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Why does my DSA-1024 key use a different digest algorithm than my DSA-2048 or DSA-3072 If you have questions that you think should be on it but aren't. A path for path-based activation. For example, you can start services based on the state of a certain path, such as whether it exists or not. Alternatively, you can signal Xdebug to initiate debugging for a single Be aware: On many Linux distributions that run services through.

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It's too easy to own a WiFi network

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grep -A 15 Frequencies:

A more permanent configuration of the regdomain can be achieved through editing and uncommenting the appropriate domain.

wpa_supplicant can also use a regdomain in the line of .

It is also possible to configure the cfg80211 kernel module to use a specific regdomain by adding, for example, as module options. The module option is inherited from the old regulatory implementation and in modern kernels act as a userspace regulatory hint as if it came through through utilities like and .

Rfkill caveat

Many laptops have a hardware button (or switch) to turn off wireless card, however, the card can also be blocked by kernel. This can be handled by rfkill. To show the current status:

# rfkill list0: phy0: Wireless LAN Soft blocked: yes Hard blocked: yes

If the card is hard-blocked, use the hardware button (switch) to unblock it. If the card is not hard-blocked but soft-blocked, use the following command:

# rfkill unblock wifi

Note: It is possible that the card will go from hard-blocked and soft-unblocked state into hard-unblocked and soft-blocked state by pressing the hardware button (i.e. the soft-blocked bit is just switched no matter what). This can be adjusted by tuning some options of the kernel module.

Hardware buttons to toggle wireless cards are handled by a vendor specific kernel module, frequently these are WMI modules. Particularly for very new hardware models, it happens that the model is not fully supported in the latest stable kernel yet. In this case it often helps to search the kernel bug tracker for information and report the model to the maintainer of the respective vendor kernel module, if it has not happened already.

See also [2].

Power saving

See Power saving#Network interfaces.

Troubleshooting

This section contains general troubleshooting tips, not strictly related to problems with drivers or firmware. For such topics, see next section #Troubleshooting drivers and firmware.

Temporary internet access

If you have problematic hardware and need internet access to, for example, download some software or get help in forums, you can make use of Android's built-in feature for internet sharing via USB cable. See Android tethering#USB tethering for more information.

Observing logs

A good first measure to troubleshoot is to analyze the system's logfiles first. In order not to manually parse through them all, it can help to open a second terminal/console window and watch the kernels messages with

# dmesg -w

while performing the action, e.g. the wireless association attempt.

When using a tool for network management, the same can be done for systemd with

# journalctl -f

Frequently a wireless error is accompanied by a deauthentication with a particular reason code, for example:

wlan0: deauthenticating from XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX by local choice (reason=3)

Looking up the reason code might give a first hint. Maybe it also helps you to look at the control message flowchart, the journal messages will follow it.

The individual tools used in this article further provide options for more detailed debugging output, which can be used in a second step of the analysis, if required.

Failed to get IP address

  • If getting an IP address repeatedly fails using the default dhcpcd client, try installing and using dhclient instead. Do not forget to select dhclient as the primary DHCP client in the connection manager.
  • If you can get an IP address for a wired interface and not for a wireless interface, try disabling the wireless card's power saving features (specify instead of ).
  • If you get a timeout error due to a waiting for carrier problem, then you might have to set the channel mode to for the specific device:
# iwconfig wlan0 channel auto

Before changing the channel to auto, make sure your wireless interface is down. After it has successfully changed it, you can bring the interface up again and continue from there.

Valid IP address but cannot resolve host

If you are on a public wireless network that may have a captive portal, make sure to query an HTTP page (not an HTTPS page) from your web browser, as some captive portals only redirect HTTP. If this is not the issue, check if you can resolve domain names, it may be necessary to use the DNS server advertised via DHCP.

Setting RTS and fragmentation thresholds

Wireless hardware disables RTS and fragmentation by default. These are two different methods of increasing throughput at the expense of bandwidth (i.e. reliability at the expense of speed). These are useful in environments with wireless noise or many adjacent access points, which may create interference leading to timeouts or failing connections.

Packet fragmentation improves throughput by splitting up packets with size exceeding the fragmentation threshold. The maximum value (2346) effectively disables fragmentation since no packet can exceed it. The minimum value (256) maximizes throughput, but may carry a significant bandwidth cost.

# iw phy0 set frag 512

RTS improves throughput by performing a handshake with the access point before transmitting packets with size exceeding the RTS threshold. The maximum threshold (2347) effectively disables RTS since no packet can exceed it. The minimum threshold (0) enables RTS for all packets, which is probably excessive for most situations.

# iw phy0 set rts 500

Note: is the name of the wireless device as listed by .

Random disconnections

Cause #1

If dmesg says and you lose your Wi-Fi connection, it is likely that you have a bit too aggressive power-saving on your Wi-Fi card. Try disabling the wireless card's power saving features (specify instead of ).

If your card does not support enabling/disabling power save mode, check the BIOS for power management options. Disabling PCI-Express power management in the BIOS of a Lenovo W520 resolved this issue.

Cause #2

If you are experiencing frequent disconnections and dmesg shows messages such as

try changing the channel bandwidth to through your router's settings page.

Cause #3

On some laptop models with hardware rfkill switches (e.g., Thinkpad X200 series), due to wear or bad design, the switch (or its connection to the mainboard) might become loose over time resulting in seemingly random hardblocks/disconnects when you accidentally touch the switch or move the laptop. There is no software solution to this, unless your switch is electrical and the BIOS offers the option to disable the switch. If your switch is mechanical (most are), there are lots of possible solutions, most of which aim to disable the switch: Soldering the contact point on the mainboard/wifi-card, glueing or blocking the switch, using a screw nut to tighten the switch or removing it altogether.

Cause #4

Another cause for frequent disconnects or a complete failure to connect may also be a sub-standard router, incomplete settings of the router, or interference by other wireless devices.

To troubleshoot, first best try to connect to the router with no authentication.

If that works, enable WPA/WPA2 again but choose fixed and/or limited router settings. For example:

  • If the router is considerably older than the wireless device you use for the client, test if it works with setting the router to one wireless mode
  • Disable mixed-mode authentication (e.g. only WPA2 with AES, or TKIP if the router is old)
  • Try a fixed/free channel rather than "auto" channel (maybe the router next door is old and interfering)
  • Disable WPS
  • Change the router's 5 GHz channel(s) to a non-DFS (Dynamic Frequency Selection) channel. Connections on such channels may be dropped or suddenly switched due to interference from nearby weather radar.
  • Disable channel bandwidth (lower throughput but less likely collisions) with
  • If the router has quality of service settings, check completeness of settings (e.g. Wi-Fi Multimedia (WMM) is part of optional QoS flow control. An erroneous router firmware may advertise its existence although the setting is not enabled)

Cause #5

On some wireless network adapters (e.g. Qualcomm Atheros AR9485), random disconnects can happen with a DMA error:

# journalctl -xbath: phy0: DMA failed to stop in 10 ms AR_CR=0x00000024 AR_DIAG_SW=0x02000020 DMADBG_7=0x0000a400 wlp1s0: authenticate with 56:e7:ee:7b:55:bc wlp1s0: send auth to 56:e7:ee:7b:55:bc (try 1/3) wlp1s0: send auth to 56:e7:ee:7b:55:bc (try 2/3) wlp1s0: send auth to 56:e7:ee:7b:55:bc (try 3/3) wlp1s0: authentication with 56:e7:ee:7b:55:bc timed out

A possible workaround is to disable the Intel IOMMU driver (DMA), adding to the kernel parameters[3].

Note: The Intel IOMMU driver is needed for some advanced virtual machine features, like PCI pass-through.

Cause #6

If you are using a device with iwlwifi and iwlmvm for wireless connectivity, and your Wi-Fi card appears to disappear when on battery power (perhaps after a reboot or resuming from suspend), this can be fixed by configuring power saving settings in iwlmvm.

Create the file if it does not exist already, then add the following line to it:

/etc/modprobe.d/iwlmvm.confoptions iwlmvm power_scheme=1

A of 1 sets iwlmvm to "Always Active." Available options are:

ValueDescription
1Always Active
2Balanced
3Low-power

This fix was discovered at [4].

Cause #7

If your device undergoes long periods of inactivity (e.g. a file server) the disconnection may be due to power saving, which will block incoming traffic and prevent connections. Try disabling power saving for the interface:

# iw dev interface set power_save off

You can create a udev rule to do this on boot, see Power management#Network interfaces.

Wi-Fi networks invisible because of incorrect regulatory domain

If the computer's Wi-Fi channels do not match those of the user's country, some in-range Wi-Fi networks might be invisible, because they use wireless channels that are not allowed by default. The solution is to configure the regulatory domain correctly, see #Respecting the regulatory domain.

Troubleshooting drivers and firmware

This section covers methods and procedures for installing kernel modules and firmware for specific chipsets, that differ from generic method.

See Kernel modules for general information on operations with modules.

Ralink/Mediatek

rt2x00

Unified driver for Ralink chipsets (it replaces , , , etc). This driver has been in the Linux kernel since 2.6.24, you only need to load the right module for the chip: , , , or which will autoload the respective modules too.

A list of devices supported by the modules is available at the project's homepage.

Additional notes
  • Since kernel 3.0, rt2x00 includes also these drivers: , .
  • Since kernel 3.0, the staging drivers and are replaced by the mainline drivers and [5].
  • Some devices have a wide range of options that can be configured with . These are documented in the source tarballs available from Ralink.

rt3090

For devices which are using the rt3090 chipset it should be possible to use driver, however, is not working with this chipset very well (e.g. sometimes it is not possible to use higher rate than 2Mb/s).

rt3290

The rt3290 chipset is recognised by the kernel module. However, some users experience problems and reverting to a patched Ralink driver seems to be beneficial in these cases.

rt3573

New chipset as of 2012. It may require proprietary drivers from Ralink. Different manufacturers use it, see the Belkin N750 DB wireless usb adapter forums thread.

mt7612u

New chipset as of 2014, released under their new commercial name Mediatek. It is an AC1200 or AC1300 chipset. Manufacturer provides drivers for Linux on their support page. As of kernel 5.5 it should be supported by the included driver.

Realtek

See [6] for a list of Realtek chipsets and specifications.

rtl8192cu

The driver is now in the kernel, but many users have reported being unable to make a connection although scanning for networks does work.

8192cu-dkmsAUR includes many patches, try this if it does not work fine with the driver in kernel.

rtl8723ae/rtl8723be

The and modules are included in the mainline Linux kernel.

Some users may encounter errors with powersave on this card. This is shown with occasional disconnects that are not recognized by high level network managers (netctl, NetworkManager). This error can be confirmed by running as root or as root and looking for output related to powersave and the / module. If you are having this issue, use the kernel option, which should prevent the WiFi card from automatically sleeping and halting connection. See Kernel module#Setting module options.

If you have poor signal, perhaps your device has only one physical antenna connected, and antenna autoselection is broken. You can force the choice of antenna with or kernel option. [7]

rtl88xxau

Realtek chipsets rtl8811au, rtl8812au, rtl8814au and rtl8821au designed for various USB adapters ranging from AC600 to AC1900. Several packages provide various kernel drivers, these require DKMS (the dkms package and the kernel headers installed):

ChipsetDriver versionPackageNotes
rtl8811au, rtl8812au, rtl8821au5.6.4.2rtl88xxau-aircrack-dkms-gitAURAircrack-ng kernel module for 8811au, 8812au and 8821au chipsets with monitor mode and injection support.
rtl8814au5.8.5.1rtl8814au-aircrack-dkms-gitAURAircrack-ng kernel module for 8814au chipsets with monitor mode and injection support.
rtl8812au5.9.3.2rtl8812au-dkms-gitAURLatest official Realtek driver version for rtl8812au only.
rtl8811au, rtl8821au5.8.2.3rtl8821au-dkms-gitAURNewer driver version for rtl8821au.
rtl8814au5.8.5.1rtl8814au-dkms-gitAURPossibly works for rtl8813au too. Seems to be deprecated in favor of rtl8814au-aircrack-dkms-gitAUR

rtl8811cu/rtl8821cu

rtl8821cu-dkms-gitAUR provides a kernel module for the Realtek 8811cu and 8821cu chipset.

This requires DKMS, so make sure you have your proper kernel headers installed.

If no wireless interface shows up even though the module is loaded, you may need to manually specify the option [8][9]. Try e.g. , other values might also work. See Kernel module#Setting module options for details.

rtl8821ce

rtl8821ce-dkms-gitAUR provides a kernel module for the Realtek 8821ce chipset found in the Asus X543UA.

This requires DKMS, so make sure you have your proper kernel headers installed.

rtl8822bu

rtl8822bu-dkms-gitAUR or rtl88x2bu-dkms-gitAUR provides a kernel module for the Realtek 8822bu chipset found in the Edimax EW7822ULC USB3, Asus AC53 Nano USB 802.11ac and TP-Link Archer T3U adapter.

This requires DKMS, so make sure you have your proper kernel headers installed.

rtl8xxxu

Tango-view-fullscreen.pngThis article or section needs expansion.Tango-view-fullscreen.png

Reason: Specific issues with the mainline module and kernel versions should be stated. (Discuss in Talk:Network configuration/Wireless)

Issues with the mainline kernel module may be solved by compiling a third-party module for the specific chipset. The source code can be found in GitHub repositories.

Some drivers may be already prepared in the AUR, e.g. rtl8723bu-git-dkmsAUR.

Atheros

The MadWifi team currently maintains three different drivers for devices with Atheros chipset:

  • is an old, obsolete driver. Not present in Arch kernel since 2.6.39.1[10].
  • is newer driver, which replaces the driver. Currently a better choice for some chipsets, but not all chipsets are supported (see below)
  • is the newest of these three drivers, it is intended for newer Atheros chipsets. All of the chips with 802.11n capabilities are supported.

There are some other drivers for some Atheros devices. See Linux Wireless documentation for details.

ath5k

External resources:

If you find web pages randomly loading very slow, or if the device is unable to lease an IP address, try to switch from hardware to software encryption by loading the module with option. See Kernel modules#Setting module options for details.

Some laptops may have problems with their wireless LED indicator flickering red and blue. To solve this problem, do:

# echo none > /sys/class/leds/ath5k-phy0::tx/trigger # echo none > /sys/class/leds/ath5k-phy0::rx/trigger

For alternatives, see this bug report.

ath9k

External resources:

As of Linux 3.15.1, some users have been experiencing a decrease in bandwidth. In some cases this can fixed by setting the option for the module. See Kernel module#Setting module options.

Note: Use the command to see what modules are in use and change if it is named differently (e.g. ).

In the unlikely event that you have stability issues that trouble you, you could try using the backports-patchedAUR package. An ath9k mailing list exists for support and development related discussions.

Power saving

Although Linux Wireless says that dynamic power saving is enabled for Atheros ath9k single-chips newer than AR9280, for some devices (e.g. AR9285) powertop might still report that power saving is disabled. In this case enable it manually.

On some devices (e.g. AR9285), enabling the power saving might result in the following error:

# iw dev wlan0 set power_save oncommand failed: Operation not supported (-95)

The solution is to set the option for the module, see Kernel module#Setting module options.

Intel

ipw2100 and ipw2200

These modules are fully supported in the kernel, but they require additional firmware. Depending on which of the chipsets you have, install either ipw2100-fw or ipw2200-fw. Then reload the appropriate module.

Tip:You may use the following module options:
  • use the option to enable the radiotap interface
  • use the option to enable a front LED indicating when the wireless is connected or not

iwlegacy

iwlegacy is the wireless driver for Intel's 3945 and 4965 wireless chips. The firmware is included in the linux-firmware package.

udev should load the driver automatically, otherwise load or manually. See Kernel modules for details.

If you have problems connecting to networks in general, random failures with your card on bootup or your link quality is very poor, try to disable 802.11n:

/etc/modprobe.d/iwl4965.confoptions iwl4965 11n_disable=1

If the failures persist during bootup and you are using Nouveau driver, try enabling early KMS to prevent the conflict [11].

iwlwifi

iwlwifi is the wireless driver for Intel's current wireless chips, such as 5100AGN, 5300AGN, and 5350AGN. See the full list of supported devices. The firmware is included in the linux-firmware package. The linux-firmware-iwlwifi-gitAUR may contain some updates sooner.

If you have problems connecting to networks in general or your link quality is very poor, try to disable 802.11n, and perhaps also enable software encryption:

/etc/modprobe.d/iwlwifi.confoptions iwlwifi 11n_disable=1 swcrypto=1

If you have a problem with slow uplink speed in 802.11n mode, for example 20Mbps, try to enable antenna aggregation:

/etc/modprobe.d/iwlwifi.confoptions iwlwifi 11n_disable=8

Do not be confused with the option name, when the value is set to it does not disable anything but re-enables transmission antenna aggregation.[12][13]

In case this does not work for you, you may try disabling power saving for your wireless adapter.

Some have never gotten this to work. Others found salvation by disabling N in their router settings after trying everything. This is known to have be the only solution on more than one occasion. The second link there mentions a 5ghz option that might be worth exploring.

If you have an 802.11ax (WiFi 6) access point and have problems detecting the beacons or an unreliable connection, review Intel Article 54799.

Note: Using will also prevent 802.11ac and only allow connection with slower protocols (802.11a in the 5GHz band or 802.11b/g in the 2.4 GHz band).

Bluetooth coexistence

If you have difficulty connecting a bluetooth headset and maintaining good downlink speed, try disabling bluetooth coexistence [14]:

/etc/modprobe.d/iwlwifi.confoptions iwlwifi bt_coex_active=0
Firmware stack traces

Tango-inaccurate.pngThe factual accuracy of this article or section is disputed.Tango-inaccurate.png

Reason: What is the last note about ignored packages trying to say? (Discuss in Talk:Network configuration/Wireless)

You may have some issue where the driver outputs stack traces & errors, which can cause some stuttering.

# dmesgMicrocode SW error detected. Restarting 0x2000000.

To fix those errors, you may downgrade the package linux-firmware or rename the last version of the firmware used by your device so that an older version is loaded (which keeps it out of pacman's ignored packages).

Disabling LED blink

Note: This works with the and drivers.

The default settings on the module are to have the LED blink on activity. Some people find this extremely annoying. To have the LED on solid when Wi-Fi is active, you can use the systemd-tmpfiles:

/etc/tmpfiles.d/phy0-led.confw /sys/class/leds/phy0-led/trigger - - - - phy0radio

Run for the change to take effect, or reboot.

To see all the possible trigger values for this LED:

# cat /sys/class/leds/phy0-led/trigger

Tip: If you do not have , you may try to use the module option. It should be valid for both and drivers.

Broadcom

See Broadcom wireless.

Other drivers/devices

Tenda w322u

Treat this Tenda card as an device. See #rt2x00.

orinoco

This should be a part of the kernel package and be installed already.

Some Orinoco chipsets are Hermes II. You can use the driver instead of and gain WPA support. To use the driver, blacklist first.

prism54

The driver is included in kernel, but you have to download the appropriate firmware for your card from this site and install it into the directory.

Note: There is also older, deprecated driver , which might conflict with the newer driver ( or ). Make sure to blacklist.

ACX100/111

Warning: The drivers for these devices are broken and do not work with newer kernel versions.

Packages: (deleted from official repositories and AUR)

See official page for details.

zd1211rw

zd1211rw is a driver for the ZyDAS ZD1211 802.11b/g USB WLAN chipset, and it is included in recent versions of the Linux kernel. See [15] for a list of supported devices. You only need to install the firmware for the device, provided by the zd1211-firmwareAUR package.

hostap_cs

Host AP is a Linux driver for wireless LAN cards based on Intersil's Prism2/2.5/3 chipset. The driver is included in Linux kernel.

Note: Make sure to blacklist the driver, it may cause problems.

ndiswrapper

Ndiswrapper is a wrapper script that allows you to use some Windows drivers in Linux. You will need the and files from your Windows driver.

Warning: Be sure to use drivers appropriate to your architecture (x86 vs. x86_64).

Tip: If you need to extract these files from an file, you can use cabextract.

Follow these steps to configure ndiswrapper.

1. Install ndiswrapper-dkms

2. Install the driver to

# ndiswrapper -i filename.inf

3. List all installed drivers for ndiswrapper

$ ndiswrapper -l

4. Let ndiswrapper write its configuration in :

# ndiswrapper -m # depmod -a

Now the ndiswrapper install is almost finished; follow the instructions on Kernel modules#Automatic module loading with systemd to automatically load the module at boot.

The important part is making sure that ndiswrapper exists on this line, so just add it alongside the other modules. It would be best to test that ndiswrapper will load now, so:

# modprobe ndiswrapper # iwconfig

and wlan0 should now exist. If you have problems, some help is available at: ndiswrapper howto and ndiswrapper FAQ.

backports-patched

backports-patchedAUR provide drivers released on newer kernels backported for usage on older kernels. The project started since 2007 and was originally known as compat-wireless, evolved to compat-drivers and was recently renamed simply to backports.

If you are using old kernel and have wireless issue, drivers in this package may help.

See also

Источник: https://wiki.archlinux.org/title/Network_configuration/Wireless

systemd(1) — Linux manual page


SYSTEMD(1) systemd SYSTEMD(1)

NAME         top

systemd, init - systemd system and service manager

SYNOPSIS         top

/usr/lib/systemd/systemd [OPTIONS...] init [OPTIONS...] {COMMAND}

DESCRIPTION         top

systemd is a system and service manager for Linux operating systems. When run as first process on boot (as PID 1), it acts as init system that brings up and maintains userspace services. Separate instances are started for logged-in users to start their services. systemd is usually not invoked directly by the user, but is installed as the /sbin/init symlink and started during early boot. The user manager instances are started automatically through the [email protected](5) service. For compatibility with SysV, if the binary is called as init and is not the first process on the machine (PID is not 1), it will execute telinit and pass all command line arguments unmodified. That means init and telinit are mostly equivalent when invoked from normal login sessions. See telinit(8) for more information. When run as a system instance, systemd interprets the configuration file system.conf and the files in system.conf.d directories; when run as a user instance, systemd interprets the configuration file user.conf and the files in user.conf.d directories. See systemd-system.conf(5) for more information.

CONCEPTS         top

systemd provides a dependency system between various entities called "units" of 11 different types. Units encapsulate various objects that are relevant for system boot-up and maintenance. The majority of units are configured in unit configuration files, whose syntax and basic set of options is described in systemd.unit(5), however some are created automatically from other configuration files, dynamically from system state or programmatically at runtime. Units may be "active" (meaning started, bound, plugged in, ..., depending on the unit type, see below), or "inactive" (meaning stopped, unbound, unplugged, ...), as well as in the process of being activated or deactivated, i.e. between the two states (these states are called "activating", "deactivating"). A special "failed" state is available as well, which is very similar to "inactive" and is entered when the service failed in some way (process returned error code on exit, or crashed, an operation timed out, or after too many restarts). If this state is entered, the cause will be logged, for later reference. Note that the various unit types may have a number of additional substates, which are mapped to the five generalized unit states described here. The following unit types are available: 1. Service units, which start and control daemons and the processes they consist of. For details, see systemd.service(5). 2. Socket units, which encapsulate local IPC or network sockets in the system, useful for socket-based activation. For details about socket units, see systemd.socket(5), for details on socket-based activation and other forms of activation, see daemon(7). 3. Target units are useful to group units, or provide well-known synchronization points during boot-up, see systemd.target(5). 4. Device units expose kernel devices in systemd and may be used to implement device-based activation. For details, see systemd.device(5). 5. Mount units control mount points in the file system, for details see systemd.mount(5). 6. Automount units provide automount capabilities, for on-demand mounting of file systems as well as parallelized boot-up. See systemd.automount(5). 7. Timer units are useful for triggering activation of other units based on timers. You may find details in systemd.timer(5). 8. Swap units are very similar to mount units and encapsulate memory swap partitions or files of the operating system. They are described in systemd.swap(5). 9. Path units may be used to activate other services when file system objects change or are modified. See systemd.path(5). 10. Slice units may be used to group units which manage system processes (such as service and scope units) in a hierarchical tree for resource management purposes. See systemd.slice(5). 11. Scope units are similar to service units, but manage foreign processes instead of starting them as well. See systemd.scope(5). Units are named as their configuration files. Some units have special semantics. A detailed list is available in systemd.special(7). systemd knows various kinds of dependencies, including positive and negative requirement dependencies (i.e. Requires= and Conflicts=) as well as ordering dependencies (After= and Before=). NB: ordering and requirement dependencies are orthogonal. If only a requirement dependency exists between two units (e.g. foo.service requires bar.service), but no ordering dependency (e.g. foo.service after bar.service) and both are requested to start, they will be started in parallel. It is a common pattern that both requirement and ordering dependencies are placed between two units. Also note that the majority of dependencies are implicitly created and maintained by systemd. In most cases, it should be unnecessary to declare additional dependencies manually, however it is possible to do this. Application programs and units (via dependencies) may request state changes of units. In systemd, these requests are encapsulated as 'jobs' and maintained in a job queue. Jobs may succeed or can fail, their execution is ordered based on the ordering dependencies of the units they have been scheduled for. On boot systemd activates the target unit default.target whose job is to activate on-boot services and other on-boot units by pulling them in via dependencies. Usually, the unit name is just an alias (symlink) for either graphical.target (for fully-featured boots into the UI) or multi-user.target (for limited console-only boots for use in embedded or server environments, or similar; a subset of graphical.target). However, it is at the discretion of the administrator to configure it as an alias to any other target unit. See systemd.special(7) for details about these target units. systemd only keeps a minimal set of units loaded into memory. Specifically, the only units that are kept loaded into memory are those for which at least one of the following conditions is true: 1. It is in an active, activating, deactivating or failed state (i.e. in any unit state except for "inactive") 2. It has a job queued for it 3. It is a dependency of at least one other unit that is loaded into memory 4. It has some form of resource still allocated (e.g. a service unit that is inactive but for which a process is still lingering that ignored the request to be terminated) 5. It has been pinned into memory programmatically by a D-Bus call systemd will automatically and implicitly load units from disk — if they are not loaded yet — as soon as operations are requested for them. Thus, in many respects, the fact whether a unit is loaded or not is invisible to clients. Use systemctl list-units--all to comprehensively list all units currently loaded. Any unit for which none of the conditions above applies is promptly unloaded. Note that when a unit is unloaded from memory its accounting data is flushed out too. However, this data is generally not lost, as a journal log record is generated declaring the consumed resources whenever a unit shuts down. Processes systemd spawns are placed in individual Linux control groups named after the unit which they belong to in the private systemd hierarchy. (see cgroups.txt[1] for more information about control groups, or short "cgroups"). systemd uses this to effectively keep track of processes. Control group information is maintained in the kernel, and is accessible via the file system hierarchy (beneath /sys/fs/cgroup/systemd/), or in tools such as systemd-cgls(1) or ps(1) (ps xawf -eo pid,user,cgroup,args is particularly useful to list all processes and the systemd units they belong to.). systemd is compatible with the SysV init system to a large degree: SysV init scripts are supported and simply read as an alternative (though limited) configuration file format. The SysV /dev/initctl interface is provided, and compatibility implementations of the various SysV client tools are available. In addition to that, various established Unix functionality such as /etc/fstab or the utmp database are supported. systemd has a minimal transaction system: if a unit is requested to start up or shut down it will add it and all its dependencies to a temporary transaction. Then, it will verify if the transaction is consistent (i.e. whether the ordering of all units is cycle-free). If it is not, systemd will try to fix it up, and removes non-essential jobs from the transaction that might remove the loop. Also, systemd tries to suppress non-essential jobs in the transaction that would stop a running service. Finally it is checked whether the jobs of the transaction contradict jobs that have already been queued, and optionally the transaction is aborted then. If all worked out and the transaction is consistent and minimized in its impact it is merged with all already outstanding jobs and added to the run queue. Effectively this means that before executing a requested operation, systemd will verify that it makes sense, fixing it if possible, and only failing if it really cannot work. Note that transactions are generated independently of a unit's state at runtime, hence, for example, if a start job is requested on an already started unit, it will still generate a transaction and wake up any inactive dependencies (and cause propagation of other jobs as per the defined relationships). This is because the enqueued job is at the time of execution compared to the target unit's state and is marked successful and complete when both satisfy. However, this job also pulls in other dependencies due to the defined relationships and thus leads to, in our example, start jobs for any of those inactive units getting queued as well. systemd contains native implementations of various tasks that need to be executed as part of the boot process. For example, it sets the hostname or configures the loopback network device. It also sets up and mounts various API file systems, such as /sys/ or /proc/. For more information about the concepts and ideas behind systemd, please refer to the Original Design Document[2]. Note that some but not all interfaces provided by systemd are covered by the Interface Portability and Stability Promise[3]. Units may be generated dynamically at boot and system manager reload time, for example based on other configuration files or parameters passed on the kernel command line. For details, see systemd.generator(7). The D-Bus API of systemd is described in org.freedesktop.systemd1(5) and org.freedesktop.LogControl1(5). Systems which invoke systemd in a container or initrd environment should implement the Container Interface[4] or initrdInterface[5] specifications, respectively.

DIRECTORIES         top

System unit directories The systemd system manager reads unit configuration from various directories. Packages that want to install unit files shall place them in the directory returned by pkg-configsystemd --variable=systemdsystemunitdir. Other directories checked are /usr/local/lib/systemd/system and /usr/lib/systemd/system. User configuration always takes precedence. pkg-config systemd--variable=systemdsystemconfdir returns the path of the system configuration directory. Packages should alter the content of these directories only with the enable and disable commands of the systemctl(1) tool. Full list of directories is provided in systemd.unit(5). User unit directories Similar rules apply for the user unit directories. However, here the XDG Base Directory specification[6] is followed to find units. Applications should place their unit files in the directory returned by pkg-config systemd--variable=systemduserunitdir. Global configuration is done in the directory reported by pkg-config systemd--variable=systemduserconfdir. The enable and disable commands of the systemctl(1) tool can handle both global (i.e. for all users) and private (for one user) enabling/disabling of units. Full list of directories is provided in systemd.unit(5). SysV init scripts directory The location of the SysV init script directory varies between distributions. If systemd cannot find a native unit file for a requested service, it will look for a SysV init script of the same name (with the .service suffix removed). SysV runlevel link farm directory The location of the SysV runlevel link farm directory varies between distributions. systemd will take the link farm into account when figuring out whether a service shall be enabled. Note that a service unit with a native unit configuration file cannot be started by activating it in the SysV runlevel link farm.

SIGNALS         top

SIGTERM Upon receiving this signal the systemd system manager serializes its state, reexecutes itself and deserializes the saved state again. This is mostly equivalent to systemctldaemon-reexec. systemd user managers will start the exit.target unit when this signal is received. This is mostly equivalent to systemctl --user start exit.target--job-mode=replace-irreversibly. SIGINT Upon receiving this signal the systemd system manager will start the ctrl-alt-del.target unit. This is mostly equivalent to systemctl start ctrl-alt-del.target--job-mode=replace-irreversibly. If this signal is received more than 7 times per 2s, an immediate reboot is triggered. Note that pressing Ctrl+Alt+Del on the console will trigger this signal. Hence, if a reboot is hanging, pressing Ctrl+Alt+Del more than 7 times in 2 seconds is a relatively safe way to trigger an immediate reboot. systemd user managers treat this signal the same way as SIGTERM. SIGWINCH When this signal is received the systemd system manager will start the kbrequest.target unit. This is mostly equivalent to systemctl start kbrequest.target. This signal is ignored by systemd user managers. SIGPWR When this signal is received the systemd manager will start the sigpwr.target unit. This is mostly equivalent to systemctl start sigpwr.target. SIGUSR1 When this signal is received the systemd manager will try to reconnect to the D-Bus bus. SIGUSR2 When this signal is received the systemd manager will log its complete state in human-readable form. The data logged is the same as printed by systemd-analyze dump. SIGHUP Reloads the complete daemon configuration. This is mostly equivalent to systemctl daemon-reload. SIGRTMIN+0 Enters default mode, starts the default.target unit. This is mostly equivalent to systemctl isolate default.target. SIGRTMIN+1 Enters rescue mode, starts the rescue.target unit. This is mostly equivalent to systemctl isolate rescue.target. SIGRTMIN+2 Enters emergency mode, starts the emergency.service unit. This is mostly equivalent to systemctl isolateemergency.service. SIGRTMIN+3 Halts the machine, starts the halt.target unit. This is mostly equivalent to systemctl start halt.target--job-mode=replace-irreversibly. SIGRTMIN+4 Powers off the machine, starts the poweroff.target unit. This is mostly equivalent to systemctl start poweroff.target--job-mode=replace-irreversibly. SIGRTMIN+5 Reboots the machine, starts the reboot.target unit. This is mostly equivalent to systemctl start reboot.target--job-mode=replace-irreversibly. SIGRTMIN+6 Reboots the machine via kexec, starts the kexec.target unit. This is mostly equivalent to systemctl start kexec.target--job-mode=replace-irreversibly. SIGRTMIN+13 Immediately halts the machine. SIGRTMIN+14 Immediately powers off the machine. SIGRTMIN+15 Immediately reboots the machine. SIGRTMIN+16 Immediately reboots the machine with kexec. SIGRTMIN+20 Enables display of status messages on the console, as controlled via systemd.show_status=1 on the kernel command line. SIGRTMIN+21 Disables display of status messages on the console, as controlled via systemd.show_status=0 on the kernel command line. SIGRTMIN+22 Sets the service manager's log level to "debug", in a fashion equivalent to systemd.log_level=debug on the kernel command line. SIGRTMIN+23 Restores the log level to its configured value. The configured value is derived from – in order of priority – the value specified with systemd.log-level= on the kernel command line, or the value specified with LogLevel= in the configuration file, or the built-in default of "info". SIGRTMIN+24 Immediately exits the manager (only available for --user instances). SIGRTMIN+25 Upon receiving this signal the systemd manager will reexecute itself. This is mostly equivalent to systemctl daemon-reexec except that it will be done asynchronously. The systemd system manager treats this signal the same way as SIGTERM. SIGRTMIN+26 Restores the log target to its configured value. The configured value is derived from – in order of priority – the value specified with systemd.log-target= on the kernel command line, or the value specified with LogTarget= in the configuration file, or the built-in default. SIGRTMIN+27, SIGRTMIN+28 Sets the log target to "console" on SIGRTMIN+27 (or "kmsg" on SIGRTMIN+28), in a fashion equivalent to systemd.log_target=console (or systemd.log_target=kmsg on SIGRTMIN+28) on the kernel command line.

ENVIRONMENT         top

The environment block for the system manager is initially set by the kernel. (In particular, "key=value" assignments on the kernel command line are returned into environment variables for PID 1). For the user manager, the system manager sets the environment as described in the "Environment Variables in Spawned Processes" section of systemd.exec(5). The DefaultEnvironment= setting in the system manager applies to all services including [email protected] Additional entries may be configured (as for any other service) through the Environment= and EnvironmentFile= settings for [email protected] (see systemd.exec(5)). Also, additional environment variables may be set through the ManagerEnvironment= setting in systemd-system.conf(5) and systemd-user.conf(5). Some of the variables understood by systemd: $SYSTEMD_LOG_LEVEL The maximum log level of emitted messages (messages with a higher log level, i.e. less important ones, will be suppressed). Either one of (in order of decreasing importance) emerg, alert, crit, err, warning, notice, info, debug, or an integer in the range 0...7. See syslog(3) for more information. This can be overridden with --log-level=. $SYSTEMD_LOG_COLOR A boolean. If true, messages written to the tty will be colored according to priority. This can be overridden with --log-color=. $SYSTEMD_LOG_TIME A boolean. If true, console log messages will be prefixed with a timestamp. This can be overridden with --log-time=. $SYSTEMD_LOG_LOCATION A boolean. If true, messages will be prefixed with a filename and line number in the source code where the message originates. This can be overridden with --log-location=. $SYSTEMD_LOG_TID A boolean. If true, messages will be prefixed with the current numerical thread ID (TID). $SYSTEMD_LOG_TARGET The destination for log messages. One of console (log to the attached tty), console-prefixed (log to the attached tty but with prefixes encoding the log level and "facility", see syslog(3), kmsg (log to the kernel circular log buffer), journal (log to the journal), journal-or-kmsg (log to the journal if available, and to kmsg otherwise), auto (determine the appropriate log target automatically, the default), null (disable log output). This can be overridden with --log-target=. $XDG_CONFIG_HOME, $XDG_CONFIG_DIRS, $XDG_DATA_HOME, $XDG_DATA_DIRS The systemd user manager uses these variables in accordance to the XDG Base Directory specification[6] to find its configuration. $SYSTEMD_UNIT_PATH, $SYSTEMD_GENERATOR_PATH, $SYSTEMD_ENVIRONMENT_GENERATOR_PATH Controls where systemd looks for unit files and generators. These variables may contain a list of paths, separated by colons (":"). When set, if the list ends with an empty component ("...:"), this list is prepended to the usual set of paths. Otherwise, the specified list replaces the usual set of paths. $SYSTEMD_PAGER Pager to use when --no-pager is not given; overrides $PAGER. If neither $SYSTEMD_PAGER nor $PAGER are set, a set of well-known pager implementations are tried in turn, including less(1) and more(1), until one is found. If no pager implementation is discovered no pager is invoked. Setting this environment variable to an empty string or the value "cat" is equivalent to passing --no-pager. $SYSTEMD_LESS Override the options passed to less (by default "FRSXMK"). Users might want to change two options in particular: K This option instructs the pager to exit immediately when Ctrl+C is pressed. To allow less to handle Ctrl+C itself to switch back to the pager command prompt, unset this option. If the value of $SYSTEMD_LESS does not include "K", and the pager that is invoked is less, Ctrl+C will be ignored by the executable, and needs to be handled by the pager. X This option instructs the pager to not send termcap initialization and deinitialization strings to the terminal. It is set by default to allow command output to remain visible in the terminal even after the pager exits. Nevertheless, this prevents some pager functionality from working, in particular paged output cannot be scrolled with the mouse. See less(1) for more discussion. $SYSTEMD_LESSCHARSET Override the charset passed to less (by default "utf-8", if the invoking terminal is determined to be UTF-8 compatible). $SYSTEMD_PAGERSECURE Takes a boolean argument. When true, the "secure" mode of the pager is enabled; if false, disabled. If $SYSTEMD_PAGERSECURE is not set at all, secure mode is enabled if the effective UID is not the same as the owner of the login session, see geteuid(2) and sd_pid_get_owner_uid(3). In secure mode, LESSSECURE=1 will be set when invoking the pager, and the pager shall disable commands that open or create new files or start new subprocesses. When $SYSTEMD_PAGERSECURE is not set at all, pagers which are not known to implement secure mode will not be used. (Currently only less(1) implements secure mode.) Note: when commands are invoked with elevated privileges, for example under sudo(8) or pkexec(1), care must be taken to ensure that unintended interactive features are not enabled. "Secure" mode for the pager may be enabled automatically as describe above. Setting SYSTEMD_PAGERSECURE=0 or not removing it from the inherited environment allows the user to invoke arbitrary commands. Note that if the $SYSTEMD_PAGER or $PAGER variables are to be honoured, $SYSTEMD_PAGERSECURE must be set too. It might be reasonable to completely disable the pager using --no-pager instead. $SYSTEMD_COLORS Takes a boolean argument. When true, systemd and related utilities will use colors in their output, otherwise the output will be monochrome. Additionally, the variable can take one of the following special values: "16", "256" to restrict the use of colors to the base 16 or 256 ANSI colors, respectively. This can be specified to override the automatic decision based on $TERM and what the console is connected to. $SYSTEMD_URLIFY The value must be a boolean. Controls whether clickable links should be generated in the output for terminal emulators supporting this. This can be specified to override the decision that systemd makes based on $TERM and other conditions. $LISTEN_PID, $LISTEN_FDS, $LISTEN_FDNAMES Set by systemd for supervised processes during socket-based activation. See sd_listen_fds(3) for more information. $NOTIFY_SOCKET Set by systemd for supervised processes for status and start-up completion notification. See sd_notify(3) for more information. For further environment variables understood by systemd and its various components, see Known Environment Variables[7].

KERNEL COMMAND LINE         top

When run as the system instance systemd parses a number of options listed below. They can be specified as kernel command line arguments[8], or through the "SystemdOptions" EFI variable (on EFI systems). The kernel command line has higher priority. Following variables are understood: systemd.unit=, rd.systemd.unit= Overrides the unit to activate on boot. Defaults to default.target. This may be used to temporarily boot into a different boot unit, for example rescue.target or emergency.service. See systemd.special(7) for details about these units. The option prefixed with "rd." is honored only in the initial RAM disk (initrd), while the one that is not prefixed only in the main system. systemd.dump_core Takes a boolean argument or enables the option if specified without an argument. If enabled, the systemd manager (PID 1) dumps core when it crashes. Otherwise, no core dump is created. Defaults to enabled. systemd.crash_chvt Takes a positive integer, or a boolean argument. Can be also specified without an argument, with the same effect as a positive boolean. If a positive integer (in the range 1–63) is specified, the system manager (PID 1) will activate the specified virtual terminal when it crashes. Defaults to disabled, meaning that no such switch is attempted. If set to enabled, the virtual terminal the kernel messages are written to is used instead. systemd.crash_shell Takes a boolean argument or enables the option if specified without an argument. If enabled, the system manager (PID 1) spawns a shell when it crashes, after a 10s delay. Otherwise, no shell is spawned. Defaults to disabled, for security reasons, as the shell is not protected by password authentication. systemd.crash_reboot Takes a boolean argument or enables the option if specified without an argument. If enabled, the system manager (PID 1) will reboot the machine automatically when it crashes, after a 10s delay. Otherwise, the system will hang indefinitely. Defaults to disabled, in order to avoid a reboot loop. If combined with systemd.crash_shell, the system is rebooted after the shell exits. systemd.confirm_spawn Takes a boolean argument or a path to the virtual console where the confirmation messages should be emitted. Can be also specified without an argument, with the same effect as a positive boolean. If enabled, the system manager (PID 1) asks for confirmation when spawning processes using /dev/console. If a path or a console name (such as "ttyS0") is provided, the virtual console pointed to by this path or described by the give name will be used instead. Defaults to disabled. systemd.service_watchdogs= Takes a boolean argument. If disabled, all service runtime watchdogs (WatchdogSec=) and emergency actions (e.g. OnFailure= or StartLimitAction=) are ignored by the system manager (PID 1); see systemd.service(5). Defaults to enabled, i.e. watchdogs and failure actions are processed normally. The hardware watchdog is not affected by this option. systemd.show_status Takes a boolean argument or the constants error and auto. Can be also specified without an argument, with the same effect as a positive boolean. If enabled, the systemd manager (PID 1) shows terse service status updates on the console during bootup. With error, only messages about failures are shown, but boot is otherwise quiet. auto behaves like false until there is a significant delay in boot. Defaults to enabled, unless quiet is passed as kernel command line option, in which case it defaults to error. If specified overrides the system manager configuration file option ShowStatus=, see systemd-system.conf(5). systemd.status_unit_format= Takes name, description or combined as the value. If name, the system manager will use unit names in status messages. If combined, the system manager will use unit names and description in status messages. When specified, overrides the system manager configuration file option StatusUnitFormat=, see systemd-system.conf(5). systemd.log_color, systemd.log_level=, systemd.log_location, systemd.log_target=, systemd.log_time, systemd.log_tid Controls log output, with the same effect as the $SYSTEMD_LOG_COLOR, $SYSTEMD_LOG_LEVEL, $SYSTEMD_LOG_LOCATION, $SYSTEMD_LOG_TARGET, $SYSTEMD_LOG_TIME, and $SYSTEMD_LOG_TID environment variables described above. systemd.log_color, systemd.log_location, systemd.log_time, and systemd.log_tid= can be specified without an argument, with the same effect as a positive boolean. systemd.default_standard_output=, systemd.default_standard_error= Controls default standard output and error output for services and sockets. That is, controls the default for StandardOutput= and StandardError= (see systemd.exec(5) for details). Takes one of inherit, null, tty, journal, journal+console, kmsg, kmsg+console. If the argument is omitted systemd.default-standard-output= defaults to journal and systemd.default-standard-error= to inherit. systemd.setenv= Takes a string argument in the form VARIABLE=VALUE. May be used to set default environment variables to add to forked child processes. May be used more than once to set multiple variables. systemd.machine_id= Takes a 32 character hex value to be used for setting the machine-id. Intended mostly for network booting where the same machine-id is desired for every boot. systemd.unified_cgroup_hierarchy When specified without an argument or with a true argument, enables the usage of unified cgroup hierarchy[9] (a.k.a. cgroups-v2). When specified with a false argument, fall back to hybrid or full legacy cgroup hierarchy. If this option is not specified, the default behaviour is determined during compilation (the -Ddefault-hierarchy= meson option). If the kernel does not support unified cgroup hierarchy, the legacy hierarchy will be used even if this option is specified. systemd.legacy_systemd_cgroup_controller Takes effect if the full unified cgroup hierarchy is not used (see previous option). When specified without an argument or with a true argument, disables the use of "hybrid" cgroup hierarchy (i.e. a cgroups-v2 tree used for systemd, and legacy cgroup hierarchy[10], a.k.a. cgroups-v1, for other controllers), and forces a full "legacy" mode. When specified with a false argument, enables the use of "hybrid" hierarchy. If this option is not specified, the default behaviour is determined during compilation (the -Ddefault-hierarchy= meson option). If the kernel does not support unified cgroup hierarchy, the legacy hierarchy will be used even if this option is specified. quiet Turn off status output at boot, much like systemd.show_status=no would. Note that this option is also read by the kernel itself and disables kernel log output. Passing this option hence turns off the usual output from both the system manager and the kernel. debug Turn on debugging output. This is equivalent to systemd.log_level=debug. Note that this option is also read by the kernel itself and enables kernel debug output. Passing this option hence turns on the debug output from both the system manager and the kernel. emergency, rd.emergency, -b Boot into emergency mode. This is equivalent to systemd.unit=emergency.target or rd.systemd.unit=emergency.target, respectively, and provided for compatibility reasons and to be easier to type. rescue, rd.rescue, single, s, S, 1 Boot into rescue mode. This is equivalent to systemd.unit=rescue.target or rd.systemd.unit=rescue.target, respectively, and provided for compatibility reasons and to be easier to type. 2, 3, 4, 5 Boot into the specified legacy SysV runlevel. These are equivalent to systemd.unit=runlevel2.target, systemd.unit=runlevel3.target, systemd.unit=runlevel4.target, and systemd.unit=runlevel5.target, respectively, and provided for compatibility reasons and to be easier to type. locale.LANG=, locale.LANGUAGE=, locale.LC_CTYPE=, locale.LC_NUMERIC=, locale.LC_TIME=, locale.LC_COLLATE=, locale.LC_MONETARY=, locale.LC_MESSAGES=, locale.LC_PAPER=, locale.LC_NAME=, locale.LC_ADDRESS=, locale.LC_TELEPHONE=, locale.LC_MEASUREMENT=, locale.LC_IDENTIFICATION= Set the system locale to use. This overrides the settings in /etc/locale.conf. For more information, see locale.conf(5) and locale(7). For other kernel command line parameters understood by components of the core OS, please refer to kernel-command-line(7).

OPTIONS         top

systemd is only very rarely invoked directly, since it is started early and is already running by the time users may interact with it. Normally, tools like systemctl(1) are used to give commands to the manager. Since systemd is usually not invoked directly, the options listed below are mostly useful for debugging and special purposes. Introspection and debugging options Those options are used for testing and introspection, and systemd may be invoked with them at any time: --dump-configuration-items Dump understood unit configuration items. This outputs a terse but complete list of configuration items understood in unit definition files. --dump-bus-properties Dump exposed bus properties. This outputs a terse but complete list of properties exposed on D-Bus. --test Determine the initial start-up transaction (i.e. the list of jobs enqueued at start-up), dump it and exit — without actually executing any of the determined jobs. This option is useful for debugging only. Note that during regular service manager start-up additional units not shown by this operation may be started, because hardware, socket, bus or other kinds of activation might add additional jobs as the transaction is executed. Use --system to request the initial transaction of the system service manager (this is also the implied default), combine with --user to request the initial transaction of the per-user service manager instead. --system, --user When used in conjunction with --test, selects whether to calculate the initial transaction for the system instance or for a per-user instance. These options have no effect when invoked without --test, as during regular (i.e. non---test) invocations the service manager will automatically detect whether it shall operate in system or per-user mode, by checking whether the PID it is run as is 1 or not. Note that it is not supported booting and maintaining a system with the service manager running in --system mode but with a PID other than 1. -h, --help Print a short help text and exit. --version Print a short version string and exit. Options that duplicate kernel command line settings Those options correspond directly to options listed above in "Kernel Command Line". Both forms may be used equivalently for the system manager, but it is recommended to use the forms listed above in this context, because they are properly namespaced. When an option is specified both on the kernel command line and as a normal command line argument, the latter has higher precedence. When systemd is used as a user manager, the kernel command line is ignored and only the options described below are understood. Nevertheless, systemd is usually started in this mode through the [email protected](5) service, which is shared between all users. It may be more convenient to use configuration files to modify settings (see systemd-user.conf(5)), or environment variables. See the "Environment" section above for a discussion of how the environment block is set. --unit= Set default unit to activate on startup. If not specified, defaults to default.target. See systemd.unit= above. --dump-core Enable core dumping on crash. This switch has no effect when running as user instance. Same as systemd.dump_core= above. --crash-vt=VT Switch to a specific virtual console (VT) on crash. This switch has no effect when running as user instance. Same as systemd.crash_chvt= above (but not the different spelling!). --crash-shell Run a shell on crash. This switch has no effect when running as user instance. See systemd.crash_shell= above. --crash-reboot Automatically reboot the system on crash. This switch has no effect when running as user instance. See systemd.crash_reboot above. --confirm-spawn Ask for confirmation when spawning processes. This switch has no effect when run as user instance. See systemd.confirm_spawn above. --show-status Show terse unit status information on the console during boot-up and shutdown. See systemd.show_status above. --log-color Highlight important log messages. See systemd.log_color above. --log-level= Set log level. See systemd.log_level above. --log-location Include code location in log messages. See systemd.log_location above. --log-target= Set log target. See systemd.log_target above. --log-time= Prefix console messages with timestamp. See systemd.log_time above. --machine-id= Override the machine-id set on the hard drive. See systemd.machine_id= above. --service-watchdogs Globally enable/disable all service watchdog timeouts and emergency actions. See systemd.service_watchdogs above. --default-standard-output=, --default-standard-error= Sets the default output or error output for all services and sockets, respectively. See systemd.default_standard_output= and systemd.default_standard_error= above.

SOCKETS AND FIFOS         top

/run/systemd/notify Daemon status notification socket. This is an AF_UNIX datagram socket and is used to implement the daemon notification logic as implemented by sd_notify(3). /run/systemd/private Used internally as communication channel between systemctl(1) and the systemd process. This is an AF_UNIX stream socket. This interface is private to systemd and should not be used in external projects. /dev/initctl Limited compatibility support for the SysV client interface, as implemented by the systemd-initctl.service unit. This is a named pipe in the file system. This interface is obsolete and should not be used in new applications.

SEE ALSO         top

The systemd Homepage[11], systemd-system.conf(5), locale.conf(5), systemctl(1), journalctl(1), systemd-notify(1), daemon(7), sd-daemon(3), org.freedesktop.systemd1(5), systemd.unit(5), systemd.special(7), pkg-config(1), kernel-command-line(7), bootup(7), systemd.directives(7)

NOTES         top

1. cgroups.txt https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documentation/cgroup-v1/cgroups.txt 2. Original Design Document http://0pointer.de/blog/projects/systemd.html 3. Interface Portability and Stability Promise https://systemd.io/PORTABILITY_AND_STABILITY/ 4. Container Interface https://systemd.io/CONTAINER_INTERFACE 5. initrd Interface https://systemd.io/INITRD_INTERFACE/ 6. XDG Base Directory specification http://standards.freedesktop.org/basedir-spec/basedir-spec-latest.html 7. Known Environment Variables https://systemd.io/ENVIRONMENT 8. If run inside a Linux container these arguments may be passed as command line arguments to systemd itself, next to any of the command line options listed in the Options section above. If run outside of Linux containers, these arguments are parsed from /proc/cmdline instead. 9. unified cgroup hierarchy https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/latest/admin-guide/cgroup-v2.html 10. legacy cgroup hierarchy https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documentation/cgroup-v1/ 11. systemd Homepage https://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/

COLOPHON         top

This page is part of the systemd (systemd system and service manager) project. Information about the project can be found at ⟨http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd⟩. If you have a bug report for this manual page, see ⟨http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/#bugreports⟩. This page was obtained from the project's upstream Git repository ⟨https://github.com/systemd/systemd.git⟩ on 2021-08-27. (At that time, the date of the most recent commit that was found in the repository was 2021-08-27.) If you discover any rendering problems in this HTML version of the page, or you believe there is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or you have corrections or improvements to the information in this COLOPHON (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail to [email protected]

Pages that refer to this page: bootctl(1),  busctl(1),  homectl(1),  hostnamectl(1),  journalctl(1),  localectl(1),  logger(1),  loginctl(1),  machinectl(1),  oomctl(1),  pmfind_check(1),  pmie(1),  pmie_check(1),  pmlogctl(1),  pmlogger(1),  pmlogger_check(1),  pmlogger_daily_report(1),  pmproxy(1),  portablectl(1),  resolvectl(1),  systemctl(1),  systemd-analyze(1),  systemd-ask-password(1),  systemd-cat(1),  systemd-cgls(1),  systemd-cgtop(1),  systemd-creds(1),  systemd-cryptenroll(1),  systemd-delta(1),  systemd-detect-virt(1),  systemd-dissect(1),  systemd-escape(1),  systemd-firstboot(1),  systemd-id128(1),  systemd-inhibit(1),  systemd-machine-id-setup(1),  systemd-mount(1),  systemd-notify(1),  systemd-nspawn(1),  systemd-path(1),  systemd-run(1),  systemd-socket-activate(1),  systemd-tty-ask-password-agent(1),  timedatectl(1),  userdbctl(1),  capget(2),  _exit(2),  getpid(2),  keyctl(2),  pivot_root(2),  prctl(2),  ptrace(2),  reboot(2),  unshare(2),  vhangup(2),  wait(2),  libudev(3),  __pmServerNotifyServiceManagerReady(3),  sd_booted(3),  sd-bus(3),  sd_bus_add_match(3),  sd_bus_attach_event(3),  sd_bus_call(3),  sd_bus_call_method(3),  sd_bus_can_send(3),  sd_bus_close(3),  sd_bus_creds_get_pid(3),  sd_bus_creds_new_from_pid(3),  sd_bus_default(3),  sd_bus_enqueue_for_read(3),  sd_bus_error(3),  sd_bus_error_add_map(3),  sd-bus-errors(3),  sd_bus_get_current_handler(3),  sd_bus_get_fd(3),  sd_bus_get_name_creds(3),  sd_bus_get_name_machine_id(3),  sd_bus_get_n_queued_read(3),  sd_bus_interface_name_is_valid(3),  sd_bus_is_open(3),  sd_bus_list_names(3),  sd_bus_message_append(3),  sd_bus_message_append_array(3),  sd_bus_message_append_basic(3),  sd_bus_message_append_string_memfd(3),  sd_bus_message_append_strv(3),  sd_bus_message_at_end(3),  sd_bus_message_copy(3),  sd_bus_message_dump(3),  sd_bus_message_get_cookie(3),  sd_bus_message_get_monotonic_usec(3),  sd_bus_message_get_signature(3),  sd_bus_message_get_type(3),  sd_bus_message_new(3),  sd_bus_message_new_method_call(3),  sd_bus_message_new_method_error(3),  sd_bus_message_new_signal(3),  sd_bus_message_open_container(3),  sd_bus_message_read(3),  sd_bus_message_read_array(3),  sd_bus_message_read_basic(3),  sd_bus_message_read_strv(3),  sd_bus_message_rewind(3),  sd_bus_message_seal(3),  sd_bus_message_sensitive(3),  sd_bus_message_set_destination(3),  sd_bus_message_set_expect_reply(3),  sd_bus_message_skip(3),  sd_bus_message_verify_type(3),  sd_bus_negotiate_fds(3),  sd_bus_new(3),  sd_bus_path_encode(3),  sd_bus_process(3),  sd_bus_query_sender_creds(3),  sd_bus_reply_method_error(3),  sd_bus_reply_method_return(3),  sd_bus_request_name(3),  sd_bus_send(3),  sd_bus_set_address(3),  sd_bus_set_close_on_exit(3),  sd_bus_set_connected_signal(3),  sd_bus_set_description(3),  sd_bus_set_exit_on_disconnect(3),  sd_bus_set_fd(3),  sd_bus_set_method_call_timeout(3),  sd_bus_set_property(3),  sd_bus_set_sender(3),  sd_bus_set_server(3),  sd_bus_set_watch_bind(3),  sd_bus_slot_get_bus(3),  sd_bus_slot_ref(3),  sd_bus_slot_set_description(3),  sd_bus_slot_set_destroy_callback(3),  sd_bus_slot_set_floating(3),  sd_bus_slot_set_userdata(3),  sd_bus_start(3),  sd_bus_track_add_name(3),  sd_bus_track_new(3),  sd_bus_wait(3),  sd-daemon(3),  sd-event(3),  sd_event_add_child(3),  sd_event_add_defer(3),  sd_event_add_inotify(3),  sd_event_add_io(3),  sd_event_add_signal(3),  sd_event_add_time(3),  sd_event_exit(3),  sd_event_new(3),  sd_event_now(3),  sd_event_run(3),  sd_event_set_watchdog(3),  sd_event_source_set_destroy_callback(3),  sd_event_wait(3),  sd_get_seats(3),  sd-hwdb(3),  sd_hwdb_get(3),  sd_hwdb_new(3),  sd-id128(3),  sd_id128_get_machine(3),  sd_id128_randomize(3),  sd_id128_to_string(3),  sd_is_fifo(3),  sd-journal(3),  sd_journal_add_match(3),  sd_journal_enumerate_fields(3),  sd_journal_get_catalog(3),  sd_journal_get_cursor(3),  sd_journal_get_cutoff_realtime_usec(3),  sd_journal_get_data(3),  sd_journal_get_fd(3),  sd_journal_get_realtime_usec(3),  sd_journal_get_usage(3),  sd_journal_next(3),  sd_journal_open(3),  sd_journal_print(3),  sd_journal_query_unique(3),  sd_journal_seek_head(3),  sd_journal_stream_fd(3),  sd_listen_fds(3),  sd-login(3),  sd_login_monitor_new(3),  sd_machine_get_class(3),  sd_notify(3),  sd_pid_get_owner_uid(3),  sd_seat_get_active(3),  sd_session_is_active(3),  sd_uid_get_state(3),  sd_watchdog_enabled(3),  ttyslot(3),  udev_device_get_syspath(3),  udev_device_has_tag(3),  udev_device_new_from_syspath(3),  udev_enumerate_add_match_subsystem(3),  udev_enumerate_new(3),  udev_enumerate_scan_devices(3),  udev_list_entry(3),  udev_monitor_filter_update(3),  udev_monitor_new_from_netlink(3),  udev_monitor_receive_device(3),  udev_new(3),  binfmt.d(5),  core(5),  crypttab(5),  dnssec-trust-anchors.d(5),  environment.d(5),  homed.conf(5),  hostname(5),  journald.conf(5),  journal-remote.conf(5),  journal-upload.conf(5),  locale.conf(5),  localtime(5),  logind.conf(5),  machine-id(5),  machine-info(5),  modules-load.d(5),  networkd.conf(5),  oomd.conf(5),  org.freedesktop.home1(5),  org.freedesktop.hostname1(5),  org.freedesktop.LogControl1(5),  org.freedesktop.systemd1(5),  os-release(5),  proc(5),  repart.d(5),  resolved.conf(5),  sysctl.d(5),  systemd.automount(5),  systemd.device(5),  systemd.dnssd(5),  systemd.exec(5),  systemd.kill(5),  systemd.mount(5),  systemd.netdev(5),  systemd.network(5),  systemd.nspawn(5),  systemd.path(5),  systemd.preset(5),  systemd.resource-control(5),  systemd.scope(5),  systemd.service(5),  systemd-sleep.conf(5),  systemd.slice(5),  systemd.socket(5),  systemd.swap(5),  systemd-system.conf(5),  systemd.target(5),  systemd.timer(5),  systemd.unit(5),  sysusers.d(5),  timesyncd.conf(5),  tmpfiles.d(5),  [email protected](5),  utmp(5),  vconsole.conf(5),  veritytab(5),  boot(7),  bootparam(7),  bootup(7),  cgroups(7),  daemon(7),  file-hierarchy(7),  kernel-command-line(7),  mount_namespaces(7),  pid_namespaces(7),  systemd.environment-generator(7),  systemd.generator(7),  systemd.journal-fields(7),  systemd.offline-updates(7),  systemd.special(7),  systemd.syntax(7),  systemd.time(7),  agetty(8),  ctrlaltdel(8),  halt(8),  lvm2-activation-generator(8),  nss-myhostname(8),  nss-mymachines(8),  nss-resolve(8),  nss-systemd(8),  pam_systemd(8),  pam_systemd_home(8),  runlevel(8),  shutdown(8),  systemd-ask-password-console.service(8),  [email protected](8),  systemd-binfmt.service(8),  systemd-bless-boot-generator(8),  systemd-bless-boot.service(8),  systemd-boot-check-no-failures.service(8),  systemd-boot-system-token.service(8),  systemd-cryptsetup-generator(8),  [email protected](8),  systemd-debug-generator(8),  systemd-environment-d-generator(8),  [email protected](8),  systemd-fstab-generator(8),  systemd-getty-generator(8),  systemd-gpt-auto-generator(8),  systemd-halt.service(8),  systemd-hibernate-resume-generator(8),  [email protected](8),  systemd-homed.service(8),  systemd-hostnamed.service(8),  systemd-importd.service(8),  systemd-initctl.service(8),  systemd-journald.service(8),  systemd-journal-gatewayd.service(8),  systemd-localed.service(8),  systemd-logind.service(8),  systemd-machined.service(8),  systemd-machine-id-commit.service(8),  [email protected](8),  systemd-modules-load.service(8),  systemd-networkd.service(8),  systemd-networkd-wait-online.service(8),  systemd-network-generator.service(8),  systemd-oomd.service(8),  systemd-portabled.service(8),  systemd-quotacheck.service(8),  systemd-random-seed.service(8),  systemd-rc-local-generator(8),  systemd-remount-fs.service(8),  systemd-repart(8),  systemd-resolved.service(8),  systemd-rfkill.service(8),  systemd-run-generator(8),  systemd-socket-proxyd(8),  systemd-suspend.service(8),  systemd-sysctl.service(8),  systemd-sysext(8),  systemd-system-update-generator(8),  systemd-sysusers(8),  systemd-sysv-generator(8),  systemd-timedated.service(8),  systemd-timesyncd.service(8),  systemd-time-wait-sync.service(8),  systemd-tmpfiles(8),  systemd-update-done.service(8),  systemd-update-utmp.service(8),  systemd-userdbd.service(8),  systemd-user-sessions.service(8),  systemd-vconsole-setup.service(8),  systemd-veritysetup-generator(8),  [email protected](8),  systemd-volatile-root.service(8),  systemd-xdg-autostart-generator(8),  telinit(8),  uuidd(8)


Источник: https://man7.org/linux/man-pages/man1/systemd.1.html

Top 5 Wifi Hacking software

Wifi Hacking is the most trending activity nowadays. You have a good and active internet connection at your home, still, you want to connect with your neighbor’s wireless system for getting free internet.

If you are one of them and want to hack neighbor’s wifi or willing to access free internet through wifi access point listed in your device.

You should not forget that your neighbor is searching for the same activity. If you have wifi access point at your home or office, then a bad man sitting behind you will try to hack your wifi.

Your first task Secure your wifi network before trying to hack nearby wireless access points. Here you can go 5 Tips, How to secure wifi from hacking If you will follow these tips no one can hack into your wifi easily.

What are the wifi hacking tools used by a hacker to hack into wifi? I think this question is revolving your head. This article will help you to find out this software.

cyberpratibha.com/…/top-10-tools-for-hacking-wirelessly-that-should-protect-yourself-from

Are you looking for wifi Hacking Software? 

If yes,  this post is useful for you. I will provide description and download links of tools used for wifi hacking. Here you will go to get information about the software.

  1. Aircrack-ng

    Aircrack-ng is a most popular wifi hacking software used to crack WEP, WPA/WPA2, and WPS. Sometimes hackers use to crack the security of wifi radius server too. Aircrack-ng is a bundle of multiple tools such as airmon-ng, airodump-ng, aireplay-ng etc. if you don’t know how to use this tool, then visit official website of aircrack-ng website http://www.aircrack-ng.org/

    aircrack-ng wifi password cracker

    Home Page 

  2. Wifite

    This is an awesome tool, you can perform multiple attacks, WEP, WPA/WPA2, WPS in a row. Wifite aims to be the “set it and forget it” wireless auditing tool.Features:

    • sorts targets by signal strength (in dB); cracks closest access points first
    • automatically de-authenticates clients of hidden networks to reveal SSIDs
    • numerous filters to specify exactly what to attack (WEP/WPA/both, above certain signal strengths, channels, etc)
    • customizable settings (timeouts, packets/sec, etc)
    • “anonymous” feature; changes MAC to a random address before attacking, then changes back when attacks are complete
    • all captured WPA handshakes are backed up to wifite.py’s current directory
    • smart WPA de-authentication; cycles between all clients and broadcast deauths
    • stop any attack with Ctrl+C, with options to continue, move onto next target, skip to cracking, or exit
    • displays session summary at exit; shows any cracked keys
    • all passwords saved to cracked.txt
      wifite wifi hacking software

    Wifite Home Page 

  3. Reaver

    Reaver wifi hacking software for Linux. Reaver performs brute force against WPS ( Wifi Protected Setup). In this setup, a pin number is required to connect wifi no matter what security is implemented WEP or WPA/WPA2. It can get password both.  In normal condition, Reaver will recover password against Wpa/wpa2 within 4-8 hours, depending on AP.

    Reaver Home Page 

  4. Fern Wifi Cracker

    If you love GUI interface, you will love this wifi hacking tool. because it has GUI. It helps to crack WEP, WPA/WPA2 & WPS security. It has lots of other features like MITM, sniffing, Session hijacking etc.Features:

    • WEP Cracking with Fragmentation,Chop-Chop, Caffe-Latte, Hirte, ARP Request Replay or WPS attack
    • WPA/WPA2 Cracking with Dictionary or WPS based attacks
    • Automatic saving of key in database on successful crack
    • Automatic Access Point Attack System
    • Session Hijacking (Passive and Ethernet Modes)
    • Access Point MAC Address Geo Location Tracking
    • Internal MITM Engine
    • Bruteforce Attacks (HTTP,HTTPS,TELNET,FTP)
    • Update Support
      fern Wifi cracker

    Fern Wifi Cracker Home Page

  5. PixieWPS

    PixieWPS is very simple and effective tool use to crack WPS security.
    Features:

    • Checksum optimization: it’ll try first for valid PINs (11’000);
    • Reduced entropy of the seed from 32 to 25 bits for the C LCG pseudo-random function;
    • Small Diffie-Hellman keys: don’t need to specify the Public Registrar Key if the same option is used with Reaver.
      pixiewps

    Home Page 

MODULE 14:- WiFi Hacking and Security

  1. 5 Ways to show my saved wifi password in Windows 10
  2. KickThemOut- how to kick someone off your wifi
  3. 5 Tips, how to secure wifi from hacking – full guide
  4. Top 5 Wifi Hacking software for Linux OS
  5. Top 10 tools for hacking wirelessly that should protect yourself from

If Appreciate My Work, You should consider:

Categories module 14 Wireless Security and hackingTags wifi hacking, wifi hacking softwareИсточник: https://www.cyberpratibha.com/blog/top-5-wifi-hacking-software-to-retrieve-password/
grep firmware[ 7.148259] iwlwifi 0000:02:00.0: loaded firmware version 39.30.4.1 build 35138 op_mode iwldvm

If there is no relevant output, check the messages for the full output for the module you identified earlier ( in this example) to identify the relevant message or further issues:

# dmesg

Privacy Tools v19.84 secure

For easy copy & paste on social media platforms, messengers and emails.

Web Browsers for better Internet Privacy

Firefox: Reliable, fast and privacy friendly

Fast Win Android iOS Mac Linux

It's recommended to install additional browser addons to strengthen Firefox even more. Firefox is able to sync accross all your devices on different platforms. Firefox is not the perfect out of the box solution but It's definetly worth it to take the extra time and setup Firefox properly.

Check for WebRTC & DNS leaks and learn how to fix them with the connection check at mullvad.net.

Hardening & Tweaking: The default settings of Firefox are not the best choice to be a privacy respecting browser. Use Firefox Profilemaker to adjust the settings. An alternative is to download the hardened Arkenfox's user.js - Place this in your Firefox's user.js directory and it will fix everything for you. You can also do it manually.

Tor: Encrypted out of the box for extra privacy and anonymity

Slow Anonymity Win Android Mac Linux

Tor Browser is your choice if you need an extra layer of anonymity. It's a modified version of Firefox, which comes with pre-installed privacy add-ons, encryption, and an advanced proxy. It's not recommended to install additional browser addons. Plugins or addons may bypass Tor or compromise your privacy.

Brave: Fast, cross-platform and block ads & trackers

Fast Win Android iOS Mac Linux

Not a popular choice within the privacy community but it offers a complete package out of the box on all platforms and is suitable for beginners or if setup time is a factor at the given situation. Wikipedia offers more information about it's controversies.

Privacy related browser checks:

  • BrowserLeaks.com: A wide range of security testing tools that will show you what kind of personal identity data can be leaked, and how to protect yourself from this.
  • LocateJS: Predicts your location by analyzing your connection and system data. This scan allows you to understand how your location can be pinpointed even while using a VPN, location spoofer or private mode.
  • ipleak.net: Supports checks for WebRTC leaks, DNS leaks, Geolocation, Torrent Address detection and more.
  • Cover Your Tracks by EFF.org: Test your browser to see how well you are protected from tracking and fingerprinting. It shows your browser’s most unique and identifying characteristics. Less unique is better.
  • PrivacyTests.org: Open-source tests of web browser privacy. A useful resource for comparing browsers.

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“2 + 2 = 5” ― Ministry of Truth

Browser Addons to improve your internet privacy even further

HTTPS Everywhere: Secure Connections

Android Firefox Chrome Opera Edge

This plugin is already included in Brave (Desktop & Mobile), Tor (Desktop & Android) and Onion Browser (iOS only). It can be installed for Firefox on Android. Most browsers support HTTPS already after activation.

We are not linking to the plugin directly anymore, instead straight to the Tutorial of EFF.org on how to activate HTTPS in every browser. After the end of this year, the extension will be in “maintenance mode.” for 2022.

Decentraleyes: Block Content Delivery Networks

Android Firefox Chrome Opera Edge

Emulates Content Delivery Networks locally by intercepting requests and injecting it into the environment. Automatically, and no configuration required. Can be installed for Firefox on Android.

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“The reason you're reading this book is that I did a dangerous thing for a man in my position: I decided to tell the truth.” ― Edward Snowden

The best and most reliable VPN Services for your Privacy

We have compared 185 different VPN providers, but our strict criteria left only the three best providers. Our recommended providers are operating outside the USA or other Five Eyes countries, use a strong encryption, accept Crypto currencies or cash payments, support OpenVPN, have a no logging policy and have a long history of operating.

Mullvad: 60 Euro Yearly

Win Android iOS Mac Linux Bitcoin Cash

Based in Sweden. Operating since 2009. Accepts Bitcoin, BCH and Cash. Native desktop and mobile clients are available for Android and iOS and are easy to use. Money back guarantee for 30 days.

Amount of servers in Oct 2021: 763 VPN servers, in 38 different countries. Source

ProtonVPN: Limited free version available, otherwise 48 EUR Yearly

Freemium Win Android iOS Mac Linux Bitcoin

Based in Switzerland. Operating since 2016. Accepts Bitcoin, but you need an existing account or contact their support team in advance. Easy to use native desktop and mobile clients are available for Android and iOS.

Amount of servers in Oct 2021: 1200+ VPN servers available in 55 different countries. Source

IVPN: 60 USD Yearly

Win Android iOS Mac Linux Bitcoin Monero Cash

Based in Gibraltar. Operating since 2009. Accepts Bitcoin, Monero and Cash. Native desktop and mobile clients are available for Android and iOS and are easy to use. Money back guarantee for 30 days.

Amount of servers in Oct 2021: 139 VPN servers available in 32 different countries. Source

×

Friendly reminder

Using a VPN will not keep your browsing habits anonymous, nor will it add additional security to non-secure (HTTP) traffic. If you are looking for anonymity, you should use the Tor Browser instead of a VPN. Don't replace good security practices with a VPN service. If you're looking for additional privacy from your ISP, on a public Wi-Fi network, or while torrenting files, a VPN may be the solution for you.

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“We'd do well to remember that at the end of the day, the law doesn't defend us; we defend the law. And when it becomes contrary to our morals, we have both the right and the responsibility to rebalance it toward just ends.” ― Edward Snowden

Private Email Providers

ProtonMail: Secure email for the independent professional

Freemium Encryption Tor Bitcoin Web Android iOS

Based in Switzerland, founded in 2013. Free and paid plans include all security features, including end-to-end encryption, zero-access encryption, anti-phishing, anti-spam and 2FA. Own Android, iOS Apps and web interface. Paid plans enable custom domains. Accessible via Tor Network.

Tutanota: Easy to use and private by design

Freemium Encryption Win Android iOS Mac Linux Web

Based in Germany, founded in 2011. Native cross platform apps available. Paid plans enable custom domains. No third-party email clients are supported, users need to use the wide range of native apps.

Disroot: Secure email for your desktop client or via a web interface

Free Plan Encryption Web

Based in The Netherlands, founded in 2015. Free plans support custom domains. Users can choose between their web client or third party desktop clients like Thunderbird. Disroot allows for encrypted emails to be sent from their webmail application using OpenPGP.

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“Transparency is for those who carry out public duties and exercise public power. Privacy is for everyone else.” ― Glenn Greenwald

Anonymous Email Forwarding with Aliases

SimpleLogin: Hide your existing email address

Freemium Android iOS Firefox Chrome Safari Web

Emails are forwarded to your real email address. If you reply to a sender it will use your alias, too. It is designed to be user friendly and available on many platforms.

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“Nothing to hide, but nothing to show either.”

Email Clients for better Internet Privacy

Android - K-9 Mail: Advanced Email for your phone

Android

K-9 Mail is an open source email client focused on making it easy to chew through large volumes of email. Designed for both novice and power users and offers lots of features for everyone.

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“If wars can be started by lies, they can be stopped by truth.” ― Julian Assange

Web Search without being tracked

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“The NSA has built an infrastructure that allows it to intercept almost everything.” ― Edward Snowden

The Best Privacy-Friendly World Maps Alternatives

Avoid: Apple Maps, Bing Maps, Google Earth and Google Maps.

Organic Maps: Offline hike, bike, trails and navigation

Android iOS Huawei AppGallery

Organic Maps is an Android & iOS offline maps app for travelers, tourists, hikers, and cyclists based on top of crowd-sourced OpenStreetMap data and curated with love by MapsWithMe (Maps.Me) founders.

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“If you want to keep a secret, you must also hide it from yourself.” ― George Orwell, 1984

Secure Password Managers

Spectre: Generated passwords, no storage needed

Win Android iOS Mac Linux Web

Formerly Master Password. Passwords aren't stored: they are generated on-demand from your name, the site, and your master password. No syncing, backups, or internet access needed. The Windows version requires to install Java. Same principle like LessPass, but LessPass is more convenient to use because of the Browser Addons.

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“If you want to keep a secret, you must also hide it from yourself.” ― George Orwell, 1984

Privacy Two-Factor Authentication (2FA) Tools

Avoid: Authy or Google Authenticator.

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“Openness and participation are antidotes to surveillance and control.” ― Howard Rheingold

File Sharing and Synchronizating

OnionShare: Anonymous file transfer via Tor

Tor Win Mac Linux

OnionShare is an open source tool that lets you securely and anonymously share files, host websites, and chat with friends using the Tor network. Share files, host websites, and chat anonymously via a new tabbed interface for maximum productivity.

Syncthing: Continuous file synchronization

Win Android Mac Linux

Synchronizes files between two or more computers in real time, safely protected from prying eyes. Your data is your data alone and you deserve to choose where it is stored, whether it is shared with some third party, and how it's transmitted over the internet.

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“We'd do well to remember that at the end of the day, the law doesn't defend us; we defend the law. And when it becomes contrary to our morals, we have both the right and the responsibility to rebalance it toward just ends.” ― Edward Snowden

File Encryption Software

VeraCrypt: On-the-fly Disk Encryption

Win Mac Linux Raspberry Pi

It can create a virtual encrypted disk that works just like a regular disk but within a file. It can also encrypt a partition or the entire storage device with pre-boot authentication.

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“Under observation, we act less free, which means we effectively are less free.” ― Edward Snowden

Encrypted Cloud Storage Services

Avoid: Dropbox, Google Drive, Microsoft OneDrive and Apple iCloud.

Nextcloud: Self-hosting or choose a provider for your data

Win Android iOS Mac Linux Web

Nextcloud is functionally similar to Dropbox, Office 365 or Google Drive. It can be hosted in the cloud or on-premises. It is scalable from home office solutions based on the low cost Raspberry Pi all the way through to full sized data centre solutions that support millions of users.

If you're not able to switch your cloud service immediatly, consider encrypting with Cryptomator.

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“You shouldn’t change your behavior because a government agency somewhere is doing the wrong thing. If we sacrifice our values because we’re afraid, we don’t care about those values very much.” ― Edward Snowden

Secure Web Hosting & Domain Provider

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“We watch our own people more closely than anyone else in the world.” ― Edward Snowden

Buy Cryptocurrency

Binance: Largest cryptocurrency exchange world-wide with P2P Feature

Affiliated Win Android iOS Mac Linux Web Monero KYC required

Founded in 2017 and became quickly the largest exchange in the world in terms of daily trading volume of cryptocurrencies. P2P trading available. Update: Sep 17, 2021: Binance requires all users to get verified.

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“My sole motive is to inform the public as to that which is done in their name and that which is done against them.” ― Edward Snowden

Monero: A privacy-enhanced cryptocurrency for anonymity

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“What is right is not always the same as what is legal” ― Edward Snowden

Privacy-enhancing Bitcoin Wallets

CoinJoin is a trustless method for combining multiple Bitcoin payments from multiple spenders into a single transaction to make it more difficult for outside parties to determine which spender paid which recipient. Unlike many other privacy solutions, coinjoin transactions do not require a modification to the bitcoin protocol.

Samourai: Android Wallet

Tor CoinJoin Android Phones Tablets

Built-in trustless CoinJoin. Full offline mode. Designed to keep miner fees as low as possible.

BitLox: Hardware Wallet

Affiliated Tor Android iOS Chrome Web

Fully secured cryptocurrency wallet with the mind of keeping your Bitcoin transactions anonymous. Their Bitcoin Block Explorer is accessible over the Tor and I2P network.

Wasabi: Desktop Wallet

Tor CoinJoin Win Mac Linux

Non-custodial, privacy-focused Bitcoin wallet for Desktop, that implements trustless CoinJoin.

More information:

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“2 + 2 = 5” ― Ministry of Truth

Crytpo DeFi Swap on a Decentralized Exchange (DEX)

Cryptocurrency exchanges which allow for direct peer-to-peer cryptocurrency transactions to take place securely and without the need for a third party to oversee transfer of assets. DEX are more anonymous than commercial exchanges which implement know your customer (KYC) requirements. This list is sorted by trading volume.

Telegram Channels are targeted by scammers, don't share your key phrases with anyone. Admins of the official channels are not sending private messages to users. Beware of anyone reaching out via private message.

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“Transparency is for those who carry out public duties and exercise public power. Privacy is for everyone else.” ― Glenn Greenwald

Encrypted and Secure Instant Messaging

Avoid: Facebook Messenger, Google Hangouts, LINE, Telegram, Snapchat, Tencent QQ, Viber, WeChat, WhatsApp.

Threema: Centralized, encrypted messaging for mobile

Paid Android iOS Huawei AppGallery Web Bitcoin

No native desktop apps available yet, but there is a web version for your browser. No phone number is required to signup but there is a payment involved to get the app. Fortunately the Threema shop accepts Bitcoin.

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“You shouldn’t change your behavior because a government agency somewhere is doing the wrong thing. If we sacrifice our values because we’re afraid, we don’t care about those values very much.” ― Edward Snowden

Encrypted Video & Voice Messengers

Avoid: Skype, Zoom, TeamSpeak, Discord and Ventrilo.

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“We'd do well to remember that at the end of the day, the law doesn't defend us; we defend the law. And when it becomes contrary to our morals, we have both the right and the responsibility to rebalance it toward just ends.” ― Edward Snowden

DNS Network Level Ad Blocking for better Privacy and Speed

NextDNS: Blocks security threats, ads and trackers

Easy to Setup Win Android iOS Mac Linux Browsers Router

The major advantage of NextDNS over AdGuard DNS is to be able to configure the service to your needs via parental controls, website restrictions or block whole categories of websites and apps. Easy to setup within minutes. Comes with setup guides for all systems. 300,000 queries/month for free, after that it will just work like a classic non-blocking DNS service.

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“Under observation, we act less free, which means we effectively are less free.” ― Edward Snowden

YouTube Alternatives

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“A child born today will grow up with no conception of privacy at all.” ― Edward Snowden

Decentralized Social Networks

Redact: Delete your digital footprint

Sponsored Win Mac Linux Closed-Source

Allows you to automatically clean up your old posts from services like Twitter, Reddit, Facebook, Discord and more all in one place. Delete by key word, sentiment and content type.

Tip of the day:

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“WAR IS PEACE.” ― Ministry of Truth

Blog Software for Self and Managed Hosting

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“2 + 2 = 5” ― Ministry of Truth

Encrypted Digital Notebooks

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“Nothing to hide, but nothing to show either.”

Productivity & Collaboration Privacy Tools for Work

LibreOffice: Complete desktop office solution

Win Mac Linux

LibreOffice consists of programs for word processing, creating and editing of spreadsheets, slideshows, diagrams and drawings, working with databases, and composing mathematical formulae. It is available in 115 languages.

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“2 + 2 = 5” ― Ministry of Truth

Privacy Friendly Operating Systems

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“The government should be afraid of the people, the people shouldn't be afraid of the government.” ― Edward Snowden

Privacy and Security Tools for Windows 10 and 11

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“If you're doing nothing wrong, you have nothing to hide from the giant surveillance apparatus the government's been hiding.” ― Stephen Colbert

Privacy Friendly Mobile Operating Systems

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“I don't want to live in a society that does these sort of things... I do not want to live in a world where everything I do and say is recorded. That is not something I am willing to support or live under.” ― Edward Snowden

Android Keyboard Alternatives That Respect Your Privacy

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“There is a massive apparatus within the US government that with complete secrecy has been building this enormous structure that has only one goal, and that is to destroy privacy and anonymity, not just in the United States but around the world.” ― Glenn Greenwald

Open Source Router Firmware

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“FREEDOM IS SLAVERY.” ― Ministry of Truth

Privacy Friendly Translation Tools

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“What state surveillance actually is is best understood by the NSA's own documents and own words, which I think as you know I happen to have a lot of.” ― Glenn Greenwald

Self-Contained Anonymizing Networks

Tor: Most popular, biggest and cross-platform network available

Anonymity Encryption Win Android iOS Mac Linux

Tor, short for The Onion Router, is for enabling anonymous communication. It directs Internet traffic through a free, worldwide, volunteer overlay network, consisting of more than six thousand relays, for concealing a user's location and usage from anyone conducting network surveillance or traffic analysis.

I2P: Censorshipo-resistant peer-to-peer network

Win Android Mac Linux

The Invisible Internet Project (I2P) is an anonymous network layer that allows for censorship-resistant, peer-to-peer communication. Anonymous connections are achieved by end-to-end encrypting the user's traffic, and sending it through a volunteer-run network of roughly 55,000 computers distributed around the world.

ZeroNet: Uses existing Bitcoin cryptography and the BitTorrent network

Win Android Mac Linux

ZeroNet is a decentralized web-like network of peer-to-peer users. Instead of having an IP address, sites are identified by a public key (specifically a bitcoin address). The private key allows the owner of a site to sign and publish changes, which propagate through the network. Sites can be accessed through an ordinary web browser when using the ZeroNet application, which acts as a local webhost for such pages.

IPFS: Protocol and P2P network for storing and sharing data

Win Mac Linux

The InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) is a protocol and peer-to-peer network for storing and sharing data in a distributed file system. IPFS uses content-addressing to uniquely identify each file in a global namespace connecting all computing devices

GNUnet: Software framework in support of a free and open society

Linux (official) Win (unofficial) Mac (unofficial)

For decentralized, peer-to-peer networking and an official GNU package. The framework offers link encryption, peer discovery, resource allocation, communication over many transports (such as TCP, UDP, HTTP, HTTPS, WLAN and Bluetooth) and various basic peer-to-peer algorithms for routing, multicast and network size estimation.

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“The US government still has no idea what documents I have because encryption works” ― Edward Snowden

Open Source Torrent Clients without Ads and Tracking

Your IP address is exposed while using any Torrent Client. Consider using a VPN provider to hide your IP. If you are using µTorrent that includes ads and tracking, select your alternative here.

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“IGNORANCE IS STRENGTH.” ― Ministry of Truth

Disk & File Cleaners with Privacy Features

ExifCleaner: Privacy metadata removal tool

Fast Win Mac Linux

Removes metadata for the most popular image and video formats. It also supports PDF files and comes with batch-processing to process multiple files at once. Drag and Drop interface, easy to use.

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“Transparency is for those who carry out public duties and exercise public power. Privacy is for everyone else.” ― Glenn Greenwald

RSS Feed Readers

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“You shouldn’t change your behavior because a government agency somewhere is doing the wrong thing. If we sacrifice our values because we’re afraid, we don’t care about those values very much.” ― Edward Snowden

Secure Whistleblower Tools

Briar: P2P encrypted messaging for activists and journalists

Tor Android Phones Tablets

Briar doesn't rely on a central server - messages are synchronized directly between the users' devices via Bluetooth or Wi-Fi. Online sync via the Tor network is possible, too. Protecting users from surveillance.

OnionShare: Anonymous file transfer via Tor

Tor Win Mac Linux

OnionShare is an open source tool that lets you securely and anonymously share files, host websites, and chat with friends using the Tor network. Share files, host websites, and chat anonymously via a new tabbed interface for maximum productivity.

Worth Mentioning:

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“I don't want to live in a society that does these sort of things... I do not want to live in a world where everything I do and say is recorded. That is not something I am willing to support or live under.” ― Edward Snowden

Known Privacy Related Incidents & Gag Orders to Date

2021, ProtonMail: ProtonMail logged IP address of French activist after an order by Swiss authorities. Source

2021, WindScribe VPN: Servers were not encrypted as they should have been allowing MITM attacks by authorities. Source

2021, DoubleVPN: Servers, logs, and account info seized by law enforcement. Source

2017, PureVPN: Forced to disclose information of one user to the FBI. Source

2014, EarthVPN: User was arrested based on logs provider to the Dutch Polic because of a bomb hoax. Source

2013, Lavabit Email: Secure E-Mail provider Lavabit shuts down after fighting a secret gag order. Source

2011, HideMyAss VPN: User was de-anonymized, and logs were provided to the FBI in a labeled "LulzSec fiasco". Source

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What is a Warrant Canary?

A term for a regularly published statement that a service provider has not received legal process that it would be prohibited from saying it had received, such as a national security letter. Transparency reports and warrant canaries have an important role to play in the fight against illegal and unconstitutional national security process, including National Security Letters and other secret court processes. Wikipedia

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“Facebook is not your friend, it is a surveillance engine.” ― Richard Stallman


For easy copy & paste on social media platforms, messengers and emails.
Источник: https://www.privacytools.io/
grep iwlwifi[ 12.342694] iwlwifi 0000:02:00.0: irq 44 for MSI/MSI-X [ 12.353466] iwlwifi 0000:02:00.0: loaded firmware version 39.31.5.1 build 35138 op_mode iwldvm [ 12.430317] iwlwifi 0000:02:00.0: CONFIG_IWLWIFI_DEBUG disabled ... [ 12.430341] iwlwifi 0000:02:00.0: Detected Intel(R) Corporation WiFi Link 5100 AGN, REV=0x6B

If the kernel module is successfully loaded and the interface is up, you can skip the next section.

Installing driver/firmware

Check the following lists to discover if your card is supported:

Note that some vendors ship products that may contain different chip sets, even if the product identifier is the same. Only the usb-id (for USB devices) or pci-id (for PCI devices) is authoritative.

If your wireless card is listed above, follow the #Troubleshooting drivers and firmware subsection of this page, which contains information about installing drivers and firmware of some specific wireless cards. Then check the driver status again.

If your wireless card is not listed above, it is likely supported only under Windows (some Broadcom, 3com, etc). For these, you can try to use #ndiswrapper.

Utilities

Just like other network interfaces, the wireless ones are controlled with ip from the iproute2 package.

Managing a wireless connection requires a basic set of tools. Either use a network manager or use one of the following directly:

  1. Deprecated.

Note that some cards only support WEXT.

iw and wireless_tools comparison

The table below gives an overview of comparable commands for iw and wireless_tools. See iw replaces iwconfig for more examples.

iw command wireless_tools command Description
iw dev wlan0 link iwconfig wlan0Getting link status.
iw dev wlan0 scan iwlist wlan0 scan Scanning for available access points.
iw dev wlan0 set type ibss iwconfig wlan0 mode ad-hoc Setting the operation mode to ad-hoc.
iw dev wlan0 connect your_essidiwconfig wlan0 essid your_essidConnecting to open network.
iw dev wlan0 connect your_essid 2432 iwconfig wlan0 essid your_essid freq 2432M Connecting to open network specifying channel.
iw dev wlan0 connect your_essid key 0:your_keyiwconfig wlan0 essid your_essid key your_keyConnecting to WEP encrypted network using hexadecimal key.
iwconfig wlan0 essid your_essid key s:your_keyConnecting to WEP encrypted network using ASCII key.
iw dev wlan0 set power_save on iwconfig wlan0 power on Enabling power save.

iw

Note:
  • Note that most of the commands have to be executed with root permissions. Executed with normal user rights, some of the commands (e.g. iw list), will exit without error but not produce the correct output either, which can be confusing.
  • Depending on your hardware and encryption type, some of these steps may not be necessary. Some cards are known to require interface activation and/or access point scanning before being associated to an access point and being given an IP address. Some experimentation may be required. For instance, WPA/WPA2 users may try to directly activate their wireless network from step #Connect to an access point.

Examples in this section assume that your wireless device interface is and that you are connecting to wifi access point. Replace both accordingly.

Get the name of the interface

Tip: See official documentation of the iw tool for more examples.

To get the name of your wireless interface do:

$ iw dev

The name of the interface will be output after the word "Interface". For example, it is commonly .

Get the status of the interface

To check link status, use following command.

$ iw dev interface link

You can get statistic information, such as the amount of tx/rx bytes, signal strength etc., with following command:

$ iw dev interface station dump

Activate the interface

Tip: Usually this step is not required.

Some cards require that the kernel interface be activated before you can use iw or wireless_tools:

# ip link set interface up

Note: If you get errors like , make sure that hardware switch is on. See #Rfkill caveat for details.

To verify that the interface is up, inspect the output of the following command:

$ ip link show interface3: wlan0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq state DOWN mode DORMANT group default qlen 1000 link/ether 12:34:56:78:9a:bc brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff

The in is what indicates the interface is up, not the later .

Discover access points

To see what access points are available:

# iw dev interface scan less

Note: If it displays , then you probably forgot to install the firmware. In some cases this message is also displayed when not running iw as root.

Tip: Depending on your location, you might need to set the correct regulatory domain in order to see all available networks.

The important points to check:

  • SSID: the name of the network.
  • Signal: is reported in a wireless power ratio in dBm (e.g. from -100 to 0). The closer the negative value gets to zero, the better the signal. Observing the reported power on a good quality link and a bad one should give an idea about the individual range.
  • Security: it is not reported directly, check the line starting with . If there is , for example , then the network is protected somehow.
    • If you see an information block, then the network is protected by Robust Security Network protocol, also known as WPA2.
    • If you see an information block, then the network is protected by Wi-Fi Protected Access protocol.
    • In the and blocks you may find the following information:
      • Group cipher: value in TKIP, CCMP, both, others.
      • Pairwise ciphers: value in TKIP, CCMP, both, others. Not necessarily the same value than Group cipher.
      • Authentication suites: value in PSK, 802.1x, others. For home router, you will usually find PSK (i.e. passphrase). In universities, you are more likely to find 802.1x suite which requires login and password. Then you will need to know which key management is in use (e.g. EAP), and what encapsulation it uses (e.g. PEAP). See #WPA2 Enterprise and Wikipedia:Authentication protocol for details.
    • If you see neither nor blocks but there is , then WEP is used.

Set operating mode

You might need to set the proper operating mode of the wireless card. More specifically, if you are going to connect an ad-hoc network, you need to set the operating mode to :

# iw dev interface set type ibss

Note: Changing the operating mode on some cards might require the wireless interface to be down ().

Connect to an access point

Depending on the encryption, you need to associate your wireless device with the access point to use and pass the encryption key:

  • No encryption# iw dev interface connect "your_essid"
  • WEP
    • using a hexadecimal or ASCII key (the format is distinguished automatically, because a WEP key has a fixed length): # iw dev interface connect "your_essid" key 0:your_key
    • using a hexadecimal or ASCII key, specifying the third set up key as default (keys are counted from zero, four are possible): # iw dev interface connect "your_essid" key d:2:your_key

Regardless of the method used, you can check if you have associated successfully:

# iw dev interface link

Authentication

WPA2 Personal

WPA2 Personal, a.k.a. WPA2-PSK, is a mode of Wi-Fi Protected Access.

You can authenticate to WPA2 Personal networks using wpa_supplicant or iwd, or connect using a network manager. If you only authenticated to the network, then to have a fully functional connection you will still need to assign the IP address(es) and routes either manually or using a DHCP client.

WPA2 Enterprise

WPA2 Enterprise is a mode of Wi-Fi Protected Access. It provides better security and key management than WPA2 Personal, and supports other enterprise-type functionality, such as VLANs and NAP. However, it requires an external authentication server, called RADIUS server to handle the authentication of users. This is in contrast to Personal mode which does not require anything beyond the wireless router or access points (APs), and uses a single passphrase or password for all users.

The Enterprise mode enables users to log onto the Wi-Fi network with a username and password and/or a digital certificate. Since each user has a dynamic and unique encryption key, it also helps to prevent user-to-user snooping on the wireless network, and improves encryption strength.

This section describes the configuration of network clients to connect to a wireless access point with WPA2 Enterprise mode. See Software access point#RADIUS for information on setting up an access point itself.

Note: Enterprise mode requires a more complex client configuration, whereas Personal mode only requires entering a passphrase when prompted. Clients likely need to install the server’s CA certificate (plus per-user certificates if using EAP-TLS), and then manually configure the wireless security and 802.1X authentication settings.

For a comparison of protocols see the following table.

Warning: It is possible to use WPA2 Enterprise without the client checking the server CA certificate. However, you should always seek to do so, because without authenticating the access point the connection can be subject to a man-in-the-middle attack. This may happen because while the connection handshake itself may be encrypted, the most widely used setups transmit the password itself either in plain text or the easily breakable #MS-CHAPv2. Hence, the client might send the password to a malicious access point which then proxies the connection.

MS-CHAPv2

WPA2-Enterprise wireless networks demanding MSCHAPv2 type-2 authentication with PEAP sometimes require pptpclient in addition to the stock ppp package. netctl seems to work out of the box without ppp-mppe, however. In either case, usage of MSCHAPv2 is discouraged as it is highly vulnerable, although using another method is usually not an option.

eduroam

eduroam is an international roaming service for users in research, higher education and further education, based on WPA2 Enterprise.

Note:
  • Check connection details first with your institution before applying any profiles listed in this section. Example profiles are not guaranteed to work or match any security requirements.
  • When storing connection profiles unencrypted, it is recommended restrict read access to the root account by specifying as root.

Tip: Configuration for NetworkManager can be generated with the eduroam Configuration Assistant Tool.

Manual/automatic setup

Note: Special quoting rules apply: see netctl.profile(5) § SPECIAL QUOTING RULES.

Tip: Custom certificates can be specified by adding the line in .

WPA3 Personal

WPA3 Personal, a.k.a. WPA3-SAE, is a mode of Wi-Fi Protected Access.

wpa_supplicant supports WPA3 Personal ( is enabled in wpa_supplicant since version 2:2.9-4).

iwd supports WPA3 since at least version 1.0.

Tips and tricks

Respecting the regulatory domain

The regulatory domain, or "regdomain", is used to reconfigure wireless drivers to make sure that wireless hardware usage complies with local laws set by the FCC, ETSI and other organizations. Regdomains use ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country codes. For example, the regdomain of the United States would be "US", China would be "CN", etc.

Regdomains affect the availability of wireless channels. In the 2.4GHz band, the allowed channels are 1-11 for the US, 1-14 for Japan, and 1-13 for most of the rest of the world. In the 5GHz band, the rules for allowed channels are much more complex. In either case, consult this list of WLAN channels for more detailed information.

Regdomains also affect the limit on the effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP) from wireless devices. This is derived from transmit power/"tx power", and is measured in dBm/mBm (1dBm=100mBm) or mW (log scale). In the 2.4GHz band, the maximum is 30dBm in the US and Canada, 20dBm in most of Europe, and 20dBm-30dBm for the rest of the world. In the 5GHz band, maximums are usually lower. Consult the wireless-regdb for more detailed information (EIRP dBm values are in the second set of brackets for each line).

Misconfiguring the regdomain can be useful - for example, by allowing use of an unused channel when other channels are crowded, or by allowing an increase in tx power to widen transmitter range. However, this is not recommended as it could break local laws and cause interference with other radio devices.

Since kernel 4.15, there are two ways to load the regulatory database. The first is to use the deprecated "central regulatory domain agent" provided by crda, which loads the database via udev rule. The second is to allow the kernel to load the database directly, which is supported by wireless-regdb. For direct loading the kernel must be configured with set to yes and should, for security's sake, be configured with set to yes to allow for cryptographic verification of the database. This is true of the stock Arch kernel, but if you are using an alternate kernel, or compiling your own, you should verify this. More information is available at this guide.

To configure the regdomain, install crda or wireless-regdb and reboot (to reload the module and all related drivers). Check the boot log to make sure that CRDA is being called or the database loaded and key verified by :

# dmesg

: Signal desktop fedora - Crack Key For U

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Bash is the default command-line shell on most Linux distributions, from Ubuntu and Debian to Red Hat and Fedora. Bash is also the default shell included with macOS, and you can install a Linux-based bash environment on Windows 10.

The bash shell features a wide variety of keyboard shortcuts you can use. These will work in bash on any operating system. Some of them may not work if you’re accessing bash remotely through an SSH or telnet session, depending on how you have your keys mapped.

RELATED:10 Basic Linux Commands for Beginners

Working With Processes

Use the following shortcuts to manage running processes.

  • Ctrl+C: Interrupt (kill) the current foreground process running in in the terminal. This sends the SIGINT signal to the process, which is technically just a request—most processes will honor it, but some may ignore it.
  • Ctrl+Z: Suspend the current foreground process running in bash. This sends the SIGTSTP signal to the process. To return the process to the foreground signal desktop fedora - Crack Key For U, use the command.
  • Ctrl+D: Close the bash shell. This sends an EOF (End-of-file) marker to bash, and bash exits when it receives this marker. This is similar to running the command.

RELATED:How Linux Signals Work: SIGINT, SIGTERM, and SIGKILL

Controlling the Screen

The following shortcuts allow you to control what appears on the signal desktop fedora - Crack Key For U Clear the screen. This is similar to running the “clear” command.

  • Ctrl+S: Stop all output to the screen. This is particularly useful when running commands with a lot of long, verbose output, but you don’t want to stop the command itself with Ctrl+C.
  • Ctrl+Q: Resume output to the screen after stopping it with Ctrl+S.
  • Moving the Cursor

    Use the following shortcuts to quickly move the cursor around the current line while typing a command.

    • Ctrl+A or Home: Go to the beginning of the line.
    • Ctrl+E or End: Go to the end of the line.
    • Alt+B: Go left (back) one word.
    • Ctrl+B: Go left (back) one character.
    • Alt+F: Go right (forward) one word.
    • Ctrl+F: Go right (forward) one character.
    • Ctrl+XX: Move between the beginning of the line and the current position of the cursor. This allows you to press Ctrl+XX to return to the start of the line, change something, and then press Ctrl+XX to go back to your original cursor position. To use this shortcut, hold the Ctrl key and tap the X key twice.

    Deleting Text

    Use the following shortcuts to quickly delete characters:

    • Ctrl+D or Delete: Delete the character under the cursor.
    • Alt+D: Delete all characters after the cursor on the current line.
    • Ctrl+H or Backspace: Delete the character before the cursor.

    Fixing Typos

    These shortcuts allow you to fix typos and undo your key presses.

    • Alt+T: Swap the current word with the previous word.
    • Ctrl+T: Swap the last two characters before the cursor with each other. You can use this to quickly fix typos when lumion 9 crack - Free Activators type two characters in the wrong order.
    • Ctrl+_: Undo your last key press. You can repeat this to undo multiple times.

    Cutting and Pasting

    Bash includes some basic cut-and-paste features.

    • Ctrl+W: Cut the word before the cursor, adding it to the clipboard.
    • Ctrl+K: Cut the part of the line after the cursor, adding it to the clipboard.
    • Ctrl+U: Cut the part of the line before the cursor, adding it to the clipboard.
    • Ctrl+Y: Paste the last thing you cut from the clipboard. The y here stands for “yank”.

    Capitalizing Characters

    The bash shell can quickly convert characters to upper or lower case:

    • Alt+U: Capitalize every character from the cursor to the end of the current word, converting the characters to upper case.
    • Alt+L: Uncapitalize every character from the cursor to the end of the current word, converting the signal desktop fedora - Crack Key For U to lower case.
    • Alt+C: Capitalize the character under the cursor. Your cursor will move to the end of the current word.

    Tab Completion

    RELATED:Use Tab Completion to Type Commands Faster on Any Operating System

    Tab completion is a very useful bash feature. While typing a file, directory, or command name, press Tab and bash will automatically complete what you’re typing, if possible. If not, bash will show you various possible matches and you can continue typing and pressing Tab to finish typing.

    • Tab: Automatically complete the file, directory, or command you’re typing.

    For example, if you have a file named really_long_file_name in /home/chris/ and it’s the only file name starting with “r” in signal desktop fedora - Crack Key For U directory, you can type /home/chris/r, press Tab, and bash will automatically fill in /home/chris/really_long_file_name for you. If you have multiple files or directories starting with “r”, bash will inform you of your possibilities. You can start typing one of them and press “Tab” to continue.

    Working With Your Command History

    RELATED:How to Use Your Bash History in the Linux or macOS Terminal

    You can quickly scroll through your recent commands, which are stored in your user account’s bash history file:

    • Ctrl+P or Up Arrow: Go wondershare filmora crack 2018 - Free Activators the previous command in the command history. Press the shortcut multiple times to walk back through the history.
    • Ctrl+N or Down Arrow: Go to the next command in the command history. Press the shortcut multiple times to walk forward through the history.
    • Alt+R: Revert any changes to a command you’ve pulled from your history if you’ve edited it.

    Bash also has a special “recall” mode you can use to search for commands you’ve previously run:

    • Ctrl+R: Recall the last command matching the characters you provide. Press this shortcut and start typing to search your bash history for a command.
    • Ctrl+O: Run a command you found with Ctrl+R.
    • Ctrl+G: Leave history searching mode without running a command.

    emacs vs. vi Keyboard Shortcuts

    The above instructions assume you’re using the default keyboard shortcut configuration in bash. By default, bash uses -style keys. If you’re more used to the text editor, you can switch to vi-style keyboard shortcuts.

    The following command will put bash into mode:

    set -o vi

    The following command will put bash back into the default mode:

    set -o emacs

    With a few of these in your toolbelt, you’ll be a Terminal master in no time.

    Источник: https://www.howtogeek.com/howto/ubuntu/keyboard-shortcuts-for-bash-command-shell-for-ubuntu-debian-suse-redhat-linux-etc/
    grep firmware[ 7.148259] iwlwifi 0000:02:00.0: loaded firmware version 39.30.4.1 build 35138 op_mode iwldvm

    If there is no relevant output, check the messages for the full output for the module you identified earlier ( in this example) to identify the relevant message or further issues:

    # dmesg

    Top 5 Wifi Hacking software

    Wifi Hacking is the most trending activity nowadays. You have a good and active internet connection at your home, still, you want to connect with your neighbor’s wireless system for getting free internet.

    If you are one of them and want to hack neighbor’s wifi or willing to access free internet through wifi access point listed in your device.

    You should not forget that your neighbor is searching for the same activity. If you have wifi access point at your home or office, then a bad man sitting behind you will try to hack your wifi.

    Your first task Secure your wifi network before trying to hack nearby wireless access points. Here you can go 5 Tips, How to secure wifi from hacking If you will follow these tips no one can hack into your wifi easily.

    What are the wifi hacking tools used by a hacker to hack into wifi? I think this question is revolving your head. This article will help you to find out this software.

    cyberpratibha.com/…/top-10-tools-for-hacking-wirelessly-that-should-protect-yourself-from

    Are you looking for wifi Hacking Software? 

    If yes,  this post is useful for you. I will provide description and download links of tools used for wifi hacking. Here you will go to get information about the software.

    1. Aircrack-ng

      Aircrack-ng is a most popular wifi hacking software used to crack WEP, WPA/WPA2, and WPS. Sometimes hackers use to crack the security of wifi radius Filmora 7.3.0 Serial Key too. Aircrack-ng is a bundle of multiple tools such as airmon-ng, airodump-ng, aireplay-ng etc. if you don’t know how to use this tool, then visit official website of aircrack-ng website http://www.aircrack-ng.org/

      aircrack-ng wifi password cracker

      Home Page 

    2. Wifite

      This is an awesome tool, you can perform multiple attacks, WEP, WPA/WPA2, WPS in a row. Wifite aims to be the “set it and signal desktop fedora - Crack Key For U it” wireless auditing tool.Features:

      • sorts targets by signal strength (in dB); cracks closest access points first
      • automatically de-authenticates clients of hidden networks to reveal SSIDs
      • numerous filters to specify exactly what to attack (WEP/WPA/both, above certain signal strengths, channels, etc)
      • customizable settings (timeouts, packets/sec, etc)
      • “anonymous” feature; changes MAC to a random address before attacking, then changes back when attacks are complete
      • all captured WPA handshakes are backed up to wifite.py’s current directory
      • smart WPA de-authentication; cycles between all clients and broadcast deauths
      • stop any attack with Ctrl+C, with options to continue, move onto next target, skip to cracking, or exit
      • displays session summary at exit; shows any cracked keys
      • all passwords saved to cracked.txt
        wifite wifi hacking software

      Wifite Home Page 

    3. Reaver

      Reaver wifi hacking software for Linux. Reaver performs brute force against WPS ( Wifi Protected Setup). In this setup, a pin number is required to connect wifi no matter what security is implemented WEP or WPA/WPA2. It can get password both.  In normal condition, Reaver will recover password against Wpa/wpa2 within 4-8 hours, depending on AP.

      Reaver Home Page 

    4. Fern Wifi Cracker

      If you love GUI interface, you will love this wifi hacking tool. because it has GUI. It helps to crack WEP, WPA/WPA2 & WPS security. It has lots of other features like MITM, sniffing, Session hijacking etc.Features:

      • WEP Cracking with Fragmentation,Chop-Chop, Caffe-Latte, Hirte, ARP Request Replay or WPS attack
      • WPA/WPA2 Cracking with Dictionary or WPS based attacks
      • Automatic saving of key in database on successful crack
      • Automatic Access Point Attack System
      • Session Hijacking (Passive and Ethernet Modes)
      • Access Point MAC Address Geo Location Tracking
      • Internal MITM Engine
      • Bruteforce Attacks (HTTP,HTTPS,TELNET,FTP)
      • Update Support
        fern Wifi cracker

      Fern Wifi Cracker Home Page

    5. PixieWPS

      PixieWPS is very simple and effective tool use to crack WPS security.
      Features:

      • Checksum optimization: it’ll try first for valid PINs (11’000);
      • Reduced entropy of the seed from 32 to 25 bits for the C LCG pseudo-random function;
      • Small Diffie-Hellman keys: don’t need to specify the Public Registrar Key if the same option is used with Reaver.
        pixiewps

      Home Page 

    MODULE 14:- WiFi Hacking and Security

    1. 5 Ways to show my saved wifi password in Windows 10
    2. KickThemOut- how to kick someone off your wifi
    3. 5 Tips, how to secure wifi from hacking – full guide
    4. Top 5 Wifi Hacking software for Linux OS
    5. Top 10 tools for hacking wirelessly that should protect yourself from

    If Appreciate My Work, You should consider:

    Categories module 14 Wireless Security and hackingTags wifi hacking, wifi hacking softwareИсточник: https://www.cyberpratibha.com/blog/top-5-wifi-hacking-software-to-retrieve-password/
    less

    Note: If it displaysthen you probably forgot to install the firmware. In some cases this message is also displayed when not running iw as root.

    Tip: Depending on your location, you might need to set the correct regulatory domain in order to see all available networks.

    The important points to check:

    • SSID: the name of the network.
    • Signal: is reported in a wireless power ratio in dBm (e.g. from -100 to 0). The closer the negative value gets to zero, the better the signal. Observing the reported power on a good quality link and a bad one should give an idea about the individual range.
    • Security: it is not reported directly, check the line starting with. If there isfor examplethen the network is protected somehow.
      • If you see an information block, then the network is protected by Robust Security Network protocol, also known as WPA2.
      • If you see an information block, then the network is protected by Wi-Fi Protected Access protocol.
      • In the and blocks you may find the following information:
        • Group cipher: value in TKIP, CCMP, both, others.
        • Pairwise ciphers: value in TKIP, CCMP, both, others. Not necessarily the same value than Group cipher.
        • Authentication suites: value in PSK, 802.1x, others. For home router, you will usually find PSK (i.e. passphrase). In universities, you are more likely to find 802.1x suite which requires login and password. Then you will need to know which key management is in use (e.g. EAP), and what encapsulation it uses (e.g. PEAP). See #WPA2 Enterprise and Wikipedia:Authentication protocol for details.
      • If you see neither nor blocks but there isthen WEP is used.

    Set operating mode

    You might need to set the proper operating mode of the wireless card. More specifically, if you are going to connect an ad-hoc network, you need to set the operating mode to :

    # iw dev interface set type ibss

    Note: Changing the operating mode on some cards might require the wireless interface to be down ().

    Connect to an access point

    Depending on the encryption, you need to associate your wireless device with the access point to use and pass the encryption key:

    • No encryption# iw dev interface connect "your_essid"
    • WEP
      • using a hexadecimal or ASCII key (the format is distinguished automatically, because a WEP key has a fixed length): # iw dev interface connect "your_essid" key 0:your_key
      • using a hexadecimal or ASCII key, specifying the third set up key as default (keys are counted from zero, four are possible): # iw dev interface connect "your_essid" key d:2:your_key

    Regardless of the method used, you can check if you have associated successfully:

    # iw dev interface link

    Authentication

    WPA2 Personal

    WPA2 Personal, a.k.a. WPA2-PSK, is a mode of Wi-Fi Protected Access.

    You can authenticate to WPA2 Personal networks using wpa_supplicant or iwd, or connect using a network manager. If you only authenticated to the network, then to have a fully functional connection you will still need to assign the IP address(es) and routes either manually or using a DHCP client.

    WPA2 Enterprise

    WPA2 Enterprise is a mode of Wi-Fi Protected Access. It provides better security and microsoft office word - Free Activators management than WPA2 Personal, and supports other enterprise-type functionality, such as VLANs and NAP. However, it requires an external authentication server, called RADIUS server to handle the authentication of users. This is in contrast to Personal mode which does not require anything beyond the wireless router or access points (APs), and uses a single passphrase or password for all users.

    The Enterprise mode enables users to log onto the Wi-Fi network with a username and password and/or a digital certificate. Since each user has a dynamic and unique encryption key, it also helps to prevent user-to-user snooping on the wireless network, and improves encryption strength.

    This section describes the configuration of network clients to connect to a wireless access point with WPA2 Enterprise mode. See Software access point#RADIUS for information on setting up an access point itself.

    Note: Enterprise mode requires a more complex client configuration, whereas Personal mode only requires entering a passphrase when prompted. Clients likely need to install the server’s CA certificate (plus per-user certificates if using EAP-TLS), and then manually configure the wireless security and 802.1X authentication settings.

    For a comparison of protocols see the following table.

    Warning: It is possible to use WPA2 Enterprise without the client checking the server CA certificate. However, you should always seek to do so, because without authenticating the access point the connection can be subject to a man-in-the-middle attack. This may happen because while the connection handshake itself may be encrypted, the most widely used setups transmit the password itself either in plain text or the easily breakable #MS-CHAPv2. Hence, the client might send the password to a malicious access point which then proxies the connection.

    MS-CHAPv2

    WPA2-Enterprise wireless networks demanding MSCHAPv2 type-2 authentication with PEAP sometimes require pptpclient in addition to the stock ppp package. netctl seems to work out of the box without ppp-mppe, however. In either case, usage of MSCHAPv2 is discouraged as it is highly vulnerable, although using another method is usually not an option.

    eduroam

    eduroam is an international roaming service for users in research, higher education and further education, based on WPA2 Enterprise.

    Note:
    • Check connection details first with your institution before applying any profiles listed in this section. Example profiles are not guaranteed to work or match any security requirements.
    • When storing connection profiles unencrypted, it is recommended restrict signal desktop fedora - Crack Key For U access to the root account by specifying as root.

    Tip: Configuration for NetworkManager can be generated with the eduroam Configuration Assistant Tool.

    Manual/automatic setup

    Note: Special quoting rules apply: see netctl.profile(5) § SPECIAL QUOTING RULES.

    Tip: Custom certificates can be specified by adding the line in .

    WPA3 Personal

    WPA3 Personal, a.k.a. WPA3-SAE, is a mode of Wi-Fi Protected Access.

    wpa_supplicant supports WPA3 Personal ( is enabled in wpa_supplicant since version 2:2.9-4).

    iwd supports WPA3 since at least version 1.0.

    Tips and tricks

    Respecting the regulatory domain

    The regulatory domain, or "regdomain", is used to reconfigure wireless drivers to make sure that wireless hardware usage complies with local laws set by the FCC, ETSI and other organizations. Regdomains use ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country codes. For example, the regdomain of the United States would be "US", China would be "CN", etc.

    Regdomains affect the availability of wireless channels. In the 2.4GHz band, the allowed channels are 1-11 for the US, 1-14 for Japan, and 1-13 for most of the rest of the world. In the 5GHz band, the rules for allowed channels are much more complex. In either case, consult this list of WLAN channels for more detailed information.

    Regdomains also affect the limit on the effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP) from wireless devices. This is derived from transmit power/"tx power", and is measured in dBm/mBm (1dBm=100mBm) or mW (log scale). In the 2.4GHz band, the maximum is 30dBm in the US and Canada, 20dBm in most of Europe, and 20dBm-30dBm for the rest of the world. In the 5GHz band, maximums are usually lower. Consult the wireless-regdb for more detailed information (EIRP dBm values are in the second set of brackets for each line).

    Misconfiguring the regdomain can be useful - for example, by allowing use of an unused channel when other channels are crowded, or by allowing an increase in tx power to widen transmitter range. However, this is not recommended as it could break local laws and cause interference with other radio devices.

    Since kernel 4.15, there are two ways to load the regulatory database. The first is to use the deprecated "central regulatory domain agent" provided by crda, which loads the database via udev rule. The second is to allow the kernel to load the database directly, which is supported by wireless-regdb. For direct loading the kernel must be configured with set to yes and should, for security's sake, be configured with set to yes to allow for cryptographic verification of the database. This is true of the stock Arch kernel, but if you are using an alternate kernel, or compiling your own, you should verify this. More information is available at this guide.

    To configure the regdomain, install crda or wireless-regdb and reboot (to reload the module and all related drivers). Check the boot log to make sure that CRDA is being called or the database loaded and key verified by :

    # dmesg

    sysrq key

    On Linux, the magic SysRq key can send commands directly to the Linux kernel. You can use it to recover from freezes or cleanly restart your system, even if nothing appears to be responding.

    The magic SysRq key is implemented office timeline 3.62 crack - Activators Patch part of Linux’s keyboard driver – it will work as long as the Linux kernel is still running. Only a kernel panic should disable this key combination.

    Image Credit: solylunafamilia on Flickr

    Using the Magic SysRq Key

    The SysRq key is located near the Scroll Lock key on your signal desktop fedora - Crack Key For U – the Sys Rq key is generally the same as your Print Screen key. The “magic” SysRq combination is Alt+SysRq.

    To use this key combination, your Linux kernel must have been compiled with the CONFIG_MAGIC_SYSRQ compile option – most Linux distributions will have this enabled by default. Assuming it’s compiled into your kernel, it can be enabled or disabled on a running system by changing the value of /proc/sys/kernel/sysrq. To check if it’s enabled, run the following command:

    cat /proc/sys/kernel/sysrq

    If you see a “1”, all functions of the magic SysRq key are enabled. A greater number indicates only certain functions are enabled—see the official Linux kernel help for more information.

    If you see a “0”, you can enable all magic SysRq options yourself by running the following command:

    sudo echo “1” > /proc/sys/kernel/sysrq

    On Ubuntu, the magic SysRq options are set at boot according to the contents of Movavi Video Suite 21 Crack /etc/sysctl.d/10-magic-sysrq.conf file. Edit this file to choose your desired values.

    Dealing With a Frozen X Server

    If your X server (the program that runs your graphical signal desktop fedora - Crack Key For U freezes, you may find yourself unable to use your system. There are a few magic SysRq commands that can help:

    • Alt + SysRq + r – Takes the keyboard out of raw mode, taking control away from the X server. After running this combination, you should be able to use the Ctrl + Alt + F1 (and other F-key) keyboard shortcuts to switch to another console and restart X.
    • Alt + SysRq + k – Kills all programs on the current virtual console, including X. You can also enable the Ctrl+Alt+Backspace keyboard shortcut in Ubuntu’s keyboard preferences to restart your X server – however, this shortcut is implemented by the X server and may not always work.

    Cleanly Restarting Your System

    Used in sequence, some of these actions can be used to cleanly end processes, flush ID Photos Pro 8.5.3.11 Crack Activation key Free to disk, unmount all file systems, and restart your computer. To perform this process, press and hold the Alt + SysRq key combination and – while holding the Alt and SysRq keys down — type the following keys in order, pausing for several seconds in between each key:

    reisub

    The mnemonic “Raising Elephants Is So Utterly Boring” is often used to remember this sequence. Here’s what each key does:

    • r – Puts the keyboard into raw mode, taking golden software didger 5 crack of it away from the X server.
    • e – Sends the terminate signal to all processes, asking them to end gracefully.
    • i – Sends the kill signal to all processes, forcing them to end immediately.
    • s – Flushes data from your cache to disk.
    • u – Remounts all file systems read-only.
    • b – Reboots your computer.

    More Commands

    Here are some other actions you can perform with the magic SysRq key. To perform an action, press and hold the Alt + SysRq keys while typing the letter:

    • n – Resets the nice level (priority) of all high and realtime priority processes.
    • f – Calls oom_kill, which will kill a memory-hogging process.
    • o – Shuts off the computer.

    There are other actions, but they may be more useful to developers than the average Linux geek. For more information on the magic SysRq key – and a full list of actions you can perform – consult the official magic SysRq documentation for the Linux kernel.

    Источник: https://www.howtogeek.com/119127/use-the-magic-sysrq-key-on-linux-to-fix-frozen-x-servers-cleanly-reboot-and-run-other-low-level-commands/

    jopohl / urh Public

    URH image

    Build StatusPyPI versionPackaging statusBlackhat Arsenal 2017Blackhat Arsenal 2018

    The Universal Radio Hacker (URH) is a complete suite for wireless protocol investigation with native support for many common Software Defined Radios. URH allows easy demodulation of signals combined with an automatic detection of modulation parameters making it a breeze to identify the bits and bytes that fly over the air. As data often gets encoded before transmission, URH offers customizable decodings to crack even sophisticated encodings like CC1101 data whitening. When it comes to protocol reverse-engineering, URH is helpful in two ways. You can either manually assign protocol fields and message types or let URH automatically infer protocol fields with a rule-based intelligence. Finally, URH entails a fuzzing component aimed at stateless protocols and a simulation environment for stateful attacks.

    Getting started

    In order to get started

    If you like URH, please this repository and join our Slack channel. We appreciate your support!

    Citing URH

    We encourage researchers working with URH to cite this WOOT'18 paper or directly use the following BibTeX entry.

    Installation

    URH runs on Windows, Linux and macOS. Click on your operating system below to view installation instructions.

    Articles

    Hacking stuff with URH

    General presentations and tutorials on URH

    External decodings

    See wiki for a list of external decodings provided by our community! Thanks for that!

    Screenshots

    Get the data out of raw signals

    Interpretation phase

    Keep an overview even on complex protocols

    Analysis phase

    Record and send signals

    Record

    Источник: https://github.com/jopohl/urh
    signal desktop fedora  - Crack Key For U