by the local Communist Party of China (CPC), led by the Beijing CPC Secretary (Chinese: 中共北京市委书记). The local CPC issues administrative orders, collects taxes, manages the economy, and directs a standing committee of the Municipal People's Congress in making policy decisions and overseeing the local government.

Government officials include the mayor (Chinese: 市长) and vice-mayor. Numerous bureaus focus on law, public security, and other affairs. Additionally, as the capital of China, Beijing houses all of the important national governmental and political institutions, including the National People's Congress.[118]

Administrative divisions[edit]

For a more comprehensive list, see List of administrative divisions of Beijing and List of township-level divisions of Beijing.

Beijing Municipality currently comprises 16 administrative county-level subdivisions including 16 urban, suburban, and rural districts. On 1 July 2010, Chongwen and Xuanwu were merged into Dongcheng and Xicheng, respectively. On 13 November 2015 Miyun and Yanqing were upgraded to districts.

Administrative divisions of Beijing
Division code[119]Division Area in km2[120]Total population 2010[121]Urban area
population 2010[122]
Seat Postal code Subdivisions[123][full citation needed]
SubdistrictsTownsTownships
[n 1]
Residential communitiesVillages
110000Beijing 16406.1619,612,36816,858,692Dongcheng / Tongzhou1000001491433825383857
110101Dongcheng41.82919,253Jingshan Subdistrict10000017  216 
110102Xicheng50.331,243,315Jinrong Street Subdistrict10000015  259 
110105Chaoyang454.783,545,1373,532,257Chaowai Subdistrict10000024 193585
110106Fengtai305.532,112,1622,098,632Fengtai Subdistrict100000162325473
110107Shijingshan84.38616,083Lugu Subdistrict1000009  130 
110108Haidian430.773,280,6703,208,563Haidian Subdistrict100000227 60384
110109Mentougou1447.85290,476248,547Dayu Subdistrict10230049 124179
110111Fangshan1994.73944,832635,282Gongchen Subdistrict1024008146108462
110112Tongzhou905.791,184,256724,228Beiyuan Subdistrict101100610140480
110113Shunyi1019.51876,620471,459Shengli Subdistrict101300619 61449
110114Changping1342.471,660,5011,310,617Chengbei Subdistrict102200814 180303
110115Daxing1036.341,365,112965,683Xingfeng Subdistrict102600514 64547
110116Huairou2122.82372,887253,088Longshan Subdistrict101400212227286
110117Pinggu948.24415,958219,850Binhe Subdistrict101200214223275
110118Miyun2225.92467,680257,449Gulou Subdistrict101500217157338
110119Yanqing1994.89317,426154,386Rulin Subdistrict102100311434376

Towns[edit]

Main article: List of township-level divisions of Beijing

Beijing's 16 county-level divisions (districts) are further subdivided into 273 lower third-level administrative units at the township level: 119 towns, 24 townships, 5 ethnic townships and 125 subdistricts. Towns within Beijing Municipality but outside the urban area include (but are not limited to):

Several place names in Beijing end with mén (门), meaning "gate", as they were the locations of gates in the former Beijing city wall. Other place names end in cūn (村), meaning "village", as they were originally villages outside the city wall.

Judiciary and procuracy[edit]

The judicial system in Beijing consists of the Supreme People's Court, the highest court in the country, the Beijing Municipal High People's Court, the high people's court of the municipality, three intermediate people's courts, one intermediate railway transport court, 14 basic people's court (one for each of the municipality's districts and counties), and one basic railway transport court. The Beijing No. 1 Intermediate People's Court in Shijingshan oversees the basic courts of Haidian, Shijingshan, Mentougou, Changping and Yanqing.[124] The Beijing No. 2 Intermediate People's Court in Fengtai oversees the basic courts of Dongcheng, Xicheng, Fengtai, Fangshan and Daxing.[124] The Beijing No. 3 Intermediate People's Court in Laiguangying, is the newest of the three intermediate people's courts and opened on 21 August 2013.[124] It oversees the district courts of Chaoyang, Tongzhou, Shunyi, Huairou, Pinggu and Miyun.[124][125] Each court in Beijing has a corresponding people's procuratorate.

Economy[edit]

Main article: Economy of Beijing

Xidanis one of the oldest and busiest shopping areas in Beijing.

As of 2018[update], Beijing's nominal GDP was US$458 billion (CN¥3.0 trillion), about 3.45% of the country's GDP and ranked 12th among province-level administrative units; its nominal GDP per capita was US$21,261 (CN¥140,748) and ranked the 1st in the country.[126] Beijing's nominal GDP is projected to be among the world top 10 largest cities in 2035 (together with Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen in China) according to a study by Oxford Economics,[127] and its nominal GDP per capita will reach US$45,000 in 2030.[128]

Due to the concentration of state owned enterprises in the national capital, Beijing in 2013 had more Fortune Global 500 Company headquarters than any other city in the world.[129] Beijing has also been described as the "billionaire capital of the world".[18][19] Beijing is classified as an Alpha+ (global first-tier) city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and worldwide and making it one of the world's Top 10 major cities.[130] In the 2021 Global Financial Centres Index, Beijing was ranked as having the sixth-most competitive financial center in the world and fourth-most competitive in the whole Asia & Oceania region (behind Shanghai, Hong Kong and Singapore).[131]

As of 2021, Beijing was ranked first globally in terms of "Global City Competitiveness" in the 2020–2021 Global Urban Competitiveness Report jointly released by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS) and the United Nations Programme for Human Settlements (UN-Habitat).[132] Beijing is also a large hub of the Chinese and global technology industry and ranked as having the strongest global startup ecosystem in the whole of Asia-Oceania region, ranking 3rd globally by the Global Startup Ecosystem Index.[133]

Year CNY
(millions)
USD
(millions)
PPP
(Int'l$)
(millions)
Real growth
(%)
CNY
per capita*
USD
per capita*
PPP
(Int'l$.)
per capita*
Reference index:
USD 1
to CNY
Reference index:
Int'l$. 1
to CNY
2016 2,566,910386,449733,2146.8118,19817,79533,7626.64233.5009
2015 2,368,570380,285667,2976.9109,60217,59730,8786.22843.5495
2014 2,194,410357,233618,0747.4102,87016,74628,9746.14283.5504
2013 2,033,010328,265568,3727.797,17815,69127,1686.19323.5769
2012 1,835,010290,695516,7888.089,77814,22225,2846.31253.5508
2011 1,662,790257,446474,3378.183,54712,93523,8336.45883.5055
2010 1,444,160213,333436,22310.475,57211,16422,8276.76953.3106
2009 1,241,900181,804393,31710.068,40510,01421,6646.83103.1575
2008 1,139,200164,029358,6009.066,0989,51720,8076.94513.1768
2007 1,007,190132,455334,07114.461,4708,08420,3897.60403.0149
2006 831,260104,275288,86312.852,9636,64418,4057.97182.8777
2005 714,14087,178249,78712.347,1275,75316,4848.19172.8590
2000 321,28038,809118,14812.024,5172,9629,0168.27842.7193
1995 150,77018,05455,23912.012,6901,5204,6498.35102.7294
1990 50,08010,47029,4145.24,6359692,7224.78321.7026
1985 25,7108,75518,3428.72,6439001,8862.93661.4017
1980 13,9109,2839,30111.81,5441,0301,0321.49841.4955
1978 10,8806,46210.51,2577471.6836

* Per-capita GDP is based on mid-year population.

Sector composition[edit]

The city has a post-industrial economy that is dominated by the tertiary sector (services), which generated 76.9% of output, followed by the secondary sector (manufacturing, construction) at 22.2% and the primary sector (agriculture, mining) at 0.8%.

The services sector is broadly diversified with professional services, wholesale and retail, information technology, commercial real estate, scientific research, and residential real estate each contributing at least 6% to the city's economy in 2013.[135]

The single largest sub-sector remains industry, whose share of overall output has shrunk to 18.1% in 2013.[135] The mix of industrial output has changed significantly since 2010 when the city announced that 140 highly-polluting, energy and water resource intensive enterprises would be relocated from the city in five years.[136] The relocation of Capital Steel to neighboring Hebei province had begun in 2005.[137][138] In 2013, output of automobiles, aerospace products, semiconductors, pharmaceuticals, and food processing all increased.[135]

In the farmland around Beijing, vegetables and fruits have displaced grain as the primary crops under cultivation.[135] In 2013, the tonnage of vegetable, edible fungus and fruit harvested was over three times that of grain.[135] In 2013, overall acreage under cultivation shrank along with most categories of produce as more land was reforested for environmental reasons.[135]

Economic zones[edit]

For a more comprehensive list, see List of economic and technological development zones in Beijing.

In 2006, the city government identified six high-end economic output zones around Beijing as the primary engines for local economic growth. In 2012, the six zones produced 43.3% of the city's GDP, up from 36.5% in 2007.[139][140] The six zones are:

  1. Zhongguancun, China's silicon village in Haidian District northwest of the city, is home to both established and start-up tech companies. In the first two quarters of 2014, 9,895 companies registered in the six zones, among which 6,150 were based in Zhongguancun.[141] Zhongguancun is also the center of Beijing-Tianjin-Shijiazhuang Hi-Tech Industrial Belt.
  2. Beijing Financial Street, in Xicheng District on the west side of the city between Fuxingmen and Fuchengmen, is lined with headquarters of large state banks and insurance companies. The country's financial regulatory agencies including the central bank, bank regulator, securities regulator, and foreign exchange authority are located in the neighborhood.
  3. Beijing Central Business District (CBD), is actually located to the east of downtown, near the embassies along the eastern Third Ring Road between Jianguomenwai and Chaoyangmenwai. The CBD is home to most of the city's skyscraper office buildings. Most of the city's foreign companies and professional service firms are based in the CBD.
  4. Beijing Economic and Technological Development Area, better known as Yizhuang, is an industrial park the straddles the southern Fifth Ring Road in Daxing District. It has attracted pharmaceutical, information technology, and materials engineering companies.[142]
  5. Beijing Airport Economic Zone was created in 1993 and surrounds the Beijing Capital International Airport in Shunyi District northeast of the city. In addition to logistics, airline services, and trading firms, this zone is also home to Beijing's automobile assembly plants.
  6. Beijing Olympic Center Zone surrounds the Olympic Green due north of downtown and is developing into an entertainment, sports, tourism and business convention center.

Shijingshan, on the western outskirts of the city, is a traditional heavy industrial base for steel-making.[143] Chemical plants are concentrated in the far eastern suburbs.

Less legitimate enterprises also exist. Urban Beijing is known for being a center of infringed goods; anything from the latest designer clothing to DVDs can be found in markets all over the city, often marketed to expatriates and international visitors.[144]

Demographics[edit]

Main article: Demographics of Beijing

YearPop.±% p.a.
19532,768,149—    
19647,568,495+9.57%
19829,230,687+1.11%
199010,819,407+2.00%
200013,569,194+2.29%
201019,612,368+3.75%
201321,150,000+2.55%
2014[145]21,516,000+1.73%
Population size may be affected by changes on administrative divisions.

In 2013, Beijing had a total population of 21.148 million within the municipality, of which 18.251 million resided in urban districts or suburban townships and 2.897 million lived in rural villages.[135] The encompassing metropolitan area was estimated by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) to have, as of 2010[update], a population of 24.9 million.[146][147]

Within China, the city ranked second in urban population after Shanghai and the third in municipal population after Shanghai and Chongqing. Beijing also ranks among the most populous cities in the world, a distinction the city has held for much of the past 800 years, especially during the 15th to early 19th centuries when it was the largest city in the world.

About 13 million of the city's residents in 2013 had local hukou permits, which entitles them to permanent residence in Beijing.[135] The remaining 8 million residents had hukou permits elsewhere and were not eligible to receive some social benefits provided by the Beijing municipal government.[135]

The population increased in 2013 by 455,000 or about 7% from the previous year and continued a decade-long trend of rapid growth.[135] The total population in 2004 was 14.213 million.[148] The population gains are driven largely by migration. The population's rate of natural increase in 2013 was a mere 0.441%, based on a birth rate of 8.93 and a mortality rate of 4.52.[135] The gender balance was 51.6% males and 48.4% females.[135]

Working age people account for nearly 80% of the population. Compared to 2004, residents age 0–14 as a proportion of the population dropped from 9.96% to 9.5% in 2013 and residents over the age of 65 declined from 11.12% to 9.2%.[135][148] From 2000 to 2010, the percentage of city residents with at least some college education nearly doubled from 16.8% to 31.5%.[149] About 22.2% have some high school education and 31% had reached middle school.[149]

Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beijing

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Northwestern Mutual recognized for the launch of its venture studio, the upcoming Women in Tech conference and its partnership with GalaxE.Solutions

Five events to 'attend' during the virtual Women's Entrepreneurship Week Milwaukee

Five events to 'attend' during the virtual Women's Entrepreneurship Week Milwaukee

Activities for the upcoming Women's Entrepreneurship Week in Milwaukee include a pitch competition, panel discussions on women in technology, and a session with women business owners.

More investors, including Chelsea Clinton, back Milwaukee's Fiveable in $2.3M funding round

More investors, including Chelsea Clinton, back Milwaukee's Fiveable in $2.3M funding round

Fiveable's latest round of funding was led by New York's BBG Ventures, a venture capital firm focused on investing in female founders. Other investors included Metrodora Ventures, Cream City Venture Capital, Golden Angel Investors; Matchstick Ventures; Twenty Seven Ventures; SoGal; Spero Ventures in California; and Deborah Quazzo, the managing partner at GSV Ventures in San Francisco.

Northwestern Mutual hosting first Women in Tech Conference

Northwestern Mutual hosting first Women in Tech Conference

Northwestern Mutual is hosting its first Women in Tech Conference on December 3 and will virtually gather top companies nationwide, women technologists and their allies for a full-day event focused on professional development, empowerment and collaboration, with the ultimate goal of fostering a more diverse and inclusive tech industry and community.

Using Emerging Technologies in Your Organization - A Conversation with Neal Sample

Using Emerging Technologies in Your Organization - A Conversation with Neal Sample

Chief Information Officer Neal Sample discusses the latest trends in AI and blockchain, the benefits of investing in emerging tech and advice for leaders to implement new technologies in their organization.

Northwestern Mutual subsidiary enters fitness sphere

Northwestern Mutual invests in Dallas health startup targeting millennials

Northwestern Mutual invests in Dallas health startup targeting millennials

Northwestern Mutual Future Ventures has invested in a Dallas health startup, Mountain Health Technologies, focused on helping millennials find access to affordable health care services.

Wisconsin tech companies raised record $454.3 million in 2019

Wisconsin tech companies raised record $454.3 million in 2019

A steady increase in Wisconsin startup funding has been attributed to a number of new Wisconsin-based startup funds, including Northwestern Mutual's Cream City Venture Capital.

Artificial Intelligence Real Estate Firm OJO Labs Raises $62.5 Million, Buys Home Listing Site

Artificial Intelligence Real Estate Firm OJO Labs Raises $62.5 Million, Buys Home Listing Site

OJO Labs raised $62.5 million in a Series D financing round with investments from Wafra, Breyer Capital, LiveOak Venture Partners, Royal Bank of Canada, and Northwestern Mutual Future Ventures.

MKE Tech Hub to appoint board member that reflects diversity

MKE Tech Hub to appoint board member that reflects diversity

The MKE Tech Hub Coalition is searching for a board member that would represent Milwaukee’s diverse community in response to racial inequality and police brutality in America.

How Northwestern Mutual is helping bring 300 tech jobs to Milwaukee

How Northwestern Mutual is helping bring 300 tech jobs to Milwaukee

Northwestern Mutual has partnered with GalaxE.Solutions to launch Outsource to Milwaukee to create hundreds of new tech jobs in Milwaukee and upskill local talent to fill critical tech job needs.

Tech company to bring 300 jobs to Milwaukee area, looking for people ‘willing to learn’

Tech company to bring 300 jobs to Milwaukee area, looking for people ‘willing to learn’

Northwestern Mutual's Chief Information Officer Neal Sample highlighted the company's commitment to building a diverse and inclusive tech community.

GalaxE.Solutions to locate innovation hub in downtown Milwaukee

GalaxE.Solutions to locate innovation hub in downtown Milwaukee

Northwestern Mutual's Chief Information Officer Neal Sample highlighted the positive impact the company's partnership with GalaxE.Solutions will have on job creation in Milwaukee.

Wisconsin cities rise in global startup hub rankings

Wisconsin cities rise in global startup hub rankings

In the 2020 StartupBlink report, which ranks 1,000 global startup hubs, Milwaukee has jumped 31 spots to No. 132.

Northwestern Mutual, CUNA Mutual co-lead $12.3M investment in Cleveland startup

Northwestern Mutual, CUNA Mutual co-lead $12.3M investment in Cleveland startup

Northwestern Mutual and CUNA Mutual co-led a $12.3 million Series A round in Splash Financial.

Nevertheless She Persisted: How A Female Fintech Founder Raised Her Seed Round

Nevertheless She Persisted: How A Female Fintech Founder Raised Her Seed Round

Featuring U-Nest founder Ksenia Yudina, Forbes highlights the apps that helps consumers quickly and easily set up 529 plans and Northwestern Mutual Future Ventures funding.

Inside their heads: Milwaukee's top tech execs share views on the digital age

Inside their heads: Milwaukee's top tech execs share views on the digital age

Milwaukee Business Journal shared perspective from Milwaukee tech executives, including Northwestern Mutual's Chief Information Officer Neal Sample, in a cover story that features insights on the growing prevalence of tech.

NMDSI Named Innovation Quotient Award Winner

NMDSI Named Innovation Quotient Award Winner

The Northwestern Mutual Data Science Institute (NMDSI) has been selected as a winner of the BizTimes Milwaukee's 2019 Innovation Quotient Award for the partnership between Northwestern Mutual, the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee and Marquette University.

MKE Tech Hub Coalition picks who will be tasked with doubling the area's tech workforce

College-savings startup U-Nest just added $1.5 million to its seed round. Its founder explains why she's hoping to one day be partnering with the type of Wall Street firm she started at.

Wisconsin's Top 10 Tech Fundings of 2019

Wisconsin's Top 10 Tech Fundings of 2019

WisconsinInno recaps some of 2019's top funding rounds.

The 13 Biggest Wisconsin Tech Stories of 2019

The 13 Biggest Wisconsin Tech Stories of 2019

As 2019 comes to a close, WisconsinInno takes a look back at Wisconsin's top tech headlines throughout the year.

Data Day Offers Insights on Using Data to Tell Stories and Effect Change

Data Day Offers Insights on Using Data to Tell Stories and Effect Change

On October 22nd, the Data Science Institute at Northwestern Mutual hosted the fifth annual “Data Day: No Stories without Data, No Data Without Stories,” organized by local nonprofit Data You Can Use.

Milwaukee CEOs Count On Legacy-Industry Challenges To Lure Tech Workers

Milwaukee CEOs Count On Legacy-Industry Challenges To Lure Tech Workers

Northwestern Mutual CEO John Schlifske discusses the MKE Tech Hub Coalition, its focus on doubling Milwaukee’s tech-worker population and transforming Milwaukee into a thriving tech ecosystem.

Northwestern Mutual to dedicate $20 million in VC investment for female-founded startups

Northwestern Mutual to dedicate $20 million in VC investment for female-founded startups

Northwestern Mutual Future Ventures has dedicated $20 million in venture funding to female-founded startups and that $20 million is only the beginning.

To turn Milwaukee into a tech hub, 6 companies want to double the number of workers by 2025

To turn Milwaukee into a tech hub, 6 companies want to double the number of workers by 2025

6 leading Milwaukee-area companies have partnered to form the MKE Tech, designed to attract and retain tech talent in region.

5 highlights during the two-day technology and arts conference Fall Experiment

5 highlights during the two-day technology and arts conference Fall Experiment

Learn more about Milwaukee’s second annual Fall Experiment, a two-day technology, art and music festival packed with keynote speakers, the region’s largest developer conference, a live performance from global DJ Steve Aoki, interactive gaming, entrepreneurship, product displays, STEM activities, and other immersive experiences.

Northwestern Mutual Data Science Institute names directors from Marquette, UWM

Northwestern Mutual Data Science Institute names directors from Marquette, UWM

Marquette University geneticist, Edward Blumenthal, and UWM marketing professor, Purush Papatla, have been named directors of the Northwestern Mutual Data Science Institute.

Souheil Badran Oversees Northwestern Mutual's Innovation Program

Souheil Badran Oversees Northwestern Mutual's Innovation Program

Northwestern Mutual's Chief Innovation Officer recently spoke with WatersTechnolgoy on the collaboration between technolgoy and business at Northwestern Mutual and investing in technology talent in Milwaukee.

New startup competition could import more tech companies into Milwaukee

New startup competition could import more tech companies into Milwaukee

Northwestern Mutual's Cream City Venture Capital and Rock River Capital Partners have partnered for Fall X Pitch, a new pitch competition created in Milwaukee for Milwaukee's technology startup community.

10 things you can't miss at Fall Experiment 2019

10 things you can't miss at Fall Experiment 2019

Learn about some of Fall Experiemnt's top upcoming technology, gaming, art and music events.

Clicking with Milwaukee

Clicking with Milwaukee

Milwaukee-based Northwestern Mutual has been a driving force in leading Milwaukee toward improving tech talent and increasing the volume of innovation in the region.

COMPSAC in Milwaukee exposes world's top researchers, technologists to region's tech

COMPSAC in Milwaukee exposes world's top researchers, technologists to region's tech

More than 300 academic researchers and technologists are in Milwaukee this week for the 2019 Computers, Software and Applications Conference hosted by the IEEE Computer Society.

Northwestern Mutual has carved out $150 million for another fintech and insurance investment fund

Northwestern Mutual has carved out $150 million for another fintech and insurance investment fund

Northwestern Mutual has committed $150 million to form Northwestern Mutual Future Ventures Fund II, an extension of the existing corporate venture capital to transform the financial planning client experience.

Northwestern Mutual is putting another $150 million toward technology startups

Northwestern Mutual is putting another $150 million toward technology startups

Northwestern Mutual is adding a second Northwestern Mutual Future Ventures fund to build on the success of the first fund and continue to invest in new technologies that have the potential to advance innovation in the financial planning space.

Northwestern Mutual Launches $150M Fund To Help People Manage Money

Northwestern Mutual Launches $150M Fund To Help People Manage Money

After launching Northwestern Mutual Future Ventures in 2017, Northwestern Mutual announced it has committed $150 million to Northwestern Mutual Future Ventures Fund II to invest in startups whos technologies have to potential to transform the financial security experience.

Office Envy: Inside 8 of Wisconsin's Coolest Tech Offices

Office Envy: Inside 8 of Wisconsin's Coolest Tech Offices

Launched in 2018, Northwestern Mutual's innovation lab, Cream City Labs, has been selected as one of WisconsinInno's coolest tech offices.

5 More Tech Markets Emerging in Unexpected Places

5 More Tech Markets Emerging in Unexpected Places

Milwaukee moves away from being known as just a manufacturing region and moves toward a region of tech innovation as one of top 5 emerging tech markets in the U.S.

Northwestern Mutual invests in AI-based medical records startup

Northwestern Mutual invests in AI-based medical records startup

Pythonic AI, an artificial intelligence startup in the medical records space, has been announced as the winner of the second annual Reverse Pitch MKE event.

From AI to cybersecurity, executives weigh in on Milwaukee's potential in emerging tech

From AI to cybersecurity, executives weigh in on Milwaukee's potential in emerging tech

Cloud computing, AI, and data science are among emerging technologies in Milwaukee's growing tech ecosystem.

Milwaukee is the New New Midwestern Tech Hub

Milwaukee is the New New Midwestern Tech Hub

Hear from Northwestern Mutual's James Hiscke on growing the tech ecosystem in Milwaukee.

Northwestern Mutual wins technology award

Northwestern Mutual wins technology award

Northwestern Mutual, continuously working toward a digital transofrmation, received Celent's 2019 Model Insurer Award in the "Innovation and Emerging Technology" category.

What's coming: Tech events in Milwaukee to attend this spring

What's coming: Tech events in Milwaukee to attend this spring

Explore what conferences, competitions and showcases organizations across the Milwaukee area are running for software developers, technology professionals, and entrepreneurs this Spring.

$100 million Foxconn venture fund names manager to 'stimulate' entrepreneurial spirit in southeastern WI

$100 million Foxconn venture fund names manager to 'stimulate' entrepreneurial spirit in southeastern WI

Aurora Advocate Health, Foxconn, Johnson Controls and Northwestern Mutual announced that Jason Franklin will manage the $100 million Wisconn Valley Venture Fund.

40 Under 40: James Hiscke

40 Under 40: James Hiscke

Milwaukee Business Journal recognizes James Hischke, one of 2018's 40 Under 40, for his efforts in helping build Milwaukee as a tech hub.

Northwestern Mutual hosts second annual 'Girls in Tech' event

Northwestern Mutual hosts second annual 'Girls in Tech' event

More than 120 Milwaukee-area middle school girls spent the day at Northwestern Mutual, exploring science, technology, engineering and math.

Is Milwaukee gaining on Madison as tech hub?

Is Milwaukee gaining on Madison as tech hub?

The technology industry in Wisconsin continues to expand as more companies like American Family Insurance begin to establish offices in Milwaukee.

Northwestern Mutual Explores Blockchain Applications

Northwestern Mutual Explores Blockchain Applications

Read how financial services and life insurance company, Northwestern Mutual, continues to explore blockchain applications.

5 Predictions for Wisconsin's Tech Ecosystem in 2019

5 Predictions for Wisconsin's Tech Ecosystem in 2019

Making the switch from corporations to startups and increased investments in local startups are just a few of the predictions for Wisconsin's tech ecosystem this year.

Milwaukee Business Journal's 40 Under 40: James Hischke

Milwaukee Business Journal's 40 Under 40: James Hischke

As the Milwaukee Business Journal unveiled it's annual 40 Under 40 list this week, WTMJ highlighted Milwaukee-area leader on the list, James Hischke, Senior Director of Tech Advancement and Outreach at Northwestern Mutual.

25 Milwaukee startups to watch in 2019

25 Milwaukee startups to watch in 2019

This list features a diverse group of companies in the Milwaukee area that are expected to continue breaking barriers in 2019.

5 Things to Watch in Milwaukee's Technology Industry in 2019

5 Things to Watch in Milwaukee's Technology Industry in 2019

From the Wisconn Valley Venture Fund to UWM's Lubar Entrepreneurship Center to Hub640, here are the top 5 things to look out for in Milwaukee's tech industry in 2019.

Venture Capital Funding and Acquisitions Highlighted Tech Industry in 2018: Year in Review

Venture Capital Funding and Acquisitions Highlighted Tech Industry in 2018: Year in Review

Increased investments in Milwaukee's tech industry, as well as acquisitions of tech companies in the Milwaukee area highlighted as top stories of 2018.

Northwestern Mutual Among Investors in Milwaukee Startup's $2.7M Funding Round

Northwestern Mutual Among Investors in Milwaukee Startup's $2.7M Funding Round

Cream City Venture Capital among other investors in Milwaukee startup, SteamChain Inc.'s $2.7 million round of funding.

These Are the 50 Best Places in America for Starting a Business

These Are the 50 Best Places in America for Starting a Business

The rise of the startup and venture fund scene in Milwaukee has contributed to Milwaukee's ranking as 29th on the list of 50 best places in America to start a business.

WI Syndication Group Seeks More Investor Team-ups to Spur Big Exits

WI Syndication Group Seeks More Investor Team-ups to Spur Big Exits

Wisconsin is one of the states experimenting with new tactics to nurture relationships with local startups.

The Disruption of Banking, Real Estate and Heath Care: Takeaways from Milwaukee Blockchain Conference

The Disruption of Banking, Real Estate and Heath Care: Takeaways from Milwaukee Blockchain Conference

The inaugural Milwaukee Blockchain Conference was co-hosted by the Marquette Blockchain Lab and Northwestern Mutual and drew more than 300 business leaders, entrepreneurs and students.

Ex-Google Designer Back in Wisconsin and Sharing Silicon Valley Knowledge in Milwaukee

Ex-Google Designer Back in Wisconsin and Sharing Silicon Valley Knowledge in Milwaukee

Wisconsin Native and former product and project designer at Google and YouTube, John Zeratsky, will host a Design Sprint boot camp in Milwaukee in Northwestern Mutual's Cream City Labs.

Midwest VC Investing, Online and Mobile Stocks (Podcast)

Midwest VC Investing, Online and Mobile Stocks (Podcast)

Northwestern Mutual Venture Partner Craig Schedler discusses venture capital trends and startup opportunities in the Midwest.

How the El-Amin Brothers are Cultivating Entrepreneurship Talent in Milwaukee's Central City

How the El-Amin Brothers are Cultivating Entrepreneurship Talent in Milwaukee's Central City

The El-Amin brothers are helping to cultivate entrepreneurship talent in Milwaukee's central city through their organization, Young Enterprising Society (YES).

Could Milwaukee be the Next Tech Hub for Startups? Local Entrepreneurs Think So

Could Milwaukee be the Next Tech Hub for Startups? Local Entrepreneurs Think So

Local entrepreneur and co-founder of startup Socialeads, Larry Hitchcock, discusses the growing momentum in Milwaukee's startup scene.

Northwestern Mutual's 'Reverse Pitch' Event Attracts Innovators

Northwestern Mutual's 'Reverse Pitch' Event Attracts Innovators

Northwestern Mutual held its second Reverse Pitch MKE event during Startup Milwaukee Week and is inviting entrepreneurs to solve business challenges for a chance to earn a seed investment.

Meet Wisconsin Inno's 2018 50 on Fire

Meet Wisconsin Inno's 2018 50 on Fire

WisconsinInno announced its inaugural 50 on Fire list that recognizes the top 50 people, companies and organizations advancing tech in Wisconsin.

‘Don’t Worry, Be Crappy:’ Early Apple Executive Offers Advice to Milwaukee Innovators

‘Don’t Worry, Be Crappy:’ Early Apple Executive Offers Advice to Milwaukee Innovators

Former Apple executive Guy Kawasaki encouraged attendees at the Milwaukee Tech Hub Summit to think different and think big.

Milwaukee Corporations Look to Bolster the Startup Community

Milwaukee Corporations Look to Bolster the Startup Community

Milwaukee corporations are helping to Bolster the local startup community.

Northwestern Mutual CEO John Schlifske On Building A Tech Hub In Milwaukee

Northwestern Mutual CEO John Schlifske On Building A Tech Hub In Milwaukee

Northwestern Mutual CEO discusses the company's efforts to grow Milwaukee as a tech hub.

Here's What You Need to Know for Startup Milwaukee Week

Here's What You Need to Know for Startup Milwaukee Week

Startup Milwaukee has more than 40 free events across the Milwaukee area taking place November 5-11.

This Startup Might Help You Recover From Heart Attacks and Strokes--for Less Than the Price of a New Car

This Startup Might Help You Recover From Heart Attacks and Strokes--for Less Than the Price of a New Car

Inc's November issue features emerging industries and startups, including Forever Labs, a startup that is banking stem cells to help consumers live healthier, longer lives.

How CIOs Tap Startups to Drive Innovation

How CIOs Tap Startups to Drive Innovation

CIOs are increasingly working with startups to drive innovation in their companies.

Here are Wisconsin's Top Venture Capital Deals for the Third Quarter

Here are Wisconsin's Top Venture Capital Deals for the Third Quarter

Seventeen companies reported raising at least $100,000 in investment rounds in Q3, according to the recent PitchBook-NVCA Venture Monitor Report.

Northwestern Mutual Holding Second Reverse Pitch MKE Event

Northwestern Mutual Holding Second Reverse Pitch MKE Event

Northwestern Mutual is holding its second Reverse Pitch MKE event during Startup Milwaukee Week.

Northwestern Mutual Takes the Wraps Off Its New Innovation Center

Northwestern Mutual Takes the Wraps Off Its New Innovation Center

Northwestern Mutual held a grand opening for its new innovation lab, Cream City Labs.

Startup Milwaukee Week Will Connect State's Technology Ecosystem

Startup Milwaukee Week Will Connect State's Technology Ecosystem

In its third year, Startup Milwaukee Week includes more than 50 sessions with more than 40 organizations hosting events

Gener8ting a Buzz: Rallying the Entrepreneurship Community

Gener8ting a Buzz: Rallying the Entrepreneurship Community

Since launching in 2012, gener8tor has become a national accelerator spurring innovation in Madison and Milwaukee.

Northwestern Mutual Debuts New Innovation Center, Cream City Labs

Northwestern Mutual Debuts New Innovation Center, Cream City Labs

Northwestern Mutual held a grand opening for its new innovation lab, Cream City Labs.

Northwestern Mutual's Digital Innovation Program Recognized by Innovation Leader

Northwestern Mutual's Digital Innovation Program Recognized by Innovation Leader

Northwestern Mutual has been named a runner-up in Innovation Leader's 2018 Impact Awards, which honors companies that have achieved extraordinary outcomes related to their innovation programs.

5 Can't-miss Technology and Entrepreneurship Events this Fall around Milwaukee

5 Can't-miss Technology and Entrepreneurship Events this Fall around Milwaukee

Check out five of the top technology and entrepreneurship events taking place in Milwaukee this fall.

Entrepreneurs “Bootcamp” Helps Minorities

Entrepreneurs “Bootcamp” Helps Minorities

Founders of 12 companies were selected to participate in the Blueprint Bootcamp, a business development program geared specifically toward entrepreneurs of color.

Fall Experiment Event a Blend of Milwaukee's Art, Film, Music and Technology Scenes

Fall Experiment Event a Blend of Milwaukee's Art, Film, Music and Technology Scenes

Many prominent companies and organizations are partnering to create the Fall Experiment, a full day event highlighting the technology, film, music and art communities.

How One Wisconsin Accelerator is Bridging the Gap between Startups and Corporate Executives

How One Wisconsin Accelerator is Bridging the Gap between Startups and Corporate Executives

Gener8tor is bridging the gap between startups and corporations through Project North, a members-only network that gives investors the first look into new businesses on the rise throughout the Midwest.

Northwestern Mutual CEO Calling on the Region's Employers to Create a Vibrant, Attractive Technology Ecosystem

Northwestern Mutual CEO Calling on the Region's Employers to Create a Vibrant, Attractive Technology Ecosystem

Northwestern Mutual CEO John Schlifske shares plans to bring together major employers in southeastern Wisconsin to form a coalition to grow technology in the region.

Foxconn, Advocate Aurora Health, Johnson Controls and Northwestern Mutual Create $100 Million Venture Fund

Foxconn, Advocate Aurora Health, Johnson Controls and Northwestern Mutual Create $100 Million Venture Fund

Four major Milwaukee-based corporations are committing $25 million each to form the Wisconn Valley Venture Fund.

Foxconn Joins with 3 Other Companies to Form $100 Million ‘Wisconn Valley’ Venture Fund

Foxconn Joins with 3 Other Companies to Form $100 Million ‘Wisconn Valley’ Venture Fund

Four companies in Wisconsin are joining together to form a $100 million venture fund to help accelerate the state's tech ecosystem.

Northwestern Mutual Drives Data Science Culture with Academic Partners

Northwestern Mutual Drives Data Science Culture with Academic Partners

Northwestern Mutual is partnering with Marquette University and University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee to launch the Northwestern Mutual Data Science Institute.

Is Milwaukee the Next Great Technology Hub? With a Coordinated Effort, It Could Be

Is Milwaukee the Next Great Technology Hub? With a Coordinated Effort, It Could Be

Northwestern Mutual CEO John Schlifske and Advocate Aurora Health CEO Dr. Nick Turkal discuss their mission to grow Milwaukee as a tech hub.

New Reports Cite Growth of Madison and Milwaukee as Tech Employment Clusters

New Reports Cite Growth of Madison and Milwaukee as Tech Employment Clusters

According to two recent studies, the number of tech employees in Madison and Milwaukee is significantly growing.

Wisconsin's Growing Corporate Venture Capital Landscape Fuels Startup Growth

Wisconsin's Growing Corporate Venture Capital Landscape Fuels Startup Growth

The growing corporate venture capital landscape in Wisconsin is fueling startup growth.

1 Overlooked Key to Startup Success. How you Define It.

1 Overlooked Key to Startup Success. How you Define It.

Northwestern Mutual venture partner Craig Schedler discusses the company's focus on investing in startups in its hometown of Milwaukee.

Tech Industry had $27B Impact on Milwaukee Region in 2017, Study Shows

Tech Industry had $27B Impact on Milwaukee Region in 2017, Study Shows

According to a recent study commissioned by leading employers in the Milwaukee region, tech talent had a local economic impact of $27 billion in 2017.

Northwestern Mutual Partners with Universities to Fund Data Science Institute

Northwestern Mutual Partners with Universities to Fund Data Science Institute

Northwestern Mutual, Marquette University and the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee are investing nearly $40 million to form the Northwestern Mutual Data Science Institute.

Northwestern Mutual Wants to Connect Its Employees with Local Innovators

Northwestern Mutual Wants to Connect Its Employees with Local Innovators

Northwestern Mutual unveiled for its new innovation center, Cream City Labs, to further advance opportunities for employees to innovate and bring outside thinking into the company.  

Why is Northwestern Mutual Pumping Money into Virtual Reality Games for Kids?

Why is Northwestern Mutual Pumping Money into Virtual Reality Games for Kids?

In partnership with its Foundation, Northwestern Mutual launched Butterfly Island, a virtual reality game aimed at calming stress and anxiety for children affected by childhood cancer.

Wantable and Bright Cellars, 2 of Milwaukee's Top Consumer Startups, Raise Funding

Wantable and Bright Cellars, 2 of Milwaukee's Top Consumer Startups, Raise Funding

Two Milwaukee e-commerce startups, Wantable and Bright Cellars, raised new rounds of venture funding.

Northwestern Mutual Offers Preview of its Milwaukee Innovation Lab

Northwestern Mutual Offers Preview of its Milwaukee Innovation Lab

Northwestern Mutual offered the first preview of its new innovation center, Cream City Labs, which opens this fall.

College Students Compete in 1st Ever "Hack It 'Til You Crack It!" Marathon

College Students Compete in 1st Ever "Hack It 'Til You Crack It!" Marathon

Northwestern Mutual hosts first "Hack It Til You Crack It" hackathon for college students from Marquette University and University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.

Powering Up Milwaukee's Tech Hub

Powering Up Milwaukee's Tech Hub

The Technology Ecosystem within Milwaukee is growing with excitement.

Learning More: Northwestern Mutual Hosts High School Job Shadow, Teacher Externship Day

Learning More: Northwestern Mutual Hosts High School Job Shadow, Teacher Externship Day

Northwestern Mutual is hosting a series of job shadowing events to introduce sixty local high schoolers to career opportunities in technology.

Milwaukee's Startup Community is Growing with Help from Local and National Organizations

Milwaukee's Startup Community is Growing with Help from Local and National Organizations

Iconic products such as beer, motorcycles and tractors have been produced in Wisconsin, but in recent years, its economy has changed significantly.

Visit Our Corporate Newsroom

Источник: https://innovation.northwesternmutual.com/news-events/

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