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Wikipedia

Multilingual free online encyclopedia

This article is about Wikipedia. For Wikipedia's home page, see Main Page. For the English edition, see English Wikipedia. For a list of Wikipedias in other languages, see List of Wikipedias. For other uses, see Wikipedia (disambiguation).

"The Free Encyclopedia" redirects here. For the concept of a free encyclopedia, see Encyclopedia § Free encyclopedias.

Wikipedia (wik-ih-PEE-dee-ə or wik-ee-) is a free content, multilingual online encyclopedia written and maintained by a community of volunteers through a model of open collaboration, using a wiki-based editing system. Individual contributors, also called editors, are known as Wikipedians. It is the largest and most-read reference work in history,[3] and consistently one of the 15 most popular websites ranked by Alexa; as of 2021,[update] Wikipedia was ranked the 13th most popular site.[3][4] A visitor spends an average time on Wikipedia of 3 minutes and 45 seconds each day.[5] It is hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation, an American non-profit organization funded mainly through small donations.[6]

Wikipedia was launched on January 15, 2001, by Jimmy Wales[7] and Larry Sanger; Sanger coined its name as a blending of "wiki" and "encyclopedia".[8] Initially available only in English, versions in other languages were quickly developed. Its combined editions comprise more than 57 million articles, attracting around 2 billion unique device visits per month, and more than 17 million edits per month (1.9 edits per second).[10][11] In 2006, Time magazine stated that the policy of allowing anyone to edit had made Wikipedia the "biggest (and perhaps best) encyclopedia in the world", and is "a testament to the vision of one man, Jimmy Wales".[12]

Wikipedia has received praise for its enablement of the democratization of knowledge, extent of coverage, unique structure, culture, and reduced amount of commercial bias, but criticism for exhibiting systemic bias, particularly gender bias against women and alleged ideological bias.[13][14]Its reliability was frequently criticized in the 2000s, but has improved over time and has been generally praised in the late 2010s and early 2020s.[3][13][15] Its coverage of controversial topics such as American politics and major events such as the COVID-19 pandemic has received substantial media attention. It has been censored by world governments, ranging from specific pages to the entire site. It has become an element of popular culture, with references in books, films and academic studies. In 2018, Facebook and YouTube announced that they would help users detect fake news by suggesting fact-checking links to related Wikipedia articles.[16][17]

History

Main article: History of Wikipedia

Nupedia

Main article: Nupedia

Logo reading "Nupedia.com the free encyclopedia" in blue with the large initial "N"
Wikipedia originally developed from another encyclopedia project called Nupedia.

Other collaborative online encyclopedias were attempted before Wikipedia, but none were as successful.[18] Wikipedia began as a complementary project for Nupedia, a free online English-language encyclopedia project whose articles were written by experts and reviewed under a formal process.[19] It was founded on March 9, 2000, under the ownership of Bomis, a web portal company. Its main figures were Bomis CEO Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger, editor-in-chief for Nupedia and later Wikipedia.[1][20] Nupedia was initially licensed internet explorer latest version - Crack Key For U its own Nupedia Open Content License, but even before Wikipedia was founded, Nupedia switched to the GNU Free Documentation License at the urging of Richard Stallman.[21] Wales is credited with defining the goal of making a publicly editable encyclopedia,[22][23] while Sanger is credited with the strategy of using a wiki to reach that goal.[24] On January 10, 2001, Sanger proposed on the Nupedia mailing list to create a wiki as a "feeder" project for Nupedia.[25]

Launch and early growth

The domainswikipedia.com (later redirecting to wikipedia.org) and wikipedia.org were registered on January 12, 2001,[26] and January 13, 2001,[27] respectively, and Wikipedia was launched on January 15, 2001[19] as a single English-language edition at www.wikipedia.com,[28] and announced by Sanger on the Nupedia mailing list.[22] Its policy of "neutral point-of-view"[29] was codified in its first few months. Otherwise, there were initially relatively few rules, and it operated independently of Nupedia.[22] Bomis originally intended it as a business for profit.[30]

The Wikipedia home page on December 20, 2001

English Wikipedia editors with >100 edits per month[31]

Wikipedia gained early contributors from Nupedia, Slashdot postings, and web search engine indexing. Language editions were also created, with a total of 161 by the end of 2004.[33] Nupedia and Wikipedia coexisted until the former's servers were taken down permanently in 2003, and its text was incorporated into Wikipedia. The English Wikipedia passed the mark of two million articles on September 9, 2007, making it the largest encyclopedia ever assembled, surpassing the Yongle Encyclopedia made during the Ming Dynasty in 1408, which had held the record for almost 600 years.[34]

Citing fears of commercial advertising and lack of control, users of the Spanish Wikipediaforked from Wikipedia to create Enciclopedia Libre in February 2002.[35] Wales then announced that Wikipedia would not display advertisements, and changed Wikipedia's domain from wikipedia.com to wikipedia.org.[36][37]

Though the English Wikipedia reached three million articles in August 2009, the growth of the edition, in terms of the numbers of new articles and of editors, appears to have peaked around early 2007.[38] Around 1,800 articles were added daily to the encyclopedia in 2006; by 2013 that average was roughly 800.[39] A team at the Palo Alto Research Center attributed this slowing of growth to the project's increasing exclusivity and resistance to change.[40] Others suggest that the growth is flattening naturally because articles that could be called "low-hanging fruit"—topics that clearly merit an article—have already been created and built up extensively.[41][42][43]

In November 2009, a researcher at the Rey Juan Carlos University in Madrid found that the English Wikipedia had lost 49,000 editors during the first three months of 2009; in comparison, it lost only 4,900 editors during the same period in 2008.[44][45]The Wall Street Journal cited the array of rules applied to editing and disputes related to such content among the reasons for this trend.[46] Wales disputed these claims in 2009, denying the decline and questioning the study's methodology.[47] Two years later, in 2011, he acknowledged a slight decline, noting a decrease from "a little more than 36,000 writers" in June 2010 to 35,800 in June 2011. In the same interview, he also claimed the number of editors was "stable and sustainable".[48] A 2013 MIT Technology Review article, "The Decline of Wikipedia", questioned this claim, revealing that since 2007, Wikipedia had lost a third of its volunteer editors, and that those remaining had focused increasingly on minutiae.[49] In July 2012, The Atlantic reported that the number of administrators was also in decline.[50] In the November 25, 2013, issue of New York magazine, Katherine Ward stated, "Wikipedia, the sixth-most-used website, is facing an internal crisis."[51]

Milestones

Cartogramshowing number of articles in each European language as of January 2019.[update]One square represents 10,000 articles. Languages with fewer than 10,000 articles are represented by one square. Languages are grouped by language family and each language family is presented by a separate color.

In January 2007, Wikipedia first became one of the ten most popular websites in the US, according to comscore Networks. With 42.9 million unique visitors, it was ranked #9, surpassing The New York Times (#10) and Apple (#11). This marked a significant increase over January 2006, when Wikipedia ranked 33rd, with around 18.3 million unique visitors.[52] As of March 2020[update], it ranked 13th[4] in popularity according to Alexa Internet. In 2014, it received eight billion page views every month.[53] On February 9, 2014, The New York Times reported that Wikipedia had 18 billion page views and nearly 500 million unique visitors a month, "according to the ratings firm comScore".[10] Loveland and Reagle argue that, in process, Wikipedia follows a long tradition of historical encyclopedias that have accumulated improvements piecemeal through "stigmergic accumulation".[54][55]

On January 18, 2012, the English Wikipedia participated in a series of coordinated protests against two proposed laws in the United States Congress—the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) and the PROTECT IP Act (PIPA)—by blacking out its pages for 24 hours.[56] More than 162 million people viewed the blackout explanation page that temporarily replaced its content.[57][58]

On January 20, 2014, Subodh Varma reporting for The Economic Times indicated that not only had Wikipedia's growth stalled, it "had lost nearly ten percent of its page views last year. There was a decline of about two billion between Mcafee activation code free - Crack Key For U 2012 and December 2013. Its most popular versions are leading the slide: page-views of the English Wikipedia declined by twelve percent, those of German version slid by 17 percent and the Japanese version lost nine percent."[59] Varma added, "While Wikipedia's managers think that this could be due to errors in counting, other experts feel that Google's Knowledge Graphs project launched last year may be gobbling up Wikipedia users."[59] When contacted on this matter, Clay Shirky, associate professor at New York University and fellow at Harvard's Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society said that he suspected much of the page-view decline was due to Knowledge Graphs, stating, "If you can get your question answered from the search page, you don't need to click [any further]."[59] By the end of December 2016, Wikipedia was ranked the 5th most popular website globally.[60]

In January 2013, 274301 Wikipedia, an asteroid, was named after Wikipedia; in October 2014, Wikipedia was honored with the Wikipedia Monument; and, in July 2015, 106 of the 7,473 700-page volumes of Wikipedia became available as Print Wikipedia. In April 2019, an Israeli lunar lander, Beresheet, crash landed on the surface of the Moon carrying a copy edshift cinema 4d nearly all of the English Wikipedia engraved on thin nickel plates; experts say the plates likely survived the crash.[61][62] In June 2019, scientists reported that all 16 GB of article text from the English Wikipedia had been encoded into synthetic DNA.[63]

Current state

On January 23, 2020, the English-language Wikipedia, which is the largest language section of the online encyclopedia, published its six millionth article.

By February 2020, Wikipedia ranked eleventh in the world in terms of Internet traffic.[64] As a key resource for disseminating information related to COVID-19, the World Health Organization has partnered with Wikipedia to help combat the spread of misinformation.[65][66]

Wikipedia accepts cryptocurrency donations and Basic Attention Token.[67][68][69]

Openness

Differences between versions of an article are highlighted

Unlike traditional encyclopedias, Wikipedia follows the procrastination principle[note 3] regarding the security of its content.[70]

Restrictions

Due to Wikipedia's increasing popularity, some editions, including the English version, have introduced editing restrictions for certain cases. For instance, on the English Wikipedia and some other language editions, only registered users may create a new article.[71] On the English Wikipedia, among others, particularly controversial, sensitive or vandalism-prone pages have been protected to varying degrees.[72][73] A Movavi Screen Recorder 21.3.0 Crack Full Download 2021 vandalized article can be "semi-protected" or "extended confirmed protected", meaning that only "autoconfirmed" or "extended confirmed" editors can modify it.[74] A particularly contentious article may be locked so that only administrators can make changes.[75] A 2021 article in the Columbia Journalism Review identified Wikipedia's page-protection policies as "[p]erhaps the most important" means at its disposal to "regulate its market of ideas".[76]

In certain cases, all editors are allowed to submit modifications, but review is required for some editors, depending on certain conditions. For example, the German Wikipedia maintains "stable versions" of articles[77] which have passed certain reviews. Following protracted trials and community discussion, the English Wikipedia introduced the "pending changes" system in December 2012. Under this system, new and unregistered users' edits to certain controversial or vandalism-prone articles are reviewed by established users before they are published.[79]

Wikipedia's editing interface

Review of changes

Although changes are not systematically reviewed, the software that powers Wikipedia provides tools allowing anyone to review changes made by others. Each article's History page links to each revision.[note 4][80] On most articles, anyone can undo others' changes by clicking a link on the article's History page. Anyone can view the latest changes to articles, and anyone registered may maintain a "watchlist" of articles that interest them so they can be notified of changes. "New pages patrol" is a process where newly created articles are checked for obvious problems.[81]

In 2003, economics Ph.D. student Andrea Ciffolilli argued that the low transaction costs of participating in a wiki created a catalyst for collaborative development, and that features such as allowing easy access to past versions of a page favored "creative construction" over "creative destruction".[82]

Vandalism

Main article: Vandalism on Wikipedia

Any change or edit that manipulates content in a way that purposefully compromises Wikipedia's integrity is considered vandalism. The most common and obvious types of vandalism include additions of obscenities and crude humor; it can also include advertising and other types of spam.[83] Sometimes editors commit vandalism by removing content or entirely blanking a given page. Less common types of vandalism, such as the deliberate addition of plausible but false information, can be more difficult to detect. Vandals can introduce irrelevant formatting, modify page semantics such as the page's title or categorization, manipulate the article's underlying code, or use images disruptively.[84]

Obvious vandalism is generally easy to remove from Wikipedia articles; the median time to detect and fix it is a few minutes.[85][86] However, some vandalism takes much longer to detect and repair.[87]

In the Seigenthaler biography incident, an anonymous editor introduced false information into the biography of American political figure John Seigenthaler in May 2005, falsely presenting him as a suspect in the assassination of John F. Kennedy.[87] It remained uncorrected for four months.[87] Seigenthaler, the founding editorial director of USA Today and founder of the Freedom ForumFirst Amendment Center at Vanderbilt University, called Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales and asked whether he had any way of knowing who contributed the misinformation. Wales said he did not, although the perpetrator was eventually traced.[88][89] After the incident, Seigenthaler described Wikipedia as "a flawed and irresponsible research tool".[87] The incident led to policy changes at Wikipedia for tightening up the verifiability of biographical articles of living people.[90]

In 2010, Daniel Tosh encouraged viewers of his show, Tosh.0, to visit the show's Wikipedia article and edit it at will. On a later episode, he commented on the edits to the article, most of them offensive, which had been made by the audience and had prompted the article to be locked from editing.[91][92]

Edit warring

Wikipedians often have disputes regarding content, which may result in repeated competing changes to an article, known as "edit warring".[93][94] It is widely seen as a resource-consuming scenario where no useful knowledge is added,[95] and criticized as creating a competitive[96] and conflict-based[97] editing culture associated with traditional masculine gender roles.[98]

Policies and laws

Content in Wikipedia is subject to the laws (in particular, copyright laws) of the United States and of the US state of Virginia, where the majority of Wikipedia's servers are located. Beyond legal matters, the editorial principles of Wikipedia are embodied in the "five pillars" and in numerous policies and guidelines intended to appropriately shape content. Even these rules are stored in wiki form, and Wikipedia editors write and revise the website's policies and guidelines.[99] Editors can enforce these rules by deleting or modifying non-compliant material. Originally, rules on the non-English editions of Wikipedia were based on a translation of the rules for the English Wikipedia. They have since diverged to some extent.[77]

Content policies and guidelines

According to the rules on the English Wikipedia, each entry in Wikipedia must be about a topic that is encyclopedic and is not a dictionary entry or dictionary-style.[100] A topic should also meet Wikipedia's standards of "notability",[101] which generally means that the topic must have been covered in mainstream media or major academic journal sources that are independent of the article's subject. Further, Wikipedia intends to convey only knowledge that is already established and recognized.[102] It must not present original research. A claim that is likely to be challenged requires a reference to a reliable source. Among Wikipedia editors, this is often phrased as "verifiability, not truth" to express the idea that the readers, not the encyclopedia, are ultimately responsible for checking the truthfulness of the articles and making their own interpretations.[103] This can at times lead to the removal of information that, though valid, is not properly sourced.[104] Finally, Wikipedia must not take sides.[105]

Governance

Further information: Wikipedia:Administration

Wikipedia's initial anarchy integrated democratic and hierarchical elements over time.[106][107] An article is not considered to be owned by its creator or any other editor, nor by the subject of the article.[108]

Administrators

Editors in good standing in the community can request extra user rights, granting them the technical ability to perform certain special actions. In particular, editors can choose to run for "adminship",[109][110] which includes the ability to delete pages or prevent them from being changed in cases of severe vandalism or editorial disputes. Administrators are not supposed to enjoy any special privilege in decision-making; instead, ESET NOD32 Antivirus 13.2.18.0 Crack + License Key Free 2020 powers are mostly limited to making edits that have project-wide effects and thus are disallowed to ordinary editors, and to implement restrictions intended to prevent disruptive editors from making unproductive edits.[111][112]

By 2012, fewer editors were becoming administrators compared to Wikipedia's earlier years, in part because the process of vetting potential administrators had become more rigorous.[113]

Dispute resolution

Over time, Wikipedia has developed a semiformal dispute resolution process. To determine community consensus, editors can raise issues at appropriate community forums,[note 5] seek outside input through third opinion requests, or initiate a more general community discussion known as a "request for comment".

Arbitration Committee

Main article: Arbitration Committee

The Arbitration Committee presides over the ultimate dispute resolution process. Although disputes usually arise from a disagreement between two opposing views on how an article should read, the Arbitration Committee explicitly refuses to directly rule on the specific view that should be adopted. Statistical analyses suggest that the committee ignores the content of disputes and rather focuses on the way disputes are conducted,[114] functioning not so much to resolve disputes and make peace between conflicting editors, but to weed out problematic editors while allowing potentially productive editors back in to participate. Therefore, the committee does not dictate the content of articles, although it sometimes condemns content changes when it deems the new content violates Wikipedia policies (for example, if the new content is considered biased). Its remedies include cautions and probations (used in 63% of cases) and banning editors from articles (43%), subject matters (23%), or Wikipedia (16%).[when?] Complete bans from Wikipedia are generally limited to instances of impersonation and anti-social behavior. When conduct is not impersonation or anti-social, but rather anti-consensus or in violation of editing policies, remedies tend to be limited to warnings.[115]

Main article: Wikipedia community

Each article and each user of Wikipedia has an associated "talk" page. These form the primary communication channel for editors to discuss, coordinate and debate.[116]

Wikipedia's community has been described as cultlike,[117] although not always with entirely negative connotations.[118] Its preference for cohesiveness, even if it requires compromise that includes disregard of credentials, has been referred to as "anti-elitism".[119]

Wikipedians sometimes award one another "virtual barnstars" for good work. These personalized tokens of appreciation reveal a wide range of valued work extending far beyond simple editing to include social support, administrative actions, and types of articulation work.[120]

Wikipedia does not require that its editors and contributors provide identification.[121] As Wikipedia grew, "Who writes Wikipedia?" became one of the questions frequently asked there.[122] Jimmy Wales once argued that only "a community . a dedicated group of a few hundred volunteers" makes the bulk of contributions to Wikipedia and that the project is therefore "much like any traditional organization".[123] In 2008, a Slate magazine article reported that: "According to researchers in Palo Alto, one percent of Wikipedia users are responsible for about half of the site's edits."[124] This method of evaluating contributions was later disputed by Aaron Swartz, who noted that several articles he sampled had large portions of their content (measured by number of characters) contributed by users with low edit counts.[125]

The English Wikipedia has 6,409,211 articles, 42,559,880 registered editors, and 125,342 active editors. An editor is considered active if they have made one or more edits in the past 30 days.

Editors who fail to comply with Wikipedia cultural rituals, such as signing talk page comments, may implicitly signal that they are Wikipedia outsiders, increasing the odds that Wikipedia insiders may target or discount their contributions. Becoming a Wikipedia insider involves non-trivial costs: the contributor is expected to learn Wikipedia-specific technological codes, submit to a sometimes convoluted dispute resolution process, and learn a "baffling SketchUp Pro 2021 21.0.339 Crack With Product Number Free Download rich with in-jokes and insider references".[126] Editors who do not log in are in some sense second-class citizens on Wikipedia,[126] as "participants are accredited by members of the wiki community, who have a vested interest in preserving the quality of the work product, on the basis of their ongoing Photo Editor - Crack Key For U but the contribution histories of anonymous unregistered editors recognized only by their IP addresses cannot be attributed to a particular editor with certainty.

Studies

A 2007 study by researchers from Dartmouth College found that "anonymous and infrequent contributors to Wikipedia . are as reliable a source of knowledge as those contributors who register with the site".[128] Jimmy Wales stated in 2009 that "[I]t turns out over 50% of all the edits are done by just .7% of the users . 524 people . And in fact, the most active 2%, which is 1400 people, have done 73.4% of all the edits."[123] However, Business Insider editor and journalist Henry Blodget showed in 2009 that in a random sample of articles, most Wikipedia content (measured by the amount of contributed text that survives to the latest sampled edit) is created by "outsiders", while most editing and formatting is done by "insiders".[123]

A 2008 study found that Wikipedians were less agreeable, open, and conscientious than others,[129][130] although a later commentary pointed out serious flaws, including that the data showed higher openness and that the differences with the control group and the samples easeus partition master technician edition license code - Activators Patch small.[131] According to a 2009 study, there is "evidence of growing resistance from the Wikipedia community to new content".[132]

Diversity

Several studies have shown that most Wikipedia contributors are male. Notably, the results of a Wikimedia Foundation survey in 2008 showed that only 13 percent of Wikipedia editors were female.[133] Because of this, universities throughout the United States tried to encourage women to become Wikipedia contributors. Similarly, many of these universities, including Yale and Brown, gave college credit to students who create or edit an article relating to women in science or technology.[134]Andrew Lih, a professor and scientist, wrote in The New York Times that the reason he thought the number of male contributors outnumbered the number of females so greatly was because identifying as a woman may expose oneself to "ugly, intimidating behavior".[135] Data has shown that Africans are underrepresented among Wikipedia editors.[136]

Language editions

Main article: List of Wikipedias

Most popular edition of Wikipedia by country in January 2021.
Most viewed editions of Wikipedia over time.
Most edited editions of Wikipedia over time.

There are currently 325 language editions of Wikipedia (also called language versions, or simply Wikipedias). As of November 2021, the six largest, in order of article count, are the English, Cebuano, Swedish, German, French, and Dutch Wikipedias.[138] The second and third-largest Wikipedias owe their position to the article-creating botLsjbot, which as of 2013[update] had created about half the articles on the Swedish Wikipedia, and most of the articles in the Cebuano and Waray Wikipedias. The latter are both languages of the Philippines.

In addition to the top six, twelve other Wikipedias have more than a million articles each (Russian, Spanish, Italian, Polish, Egyptian Arabic, Japanese, Vietnamese, Waray, Chinese, Arabic, Ukrainian and Portuguese), seven more have over 500,000 articles (Persian, Catalan, Serbian, Indonesian, Norwegian, Korean and Finnish), 44 more have over 100,000, and 82 more have over 10,000.[139][138] The largest, the English Wikipedia, has over 6.4 million articles. As of January 2021,[update] the English Wikipedia receives 48% of Wikipedia's cumulative traffic, with the remaining split among the other languages. The top 10 editions represent approximately 85% of the total traffic.[140]

0.1 0.3 1 3

English 6,409,211

Cebuano 6,060,605

Swedish 2,876,323

German 2,632,800

French 2,374,515

Dutch 2,071,460

Russian 1,770,848

Spanish 1,731,290

Italian 1,726,231

Polish 1,496,695

Egyptian Arabic 1,372,525

Japanese 1,300,750

Vietnamese 1,270,057

Waray 1,265,573

Chinese 1,241,305

Arabic 1,143,069

Ukrainian 1,122,940

Portuguese 1,077,306

Persian 846,511

Catalan 689,573

The unit for the numbers in bars is articles.

Since Wikipedia is based on the Web and therefore worldwide, contributors to the same language edition may use different dialects or may come from different countries (as is the case for the English edition). These differences may lead to some conflicts over spelling differences (e.g. colour versus color)[142] or points of view.[143]

Though the various language editions are held to global policies such as "neutral point of view", they diverge on some points of policy and practice, most notably on whether images that are not licensed freely may be used under a claim of fair use.[144][145][146]

Jimmy Wales has described Wikipedia as "an effort to create and distribute a free encyclopedia of the highest possible quality to every single person on the planet in their own language".[147] Though each language edition functions more or less independently, some efforts are made to supervise them all. They are coordinated in part by Meta-Wiki, the Wikimedia Foundation's wiki devoted to maintaining all its projects (Wikipedia and others).[148] For instance, Meta-Wiki provides important statistics on all language editions of Wikipedia,[149] and it maintains a list of articles every Wikipedia should have.[150] The list concerns basic content by subject: biography, history, geography, society, culture, science, technology, and mathematics. It is not rare for articles strongly related to a particular language not to have counterparts in another edition. For example, articles about small towns in the United States might be available only in English, even when they meet the notability criteria of other language Wikipedia projects.

Estimation of contributions shares from different regions in the world to different Wikipedia editions[151]

Translated articles represent only a small portion of articles in most editions, in part because those editions do not allow fully automated translation of articles. Articles available in more than one language may offer "interwiki links", which link to the counterpart articles in other editions.[citation needed]

A study published by PLOS One in 2012 also estimated the share of contributions to different editions of Wikipedia from different regions of the world. It reported that the proportion of the edits made from North America was 51% for the English Wikipedia, and 25% for the simple English Wikipedia.[151]

English Wikipedia editor numbers

Number of editors on the English Wikipedia over time.

On March 1, 2014, The Economist, in an article titled "The Future of Wikipedia", cited a trend analysis concerning data published by the Wikimedia Foundation stating that "[t]he number of editors for the English-language version has fallen by a third in seven years."[152] The attrition rate for active editors in English Wikipedia was cited by The Economist as substantially in contrast to statistics for Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia). The Economist reported that the number of contributors with an average of five or more edits per month was relatively constant since 2008 for Wikipedia in other languages at approximately 42,000 editors within narrow seasonal variances of about 2,000 editors up or down. The number of active editors in English Wikipedia, by sharp comparison, was cited as peaking in 2007 at approximately 50,000 and dropping to 30,000 by the start of 2014.

In contrast, the trend analysis published in The Economist presents Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia) as successful in retaining their active editors on a renewable and sustained basis, with their numbers remaining relatively constant at approximately 42,000.[152] No comment was made concerning which of the differentiated edit policy standards from Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia) would provide a possible alternative to English Wikipedia for effectively ameliorating substantial editor attrition rates on the English-language Wikipedia.[153]

Reception

See also: Academic studies about Wikipedia and Criticism of Wikipedia

Ambox current red Americas.svg

This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(March 2018)

Various Wikipedians have criticized Wikipedia's large and growing regulation, which includes more than fifty policies and nearly 150,000 words as of 2014.[update][154][155]

Critics have stated that Wikipedia exhibits systemic bias. In 2010, columnist and journalist Edwin Black described Wikipedia as being a mixture of "truth, half-truth, and some falsehoods".[156] Articles in The Chronicle of Higher Education and The Journal of Academic Librarianship have criticized Wikipedia's "Undue Weight" policy, concluding that the fact that Wikipedia explicitly is not designed to provide correct information about a subject, but rather focus on all the major viewpoints on the subject, give less attention to minor ones, and creates omissions that can lead to false beliefs based on incomplete information.[157][158][159]

Journalists Oliver Kamm and Edwin Black alleged (in 2010 and 2011 respectively) that articles are dominated by the loudest and most persistent voices, usually by a group with an "ax to grind" on the topic.[156][160] A 2008 article in Education Next Journal concluded that as a resource about controversial topics, Wikipedia is subject to manipulation and spin.[161]

In 2020, Omer Benjakob and Stephen Harrison noted that "Media coverage of Wikipedia has radically shifted over the past two decades: once cast as an intellectual frivolity, it m3 data recovery 5.8 license key - Activators Patch now lauded as the 'last bastion of shared reality' online."[162]

In 2006, the Wikipedia Watch criticism website listed dozens of examples of plagiarism in the English Wikipedia.[163]

Accuracy of content

Main article: Reliability of Wikipedia

Articles for traditional encyclopedias such as Encyclopædia Britannica are written by experts, lending such encyclopedias a reputation for accuracy.[164] However, a peer review in 2005 of forty-two scientific entries on both Wikipedia and Encyclopædia Britannica by the science journal Nature found few differences in accuracy, and concluded that "the average science entry in Wikipedia contained around four inaccuracies; Britannica, about three."[165] Joseph Reagle suggested that while the study reflects "a topical strength of Wikipedia contributors" in science articles, "Wikipedia may not have fared so well using a random sampling of articles or on humanities subjects."[166] Others raised similar critiques.[167] The findings by Nature were disputed by Encyclopædia Britannica,[168][169] and in response, Nature gave a rebuttal of the points raised by Britannica.[170] In addition to the point-for-point disagreement between these two parties, others have examined the sample size and selection method used in the Nature effort, and suggested a "flawed study design" (in Nature's manual selection of articles, in part or in whole, for comparison), absence of statistical analysis (e.g., of reported confidence intervals), and a lack of study "statistical power" (i.e., owing to small sample size, 42 or 4 × 101 articles compared, vs >105 and >106 set sizes for Britannica and the English Wikipedia, respectively).[171]

As a consequence of the open structure, Wikipedia "makes no guarantee of validity" of its content, since no one is ultimately responsible for any claims appearing in it.[172] Concerns have been raised by PC World in 2009 regarding the lack of accountability that results from users' anonymity,[173] the insertion of false information,[174]vandalism, and similar problems.

Economist Tyler Cowen wrote: "If I had to guess whether Wikipedia or the median refereed journal article on economics was more likely to be true after a not so long think I would opt for Wikipedia." He comments that some traditional sources of non-fiction suffer from systemic biases, and novel results, in his opinion, are over-reported in journal articles as well as relevant information being omitted from news reports. However, he also cautions that errors are frequently found on Internet sites and that academics and experts must be vigilant in advanced system repair pro 2018 crack - Crack Key For U them.[175]Amy Bruckman has argued that, due to the number of reviewers, "the content of a popular Wikipedia page is actually the most reliable form of information ever created".[176]

Critics argue that Wikipedia's open nature and a lack of proper sources for most of the information makes it unreliable.[177] Some commentators suggest that Wikipedia may be reliable, but that the reliability of any given article is not clear.[178] Editors of traditional reference works such as the Encyclopædia Britannica have questioned the project's utility and status as an encyclopedia.[179] Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales has claimed that Wikipedia has largely avoided the problem of "fake news" because the Wikipedia community regularly debates the quality of sources in articles.[180]

Wikipedia's open structure inherently makes it an easy target for Internet trolls, spammers, and various forms of paid advocacy seen as counterproductive to the maintenance of a neutral and verifiable online encyclopedia.[80][182] In response to paid advocacy editing and undisclosed editing issues, Wikipedia was reported in an article in The Wall Street Journal, to have strengthened its rules and laws against undisclosed editing.[183] The article stated that: "Beginning Monday [from the date of the article, June 16, 2014], changes in Wikipedia's terms of use will require anyone paid to edit articles to disclose that arrangement. Katherine Maher, the nonprofit Wikimedia Foundation's chief communications officer, said the changes address a sentiment among volunteer editors that, 'we're not an advertising service; we're an encyclopedia.'"[183][184][185][186][187] These issues, among others, had been parodied since the first decade of Wikipedia, notably by Stephen Colbert on The Colbert Report.[188]

A Harvard law textbook, Legal Research in a Nutshell (2011), cites Wikipedia as a "general source" that "can be a real boon" in "coming up to speed in the law governing a situation" and, "while not authoritative, can provide basic facts as well as leads to more in-depth resources".[189]

Discouragement in education

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Most university lecturers discourage students from citing any encyclopedia in academic work, preferring primary sources;[190] some specifically prohibit Wikipedia citations. Wales stresses that encyclopedias of any type are not usually appropriate to use as citable sources, and should not be relied upon as authoritative.[193] Wales once (2006 or earlier) said he receives about ten emails weekly from students saying they got failing grades on papers because they cited Wikipedia; he told the students they got what they deserved. "For God's sake, you're in college; don't cite the encyclopedia," he said.[194]

In February 2007, an article in The Harvard Crimson newspaper reported that a few of the professors at Harvard University were including Wikipedia articles in their syllabi, although without realizing the articles might change.[195] In June 2007, former president of the American Library AssociationMichael Gorman condemned Wikipedia, along with Google,[196] stating that academics who endorse the use of Wikipedia are "the intellectual equivalent of a dietitian who recommends a steady diet of Big Macs with everything".

In contrast, academic writing[clarification needed] in Wikipedia has evolved in recent years and has been found to increase student interest, personal connection to the product, creativity in material processing, and international collaboration in the learning process.[197]

Medical information

See also: Health information on Wikipedia

On March 5, 2014, Julie Beck writing for The Atlantic magazine in an article titled "Doctors' #1 Source for Healthcare Information: Wikipedia", stated that "Fifty photo mechanic student discount - Crack Key For U of physicians look up conditions on the (Wikipedia) site, and some are editing articles themselves to improve the quality of available information."[198] Sony vegas pro crack 64 bit - Activators Patch continued to detail in this article new programs of Amin Azzam at the University of San Francisco to offer medical school courses to medical students for learning to edit and improve Wikipedia articles on health-related issues, as well as internal quality control programs within Wikipedia organized by James Heilman to improve a group of 200 health-related articles of central medical importance up to Wikipedia's highest standard of articles using its Featured Article and Good Article peer-review evaluation process.[198] In a May 7, 2014, follow-up article in The Atlantic titled "Can Wikipedia Ever Be a Definitive Medical Text?", Julie Beck quotes WikiProject Medicine's James Heilman as stating: "Just because a reference is peer-reviewed doesn't mean it's a high-quality reference."[199] Beck added that: "Wikipedia has its own peer review process before articles can be classified as 'good' or 'featured'. Heilman, who has participated in that process before, says 'less than one percent' of Wikipedia's medical articles have passed."[199]

Quality of writing

Screenshot of English Wikipedia's article on Earth, a featured-class article

In a 2006 mention of Jimmy Wales, Time magazine stated that the policy of allowing anyone to edit had made Wikipedia the "biggest (and perhaps best) encyclopedia in the world".[200]

In 2008, researchers at Carnegie Mellon University found that the quality of a Wikipedia article would suffer rather than gain from adding more writers when the article lacked appropriate explicit or implicit coordination.[201] For instance, when contributors rewrite small portions of an entry rather than making full-length revisions, high- and low-quality content may be intermingled within an entry. Roy Rosenzweig, a history professor, stated that American National Biography Online outperformed Wikipedia in terms of its "clear and engaging prose", which, he said, was an important aspect of good historical writing.[202] Contrasting Wikipedia's treatment of Abraham Lincoln to that photo mechanic student discount - Crack Key For U Civil War historian James McPherson in American National Biography Online, he said that both were essentially accurate and covered the major episodes in Lincoln's life, but praised "McPherson's richer contextualization . his artful use of quotations to capture Lincoln's voice . and . his ability to convey a profound message in a handful of words." By contrast, he gives an example of Wikipedia's prose that he finds "both verbose and dull". Rosenzweig also criticized the "waffling—encouraged by the NPOV policy—[which] means that it is hard to discern any overall interpretive stance in Wikipedia history". While generally praising the article on William Clarke Quantrill, he quoted its conclusion as an example of such "waffling", which then stated: "Some historians . remember him as an opportunistic, bloodthirsty outlaw, while others continue to view him as a daring soldier and local folk hero."[202]

Other critics have made similar charges that, even if Wikipedia articles are factually accurate, they are often written in a poor, almost unreadable style. Frequent Wikipedia critic Andrew Orlowski commented, "Even when a Wikipedia entry is 100 percent factually correct, and those facts have been carefully chosen, it all too often reads as if it has been translated from one language to another then into a third, passing an illiterate translator at each stage."[203] A study of Wikipedia articles on cancer was conducted in 2010 by Yaacov Lawrence of the Kimmel Cancer Center at Thomas Jefferson University. The study was limited to those articles that could be found in the Physician Data Query and excluded those written at the "start" class or "stub" class level. Lawrence found the articles accurate but not very readable, and thought that "Wikipedia's lack of readability (to non-college readers) may reflect its varied origins and haphazard editing".[204]The Economist argued that better-written articles tend to be more reliable: "inelegant or ranting prose usually reflects muddled thoughts and incomplete information".[205]

Coverage of topics and systemic bias

See also: Notability in the English Wikipedia and Criticism of Wikipedia § Systemic bias in coverage

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Wikipedia seeks to create a summary of all human knowledge in the form of an online encyclopedia, with each topic covered encyclopedically in one article. Since it has terabytes of disk space, it can have far more topics than can be covered by any printed encyclopedia.[206] The exact degree and manner of coverage on Wikipedia is under constant review by its editors, and disagreements are not uncommon (see deletionism and inclusionism).[207][208] Wikipedia contains materials that some people may find objectionable, offensive, or pornographic. The "Wikipedia is not censored" policy has sometimes proved controversial: in 2008, Wikipedia rejected an online petition against the inclusion of images of Muhammad in the English edition of its Muhammad article, citing this policy. The presence of politically, religiously, and pornographically sensitive materials in Wikipedia has led to the censorship of Wikipedia by national authorities in China[209] and Pakistan,[210] amongst other countries.

A 2008 study conducted by researchers at Carnegie Mellon University and Palo Alto Research Center gave a distribution of topics as well as growth (from July 2006 to January 2008) in each field:[211]

  • Culture and Arts: 30% (210%)
  • Biographies and Unreal Commander 3.57 Build 1496 Crack & Keygen Free Download 2021 15% (97%)
  • Geography and places: 14% (52%)
  • Society and social sciences: 12% (83%)
  • History and events: 11% (143%)
  • Natural and Physical Sciences: 9% (213%)
  • Technology and Applied Science: 4% (−6%)
  • Religions and belief systems: 2% (38%)
  • Health: 2% (42%)
  • Mathematics and logic: 1% (146%)
  • Thought and Philosophy: 1% (160%)

These numbers refer only to the number of articles: it is possible for one topic to contain a large number of short articles and another to contain a small number of large ones. Through its "Wikipedia Loves Libraries" program, Wikipedia has partnered with major public libraries such as the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts to expand its coverage of underrepresented subjects and articles.[212]

A 2011 study conducted by researchers at the University of Minnesota indicated that male and female editors focus on different coverage topics. There was a greater concentration of females in the "people and arts" category, while males focus more on "geography and science".[213]

Coverage of topics and selection bias

Research conducted by Mark Graham of the Oxford Internet Institute in 2009 indicated that the geographic distribution of article topics is highly uneven. Africa is goodsync for windows server crack - Activators Patch most underrepresented.[214] Across 30 language editions of Wikipedia, historical articles and sections are generally Eurocentric and focused on recent events.[215]

An editorial in The Guardian in 2014 claimed that more effort went into providing references for a list of female porn actors than a list of women writers.[216] Data has also shown that Africa-related material often faces omission; a knowledge gap that a July 2018 Wikimedia conference in Cape Town sought to address.[136]

Systemic biases

When multiple editors contribute to one topic or set of topics, systemic bias may arise, due to the demographic backgrounds of the editors. In 2011, Wales claimed that the unevenness of coverage is a reflection of the demography of the editors, citing for example "biographies of famous women through history and issues surrounding early childcare".[48] The October 22, 2013, essay by Tom Simonite in MIT's Technology Review titled "The Decline of Wikipedia" discussed the effect of systemic bias and policy creep on the downward trend in the number of editors.[49]

Systemic bias on Wikipedia may follow that of culture generally,[vague] for example favoring certain nationalities, ethnicities or majority religions.[217] It may more specifically follow the biases of Internet culture, inclining to be young, male, English-speaking, educated, technologically aware, and wealthy enough to spare time for editing. Biases, intrinsically, may include an overemphasis on topics such as pop culture, technology, and current events.[217]

Taha Yasseri of the University of Oxford, in 2013, studied the statistical trends of systemic bias at Wikipedia introduced by editing conflicts and their resolution.[218][219] His research examined the counterproductive work behavior of edit warring. Yasseri contended that simple reverts or "undo" operations were not the most significant measure of counterproductive behavior at Wikipedia and relied instead on the statistical measurement of detecting "reverting/reverted pairs" or "mutually reverting edit pairs". Such a "mutually reverting edit pair" is defined where one editor reverts the edit of another editor who then, in sequence, returns to revert the first editor in the "mutually reverting edit pairs". The results were tabulated for several language versions of Wikipedia. The English Wikipedia's three largest conflict rates belonged to the articles George W. Bush, anarchism, and Muhammad.[219] By comparison, for the German Wikipedia, the three largest conflict rates at the time of the Oxford study were for the articles covering Croatia, Scientology, and 9/11 conspiracy theories.[219]

Researchers from Washington University developed a statistical model to measure systematic bias in the behavior of Wikipedia's users regarding controversial topics. The authors focused on behavioral changes of the encyclopedia's administrators after assuming the post, writing that systematic bias occurred after the fact.[220][221]

Explicit content

See also: Internet Watch Foundation and Wikipedia and Reporting of child pornography images on Wikimedia Commons

"Wikipedia censorship" redirects here. For the government censorship of Wikipedia, see Censorship of Wikipedia. For Wikipedia's policy concerning censorship, see Wikipedia:Wikipedia is not censored

Wikipedia has been criticized for allowing information about graphic content. Articles depicting what some critics have called objectionable content (such as feces, cadaver, human penis, vulva, and nudity) contain graphic pictures and detailed information easily available to anyone with access to the internet, including children.

The site also includes sexual content such as images and videos of masturbation and ejaculation, illustrations of zoophilia, and photos from hardcore pornographic films in its articles. It also has non-sexual photographs of nude children.

The Wikipedia article about Virgin Killer—a 1976 album from the GermanrockbandScorpions—features a picture of the album's original cover, which depicts a naked prepubescent girl. The original release cover caused controversy and was replaced in some countries. In December 2008, access to the Wikipedia article Virgin Killer was blocked for four days by most Internet service providers in the United Kingdom after the Internet Watch Foundation (IWF) decided the album cover was a potentially illegal indecent image and added the article's URL to a "blacklist" it supplies to British internet service providers.[222]

In April 2010, Sanger wrote a letter to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, outlining his concerns that two categories of images on Wikimedia Commons contained child pornography, and were in violation of US federal obscenity law.[223][224] Sanger later clarified that the images, which were related to pedophilia and one about lolicon, were not of real children, but said that they constituted "obscene visual representations of the sexual abuse of children", under the PROTECT Act of 2003.[225] That law bans photographic child pornography and cartoon images and drawings of children that are obscene under American law.[225] Sanger also expressed concerns about access to the images on Wikipedia in schools.[226]Wikimedia Foundation spokesman Jay Walsh strongly rejected Sanger's accusation,[227] saying that Wikipedia did not have "material we would deem to be illegal. If we did, we would remove it."[227] Following the complaint by Sanger, Wales deleted sexual images without consulting the community. After some editors who volunteer to maintain the site argued that the decision to delete had been made hastily, Wales voluntarily gave up some of the powers he had held up to that time wondershare filmora crack key - Free Activators part of his co-founder status. He wrote in a message to the Wikimedia Foundation mailing-list that this action was "in the interest of encouraging this discussion to be about real philosophical/content issues, rather than be about me and how quickly I acted".[228] Critics, including Wikipediocracy, noticed that many of the pornographic images deleted from Wikipedia since 2010 have reappeared.[229]

Privacy

One privacy concern in the case of Wikipedia is the right of a private citizen to remain a "private citizen" rather than a "public figure" in the eyes of the law.[230][note 6] It is a battle between the right to be anonymous in cyberspace and the right to be anonymous in real life ("meatspace"). A particular problem occurs in the case of a relatively unimportant individual and for whom there exists a Wikipedia page against her or his wishes.

In January 2006, a German court ordered the German Wikipedia shut down within Germany because it stated the full name of Boris Floricic, aka "Tron", a deceased hacker. On February 9, 2006, the injunction against Wikimedia Deutschland was overturned, with the court rejecting the notion that Tron's right to privacy or that of his parents was being violated.[231]

Wikipedia has a "Volunteer Response Team" that uses Znuny, a free and open-source software fork of OTRS[232] to handle queries without having to reveal the identities of the involved parties. This is used, for example, in confirming the permission for using individual images and other media in the project.[233]

Sexism

Main article: Gender bias on Wikipedia

Wikipedia was described in 2015 as harboring a battleground culture of sexism and harassment.[234][235]

The perceived toxic attitudes and tolerance of violent and abusive language were reasons put forth in 2013 for the gender gap in Wikipedia editorship.[236]

Edit-a-thons have been held to encourage female editors and increase the coverage of women's topics.[237]

A comprehensive 2008 survey, published in 2016, found significant gender differences in: confidence in expertise, discomfort with editing, and response to critical feedback. "Women reported less confidence in their expertise, expressed greater discomfort with editing (which typically involves conflict), and reported more negative responses to critical feedback compared to men."[238]

Operation

Wikimedia Foundation and Wikimedia movement affiliates

Main article: Wikimedia Foundation

Wikipedia is hosted and funded by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization which also operates Wikipedia-related projects such as Wiktionary and Wikibooks. The foundation relies on public contributions and grants to fund its mission.[239] The foundation's 2013 IRS Form 990 shows revenue of $39.7 million mathtype 7 crack full version keygen - Free Activators expenses of almost $29 million, with assets of $37.2 million and liabilities of about $2.3 million.[240]

In May 2014, Wikimedia Foundation named Lila Tretikov as its second executive director, taking over for Sue Gardner.[241] The Wall Street Journal reported on May 1, 2014, that Tretikov's information technology background from her years at University of California offers Wikipedia an opportunity to develop in more concentrated directions guided by her often repeated position statement that, "Information, like air, wants to be free."[242][243] The same Wall Street Journal article reported these directions of development according to an interview with spokesman Jay Walsh of Wikimedia, who "said Tretikov would address that issue (paid advocacy) as a priority. 'We are really pushing toward more transparency . We are reinforcing that paid advocacy is not welcome.' Initiatives to involve greater diversity of contributors, better mobile support of Wikipedia, new geo-location tools to find local content more easily, and more tools for users in the second and third world are also priorities," Walsh said.[242]

Following the departure of Tretikov from Wikipedia due to issues concerning the use of the "superprotection" feature which some language versions of Wikipedia have adopted, Katherine Maher became the third executive director of the Wikimedia Foundation in June 2016.[244] Maher has stated that one of her priorities would be the issue of editor harassment endemic to Wikipedia as identified by the Wikipedia board in December. Maher stated regarding the harassment issue that: "It establishes a sense within the community that this is a priority . (and that correction requires that) it has to be more than words."[245]

Wikipedia is also supported by many organizations and groups that are affiliated with the Wikimedia Foundation but independently-run, called Wikimedia movement affiliates. These include Wikimedia chapters (which are national or sub-national organizations, such as Wikimedia Deutschland and Wikimédia France), thematic organizations (such as Amical Wikimedia for the Catalan language community), and user groups. These affiliates participate in the promotion, development, and funding of Wikipedia.

Software operations and support

See also: MediaWiki

The operation of Wikipedia depends on MediaWiki, a custom-made, free and open sourcewiki software platform written in PHP and built upon the MySQL database system.[246] The software incorporates programming features such as a macro language, variables, a transclusion system for templates, and URL redirection. MediaWiki is licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL) and it is used by all Wikimedia projects, as well as many other wiki projects. Originally, Wikipedia ran on UseModWiki written in Perl by Clifford Adams (Phase I), which initially required CamelCase for article hyperlinks; the present double bracket style was incorporated later. Starting in January 2002 (Phase II), Wikipedia began running on a PHP wiki engine with a MySQL database; this software was custom-made for Wikipedia by Magnus Manske. The Phase II software was repeatedly modified to accommodate the exponentially increasing demand. In July 2002 (Phase III), Wikipedia shifted to the third-generation software, MediaWiki, originally written by Lee Daniel Crocker.

Several MediaWiki extensions are installed[247] to extend the functionality of the MediaWiki software.

In April 2005, a Lucene extension[248][249] was added to MediaWiki's built-in search and Wikipedia switched from MySQL to Lucene for searching. Lucene was later replaced by CirrusSearch which is based on Elasticsearch.[250]

In July 2013, after extensive beta testing, a WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) extension, VisualEditor, was opened to public use.[251][252][253][254] It was met with much rejection and criticism, and was described as "slow and buggy".[255] The feature was changed from opt-out to opt-in afterward.

Automated editing

Main article: Wikipedia bots

Computer programs called bots have often been used to perform simple and repetitive tasks, such as correcting common misspellings and stylistic issues, or to start articles such as geography entries in a standard format from statistical data.[256][257][258] One controversial contributor, Sverker Johansson, creating articles with his bot was reported to create up to 10,000 articles on the Swedish Wikipedia on certain days.[259] Additionally, there are bots designed to automatically notify editors when they make common editing errors (such as unmatched quotes or unmatched parentheses).[260] Edits falsely identified by bots as the work of a banned editor can be restored by other editors. An anti-vandal bot is programmed to detect and revert vandalism quickly.[257] Bots are able to indicate edits from particular accounts or IP address ranges, as occurred at the time of the shooting down of the MH17 jet incident in July 2014 when it was reported that edits were made via IPs controlled by the Russian government.[261] Bots on Wikipedia must be approved before activation.[262]

According to Andrew Lih, the current expansion of Wikipedia to millions of articles would be difficult to envision without the use of such bots.[263]

Hardware operations and support

See also: Wikimedia Foundation § Hardware

Wikipedia receives between 25,000 and 60,000-page requests per second, depending on the time of the day.[264][needs update] As of 2021,

Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia
Computational Fluid Dynamics? — SimScale Documentation". www.simscale.com. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
  • ^"What is the Job Description of an Acoustic Engineer?". learn.org.
  • Further reading[edit]

    External links[edit]

    Quotations related to Mechanical engineering at Wikiquote

    Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mechanical_engineering

    STATE OF MAINE

    MOTORIST HANDBOOK AND STUDY GUIDE

    State of Maine Department of the Secretary of State Augusta, Maine clean my mac with crack 04333

    This booklet is prepared under the authority of the:

    SECRETARY OF STATE BUREAU OF MOTOR VEHICLES Augusta, Maine 04333
    (207) 624-9000
    Web site: http://www.Maine.gov/sos/bmv

    Questions on registrationEXT 52149
    Questions on driver license renewals and duplicatesEXT 52114
    Questions on license suspensions624-9000
    Questions on driving tests (Class C and Motorcycles)EXT 52119
    Questions on Commercial Driver License (CDL)EXT 52122
    Questions on Driver EducationEXT 52128
    TTY UsersMaine relay 711

    You may call or visit any Motor Vehicle Office listed below

    AUGUSTA: 19 Anthony AveTel: 287-3330
    BANGOR: 1129 Union St., Bangor Airport Mall, Griffin Rd EntranceTel: 942-1319
    CALAIS: 23 Washington StTel: 454-2175
    CARIBOU: 14 Access HighwayTel: 492-9141
    ELLSWORTH: 22 School StTel: 667-9363
    KENNEBUNK: 63 Portland Rd Rt 1 NorthTel: 985-4890
    LEWISTON: 36 Mollison WayTel: 753-7750
    MEXICO: 110 Main Street, Mexico Shopping PlazaTel: 369-9921
    PORTLAND: 125 Presumpscot StTel: 822-6400
    ROCKLAND: 360 Old County RoadTel: 596-2255
    SCARBOROUGH: 200 Expedition DriveTel: 883-2596
    SPRINGVALE: 456 Main St. Rt 109Tel: 490-1261
    TOPSHAM: 125B Main StTel: 725-6520

    A driver’s license brings new freedom and independence – and also a solemn responsibility.

    Everyone on or near the road – from the driver or cyclist next to you to the person walking on the sidewalk – is counting on you to pay attention to your driving. You must always be prepared for the possibility that you will need to stop, swerve, speed up or slow down to avoid a collision. That means you need to have your full attention on the road and always be fit to drive.

    Your life, your passengers’ lives and the lives of other motorists, cyclists and pedestrians depend on your ability to drive safely. If you are impaired by drugs or alcohol, or if you’re texting or paying attention to anything other than your driving, you are putting lives at risk.

    Devastating and deadly accidents are all too common, and often caused by someone who is breaking the law. What you don’t hear as much about are all the crashes that are avoided by drivers who are alert, sober, responsive and who follow the rules of the road.

    The Maine Bureau of Motor Vehicles was established in 1905 out of concern for public safety as the age of the automobile began. Today, it’s hard to imagine the dangers of that time when there were more horses than cars on the roadways. For more than 100 years, the Bureau of Motor Vehicles (BMV) has been dedicated to our mission to promote safety on Maine’s roadways by qualifying and licensing drivers, along with maintaining records of driver history, vehicle ownership and vehicle registration. This manual is designed to prepare you with the knowledge and skills you need to operate a motor vehicle safely and obtain a driver’s license.

    Earning your driver’s license is only the beginning, though. Please remember that the skills, behaviors and rules of the road you are learning today are more than just the answers to a test. Safe driving is a life-long commitment and one that you must reaffirm every time you get behind the wheel.

    As you take your first steps toward earning your license to operate a motor vehicle, I encourage you to promise yourself that you will be fit to drive every time you get behind the wheel. We wish you success in earning your driver’s license, and enjoyment of all the freedom and opportunities that it will bring in your lifetime.

    Department of the Secretary of State
    Bureau of Motor Vehicles

    CONTENTS

    Part I: Maine Driver's License
    Image

    Acquiring A Maine Driver's License

    Information About Your Driver's License

    Maintaining Your Driver's License

    Practice Questions

    Part II: Owning and Maintaining A MotorVehicle
    Image

    Titling Your Motor Vehicle

    Registering Your Motor Vehicle

    Insuring Your Motor Vehicle

    Inspecting Your Motor Vehicle

    Maintaining Your Motor Vehicle

    Practice Questions

    Part III: Keeping Fit to Drive
    Image

    Alcohol and Other Drugs

    Vision and Hearing

    Driver Fatigue

    Your Health

    Practice Questions

    Part IV: Operating A MotorVehicle
    Image

    Rules of the Road

    Seeing Well While Driving

    Communicating With Others

    Distractions

    Maintaining a Safe Cushion

    Sharing the Road With Bicycles

    Sharing Space With Other Road Users

    Expressway Driving

    Conservation

    Practice Questions

    Part V: Handling Emergencies
    Image

    Safety Belts

    Hazardous Driving Conditions

    Avoiding Collisions

    Accidents

    Emergency First Aid

    Handling Other Automobile Emergencies

    Sharing the Road With Large Vehicles

    Practice Questions

    Part VI: Motorcycles or Mopeds
    Image

    Defining A Motorcycle or Mopeds

    Motorcycle Requirements

    Appendix A
    Image

    The information in this manual is as accurate as possible at the time of publication, but is subject to change. This manual is intended to provide basic information and cannot possibly cover every traffic law or situation. If you have a question about the information supplied in this manual or a situation not covered, consult your local Motor Vehicle office, or write to the Bureau of Motor Vehicles, 29 State House Station, Augusta, Maine 04333.

    Social Security Number Disclosure Statement

    This statement is made in accordance with the Federal Privacy Act of 1974, Section 7(b). Disclosure of your social security number is mandatory and is required by 29-A MRSA ,1301(5) and (6) to apply for or renew a driver's license or nondriver identification card. Your social security number will be used solely for identification purposes and will be kept confidential.

    Part I
    Maine Driver's License

    Driving a motor vehicle on public highways in Maine is a privilege and a serious responsibility.
    The ability to drive a car, truck or motorcycle widens your horizons. It helps you do your job, visit friends and relatives and enjoy your leisure time.

    A motor vehicle used unwisely or carelessly, can be fatal. More than 30,000 people die each year in the United States because of motor vehicle accidents. To obtain your driver's license you must know the rules of the road and how to safely drive a car or other vehicle in traffic. But becoming a safe, intelligent driver takes time and effort, and the process really only begins when you get your license.

    Maine has over 1,000,000 licensed drivers.

    Acquiring a Maine Driver's License
    Image

    Who Needs a Maine Driver's License?

    • Any resident of the State who wishes to operate a motor vehicle in Maine. New residents who hold a valid driver's license from another state must surrender that license and apply for a Maine driver's license within 30 days of establishing residency.

    Who Does Not Need a Maine Driver's License to Operate a Motor Vehicle in Maine?

    • Any resident who has a valid learner's permit may drive as long as they are accompanied by a licensed driver who is at least 20 years of age and has held a valid license for 2 years. The licensed driver must occupy the seat adjacent to the driver with the learner's permit.
    • Any non-resident who is at least 16 years of age and who has a valid operator's license or learner's permit issued by his or her home state.
    • Any military personnel possessing a valid military license operating a military vehicle.

    How Do You Obtain A Permit in Maine?

    • You must be at least 15 years of age.
    • If under 18 years of age, complete an approved driver education course.
    • Obtain a learner's permit by successfully completing a driver knowledge examination. A learner's permit is generally valid for 2 years. It allows a person to operate a vehicle when accompanied by a licensed driver who is at least 20 years of age and has held a valid license for 2 years. The accompanying operator must be licensed to drive the class of vehicle(s) being operated.
    • Use of mobile telephone or handheld electronic devices prohibited on learner's permit.
    • Written exams and visual screenings are offered on a scheduled basis at all Motor Vehicle branch offices. Two forms of identification are required. Example; birth certificate and social security card. Although your social security number will not be displayed on your license, it must be provided upon application or renewal for a license. Birth certificates or Passports are required of applicants up to and including age 22 to determine date of birth. Photocopies of birth certificates must have an embossed seal or stamp of an issuing agency. Notarized copies are not acceptable.

    How Do You Obtain A Driver's License?

    • Be at least 16 years of age and have completed an approved driver education course.
    • Be at least 18 years of age if you have not completed an approved driver education course.
    • Before a person under 21 years of age can apply for a road test, that person must have held a learner's permit for 6 months from the date of issue of the learner's permit and must complete a minimum of 70 hours of driving, including 10 hours of night driving, while accompanied by a licensed driver at least 20 years of age and held a valid license for 2 years. The 70 hours of practice driving must begin after issuance of the permit. The parent, stepparent, guardian or spouse must certify the person's driving time on a form prescribed by the Secretary of State. When the person has no parent, stepparent, guardian or spouse, an employer may certify the driving time.
    • Successfully complete a road test. When ready to take the road test, mail the road test request card that has been given or mailed to you to the Motor Vehicles main office in Augusta and you will be scheduled at a testing location nearest to you. Bring your learners permit and appointment notice with you. Drivers must furnish their own vehicle, properly registered (bring registration) and inspected, for the road test. You must be accompanied by a licensed operator who is in possession of a valid driver's license. During the winter months, it is possible that weather conditions could cause the cancellation of your scheduled exam. Applicants scheduled for a road test on a day experiencing snow and/or icy conditions can elect to be rescheduled at no fee. Applicants selecting this option can call (207) 624-9000, ext. 52119.
    • A person under 18 years of age who has been issued a driver's license may not: operate a motor vehicle while using a mobile telephone; operate a motor vehicle between the hours of 12 a.m. and 5 a.m.; carry passengers other than immediate family members unless accompanied by a licensed operator who has held a valid license for 2 years, is at least 20 years of age, is occupying a seat beside the driver and is licensed to operate the class of vehicle operated by the driver. Immediate family member means grandparent, stepgrandparent, parent, stepparent, brother, stepbrother, sister, stepsister, child, stepchild, spouse, analogous family members as may be connected via the operation of a family foster home and when living with the immediate family, foreign exchange students, court appointed wards of an immediate family member and a child whose parent is deployed for military service and is under the guardianship of an immediate family member.

    These restrictions are in effect for a period of 270 days from passing the road test. Violation of the conditions of these restrictions will result in a license suspension and a 270 day extension of the restrictions which may extend beyond the 18th birthday.

    The first license issued to a new applicant under 21 years of age is provisional for a period of two years and one year for persons at least 21 years old. If a person is convicted of a moving violation that occurred while operating with a provisional license, the license will be suspended for 30 days. Second and third offenses involve more severe penalties.

    What Will the Tests Include?

    • The written test measures your understanding and knowledge of traffic laws, regulations, driving skills and vehicle handling, as well as your ability to identify and understand highway signs. Special emphasis is placed on understanding Maine's drinking and driving laws.
    • The vision screening will measure your visual acuity (how clearly you see) and your peripheral vision (how far you can see to either side while looking straight ahead).
    • During the road test, the license examiner will assess your ability to maintain control of your vehicle at all times, whether it be driving forward or backward, maintaining your proper lane position, turning left or right or driving straight ahead. You will also be evaluated on how well you observe and react to other road users and pedestrians, as well as traffic signs, signals and conditions. You will not be asked to do anything that is extraordinary or illegal.

    Note: The road test will not be given until all other tests have been successfully completed.

    Who Must Take the Examinations?

    • Those applying for an initial license must take all examinations.
    • Anyone changing their license classification must take all examinations. Special tests are administered for those wishing to operate a motorcycle, bus or school bus. Additional endorsements may be added to a license following the successful completion of all pertinent written and vision tests.
    • Applicants with a valid out-of-state license may have the written and road tests waived.

    Message For Those Transferring their Out-of-State License to a Maine
    Non-Commercial Driver's License
    Image

    • You must be at least 16 years of age to apply for a Maine license.
    • If you are 16 or 17 and hold a valid out-of-state license, you may be required to provide evidence of completion of an approved driver education course prior to the issuance of a Maine license.
    • Any out-of-state license must be surrendered at the time of issuance of the Maine license.
    • You will need to apply for a Commercial Driver's License if you expect to operate:
      • A combination of vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating of 26,001 or more pounds, if the gross vehicle weight rating or gross weight of the vehicles being towed is in excess of 10,000 pounds.
      • A single motor vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating of 26,001 or more pounds or such a vehicle towing a vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating or gross weight not in excess of 10,000 pounds.
      • A vehicle carrying hazardous materials in a quantity requiring placarding by Federal DOT regulation.
      • A vehicle designed to carry over 15 passengers including the driver.
    • A written test is not required if you are applying for a passenger car license.
    • Any misstatement on the license application will result in the immediate revocation of your license and your privilege to operate in the State of Maine. Furthermore, court action may be taken against you for any misstatement.
    • The Secretary of State shall not accept the application of any minor under the age of 18 years for an operator's license or instruction permit unless signed by a parent photo mechanic student discount - Crack Key For U legal guardian having custody of the minor or by the spouse of the minor provided the spouse is of the age of 18 years or older. Any person who has signed the application of a minor for an operator's application or learner's permit may thereafter file with the department a notarized written request that the license or learner's permit of said minor, so granted, be suspended.
    • You are responsible for abiding by the Maine Motor Vehicle Laws and must become familiar with the Maine Motorist Handbook and Study Guide.

    Information About Your Driver's License
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    When you have passed the required tests, you may purchase a picture license which is valid until your sixth birthday following the date of issue of the license or your fourth birthday following the date of issue of the license if you are age 65 or older. You must show proof of lawful presence and legal residency at the time of photo license processing. If you are under 18 years of age, you must bring a parent or legal guardian with you to sign for the issuance of your picture license, which will be mailed to you after processing. You should utorrent pro crack 2020 - Activators Patch your license with you when driving. You must show your license to any police officer who asks to see it. It is illegal to lend your license to anyone else.

    License ClassificationType of Vehicles
    There are 3 classes of driver's licenses in Maine.

    • Classes A and B: Class A and B licenses are commercial vehicle licenses and are distinguished by the size and weight of the vehicle to be driven. A Class A license covers any combination of vehicles with a gross combination weight rating of 26,001 or more pounds, provided the gross vehicle weight rating or gross weight of the vehicle or vehicles being towed is in photo mechanic student discount - Crack Key For U of 10,000 pounds. Class B covers any single vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating of 26,001 or more pounds or any such vehicle towing a vehicle not in excess of 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight rating or gross weight. Holders of a Class A or B license may, with any appropriate endorsements, operate all vehicles in Classes B and C.
    • Class C: Class C is the standard license classification issued to most motor vehicle operators. A Class C license covers any single vehicle or combination of vehicles that does not meet the definition of Class A or B. A Class C license is a commercial driver's license only if it carries a hazardous material, tanker and/or passenger (bus) endorsement. Holders of Class C license may, with any appropriate endorsements, operate all vehicles in that class.

    Separate study manuals are available to use for study purposes when applying for a commercial driver's license or motorcycle endorsement.

    School buses, passenger buses and motorcycles are not a separate class, but their use requires a special endorsement and an examination for the specific vehicle.

    NOTE:
    School bus license applicants must be 21 years of age or older and have at least one year of licensed driving experience. Additionally, any individual convicted of an O.U.I. offense within the preceding ten-year period is ineligible to receive a school bus operator's license.

    Mopeds may be operated on a license of any class. A motorized bicycle or tricycle may only be operated by a person who possesses a valid license of any class, a learner's permit or license endorsed for a motorcycle or moped.

    Altering a License: Changing information on a driver's license carries severe penalties, including loss of license.

    Lost License: If Aiseesoft FoneLab Offline Installer license is lost or destroyed, you must notify the Bureau of Motor Vehicles to apply for a duplicate copy. Once notified, the Bureau will forward the information and material needed to process a duplicate license.

    Renewing Your Driver's License:About 45 days before a driver's license expires, a renewal notice is mailed to the driver's most recent address on file at the Bureau of Motor Vehicles. If you do not notify us of any address change, you may not receive a renewal notice. You must contact our central office in Augusta and renew your license on time. It is unlawful to drive a motor vehicle with an expired license.

    Change of Name or Address:If your name or address changes from that given on your license, Maine law requires that you notify the Bureau of Motor Vehicles within 30 days of change.

    Maintaining Your Driver's License
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    Remember, having a driver's license is a privilege that can be taken away from you at any time you drive inappropriately.

    Secretary of State's Authority

    The Secretary of State has the authority to impose restrictions on your driver's license when it appears necessary. One of the more common restrictions is the requirement that a licensee who has corrective lenses must wear them while driving. Restrictions apply also as to time of day and location of use. Driving in violation of any restrictions is unlawful.

    The Secretary of State may require you to appear for a license examination or hearing at any time, even after you have been issued a driver's license. The Secretary may also require you to furnish a statement from your doctor regarding your physical or mental condition.

    The Secretary of State is authorized to suspend your license upon receipt of a written adverse report of your driving from a law enforcement officer or other member of the public.

    Suspension of a Minor's License or Permit

    Any person who has signed the application of a minor for an operator's license or
    instruction permit can, thereafter, file, with the Secretary of State, a notarized written re- quest asking that the minor's license or instruction permit be suspended.

    License Penalties and Suspension

    The Secretary of State and the courts have a great deal of authority in suspending your operator's license. Driving is a privilege, and only those who prove themselves to be safe may retain that privilege.

    Your Driver's License May Be Taken Away by Revocation or Suspension

    Revocation:While rarely used, it means that your license and driving privilege is formally terminated and you would have to apply for a new license at the end of the revocation period.

    Typical offenses requiring revocation are:

    • Vehicular Manslaughter. Revocation for at least 5 years. If alcohol is involved revocation is permanent.
    • Habitual Offender. Revocation for at least one year.

    Suspension:Suspensions temporarily withdraw driving privileges. A person whose license has been suspended will not be allowed to drive until a written notice of reinstatement is received.

    Typical offenses requiring suspension are:

    • Failure to file required insurance.
    • Failure to appear in court for a traffic citation.
    • Operating Under the Influence (O.U.I.).
    • Administrative License Suspension.

    Administrative License Suspension

    The most commonly known tool for the control of driver behavior in Maine are rules for administrative license suspension relating to demerit point accumulation, convictions and adjudications.

    Suspension Periods for Designated Convictions

    The license or privilege to operate of any person convicted of eluding a police officer, passing a roadblock or street racing may be suspended for a period of up to 90 days.

    Any person who is convicted of operating after suspension may have their license suspended for a period of 60 days.

    Persons convicted of the following offenses may have their licenses suspended for a period of 30 days:

    • Failure to stop for a police officer
    • Leaving the scene of an accident (bodily injury)
    • Operating alone on a permit
    • Operating without a license (criminal offense)
    • Passing a stopped school bus with its red lights flashing
    • Speeding by 30 miles per hour or more over the speed limit
    • Altering a license or registration certificate
    • Loaning a license
    • Unlawful use of license
    • Displaying suspended license
    • Falsifying an application for registration or license
    • Giving false information to a police officer

    Using False Identification to Obtain Liquor

    This law requires a court to suspend the driver's license of a person, under 21 years of age, who is adjudicated of the offense of using false or fraudulent credentials to obtain liquor or gain entrance into a drinking establishment. The court is given discretionary authority to suspend the license for 30 days for a first offense and is required to suspend the license for 90 days for a second offense and one year for any subsequent offense. The Secretary of State is obligated to impose the suspension for second and subsequent offenses. The offense will carry six demerit points

    Suspension for Demerit Point Accumulation: The Maine Point System

    By law, the Secretary of State is required to adopt rules establishing a uniform system of assigning demerit points for persons convicted of certain motor vehicle traffic offenses.

    Once certain point levels are reached (currently 6 points), a warning is issued by the Secretary of State, and if the point total reaches 12 points or more the driver's license will be suspended. Points will be erased from a driver's record when they become one year old.

    When a suspension occurs, a driver is entitled to a hearing by the Secretary of State's office. The hearing examiner may continue, modify, or rescind the earlier action taken. The person under suspension may be represented by an attorney at any hearing and the hearing decision may be appealed to Superior Court.

    Point Schedule

    Convictions and Adjudications Demerit Points

    Demerit Points

    Conviction

    Demerit Point

    Driving Wrong Side

    6

    Driving Wrong Way

    6

    Exceeding Posted Speed by at Least 15 Miles Per Hour But Less Than 30 Miles Per Hour

    6

    Illegal Transportation, Possession or Consumption of Liquor In a Motor Vehicle by a Minor

    6

    Illegal Transportation of Drugs in a Motor Vehicle by a Minor

    6


    Improper Passing

    6

    Leaving the Scene of an Accident (Property Damage)

    6

    Operating Beyond Restriction

    6

    Operating With Improper License

    6

    Operating Without Corrective Lenses

    6

    Operating Left on Curve

    6

    Other Improper Pass

    6

    Pass Within 100 Feet of Intersection

    6

    Pass on Curve or Hill

    6

    Pass on Right

    6

    Pass on Wrong Side

    6

    Using False ID to Obtain Liquor

    6

    Violation-Do Not Pass

    6

    Violation of Instruction Permit

    6

    Operating Motorcycle Beyond Restriction

    6

    Exceeding Posted Speed by Less Than 15 Miles Per Hour

    4

    Excessive Acceleration

    4

    Failure to Keep Right

    4

    Failure to Return to the Right

    4

    Failure to Yield to Emergency Vehicle

    4

    Failure to YieldNo Sign

    4

    Failure to Yield to Pedestrian

    4

    Failure to YieldSign

    4

    Failure to Give Way to Other Vehicle

    4

    Failure to Obey Stop Sign

    4

    Failure to Stop at Red Light

    4

    Failure to Yield Right of Way

    4

    Imprudent Driving

    4

    Operating a Motor Vehicle With Obstructed View

    4

    Operating Without a License (traffic infraction)

    4

    Red Light Violation

    4

    Crossover Violation

    2

    Displaying a Blue Light

    2

    Displaying a Red Light

    2

    Failure to Dim Headlights

    2

    Failure to Signal

    2

    Failure to Obey Traffic Island

    2

    Failure to Reduce Speed on a Grade or Curve

    2

    Follow Too Close

    2

    Illegal Left Turn

    2

    Illegal Right Turn

    2

    Illegal U-Turn

    2

    Impeding the Flow of Traffic

    2

    Improper Turn

    2

    Lane Conviction

    2

    Littering

    2

    Obstructing the Flow of Traffic

    2

    Obstructing Traffic

    2

    Operating Motor Vehicle Without Tail Lights

    2

    Operating Without Lights

    2

    Other Moving Violations

    2

    Speed Under Posted Minimum

    2

    Squealing Tires

    2

    Trailer Without Lights

    2

    Trucks Traveling Less Than 150 Feet Apart

    2

    Eluding Police Officer

    Eluding a police officer is a serious offense. Anyone, after being requested or signaled to stop, who attempts to elude a law enforcement officer by driving a vehicle at a reckless rate of speed, resulting in a high-speed chase between the operator's vehicle and any law enforcement vehicle using a blue light and siren, is guilty of a Class C crime. If any person suffers any serious bodily injury as a result of the operator's attempt to elude a law enforcement officer, that operator commits a Class B crime.

    Leaving the Scene of an Accident

    Increase in classification for the offense of leaving the scene of a bodily injury accident from a Class D to a Class C crime, if the accident resulted in serious bodily injury or death and the person intentionally, knowingly or recklessly failed to stop at the scene of the accident.

    Violation Free Credit

    The violation free credit system awards one point for each calendar year free of convictions or suspensions. One is permitted to accumulate up to four violation free credit points.

    Continuing Driver Education

    The Maine Driving Dynamics Course is an approved five-hour program designed to increase knowledge of driving hazards and the techniques to avoid these hazards. The focus is on the prevention of collisions despite adverse conditions and unsafe actions of other drivers. The course also emphasizes the dangers associated with the use of alcohol and other drugs in association with driving.

    Successful completion of a Maine Driving Dynamics Course or other approved driver improvement course will deduct three points from a driver's point total. Anyone may, even with no record, receive credit for successful completion of this course, but points will be deducted only once in any twelve month period.
    Courses are conducted by trained instructors whenever and wherever there is sufficient demand. The courses are often part of the local adult and continuing education program. For further information please call the Bureau of Highway Safety at (207)626-3840. The fee for the Maine Driving Dynamics course is $40.00.

    120 Day Suspension

    Any person whose license has been suspended three times within a three-year period by the Secretary of State or by a court may be subject to a further suspension for a period up to
    120 days.

    Mandatory Suspensions

    In addition to the discretionary powers of the Secretary of State, there are certain violations which require total mandatory suspension-no exceptions, no "work" license. A few are listed below (for the full list, refer to M.R.S.A. Title 29-A).

    • Failure to answer to a motor vehicle summons to court. Whenever a person fails to appear in court on the day specified, or fails to pay any related fine, the license will be suspended until the appearance is made or the fine is paid.
      This is one of the most common reasons for suspension. Fines must be paid.
    • Operating under the influence, blood level 0.08% or over, or refusal to submit to a blood alcohol test require mandatory suspensions of varying terms (see Chapter on Alcohol).
    • Driving to Endanger: Suspension for at least 30 days
    • Illegal transportation, possession or consumption pinnacle game profiler old version - Free Activators liquor by a minor in a motor vehicle: Suspension for at least 30 days.
    • Illegal transportation of drugs by a minor in a motor vehicle: Suspension for at least 30 days.
    • If you are responsible for accident damage and do not have liability insurance, license and registration must be suspended until proof of insurance is filed with the Secretary of State.

    Revocation of a driver's license for certain crimes

    This law requires the Secretary of State to revoke indefinitely the driver's licenses of individuals convicted of designated criminal offenses when the individuals used a motor vehicle to commit the offense and the operation of the vehicle caused, or created a substantial risk or fear of serious bodily injury. The designated criminal offenses, including convictions, are: assault, aggravated assault, elevated aggravated assault, criminal threatening, and reckless conduct. The license revocation periods are three years for Class A, B or C crimes, two years for a Class D crime, and one year for a Class E offense.

    Other Suspensions at Discretion of the Secretary of State

    The license of any person whom the Secretary of State determines is incompetent to drive, e.g., adverse physical or mental impairments, may be suspended without a hearing, provided the Secretary of State has reviewed all available evidence.

    Incompetence relative to physical or mental handicaps is determined in accordance with established rules (Chapter 3, as amended), Physical, Emotional and Mental Competence to Operate a Motor Vehicle.

    Any person whose license is suspended may request a hearing, but the suspension may remain in effect pending such a hearing.

    A judge has discretionary authority to suspend the driver's license of any person found in contempt for failing to pay a fine in any criminal or civil violation proceeding. A judge may order a driver license suspension for offenses unrelated to the operation of motor vehicles.

    Part I Practice Questions:
    Image

    1. Who can file a request with the Bureau of Motor Vehicles to suspend the license or
    instruction permit of a minor?
    2. The illegal transportation of liquor by a minor carries a minimum suspension of how many days?
    3. How many classes of driver's license are issued in Maine?
    4. What are demerit points?
    5. Name the violations of traffic laws which, upon conviction, carry automatic 90 day suspensions.

    Part II
    Owning and Maintaining
    A Motor Vehicle

    Just like having a driver's license, owning a motor vehicle carries many responsibilities. Motor vehicles operated on Maine's public roadways must be registered, insured and well maintained.

    Titling Your Motor Vehicle
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    A motor vehicle must have a title before it can be registered in Maine.

    1. What is a title?

    A title is a legal document which identifies ownership of a motor vehicle.

    2. Why do I need a title?

    To prove ownership and to show any liens (debts) on your vehicle.

    3. How do I apply for a title?

    If the vehicle is purchased from a Maine auto dealer, the dealer will furnish you with the blue copy of the title application which must be presented at the time of your first registration. If the vehicle was not purchased from a Maine auto dealer, a title application must be completed by you and submitted with the prior certificate of
    title or manufacturer's certificate of origin, properly transferred to you.

    4. Who is the title given to?

    If you are the owner and have no lien holder you will receive the title. If you have borrowed money to pay for the car, the bank or credit union that lent you the money will get the title.

    5. Where do I keep the certificate of title?

    In a safe place; never in the vehicle

    6. What vehicles do not need a title under the title law?

    Automobiles with a model year prior to 1995, motorcycles with an engine size less than 300 cc and trailers with an unladen weight of 3,000 pounds or less.

    7. What should I do if my title is stolen, lost, destroyed or mutilated?

    You should make application at once for a duplicate title. Send in your mutilated or illegible Certificate of Title with the application and proper fee.

    Note: If you have any questions regarding title information, please call 207-624-9000

    Registering Your Vehicle
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    If you own any motor vehicle, mobile home, trailer or semi-trailer driven on the roadway, you must register it.

    1. How do I register a vehicle in Maine?

    Payment of the excise tax to a municipal tax collector is the first step in registering your motor vehicle. An excise tax must be paid on all types of vehicle except semi- trailers. The amount of excise tax due depends upon the age and factory list price of the vehicle being registered. The excise tax receipt, in turn, serves as your registration application. The back of the white copy of the registration must be completed and signed before a registration can be issued. If you are under 18 years of age, your parent or guardian must also sign the application.

    2. Where are motor vehicle registrations issued?

    After payment of the excise tax, your registration and plates may be obtained by visiting any of the Motor Vehicle Branch Offices listed on the inside cover of this manual or by mailing your application and the correct fee to the Bureau of Motor Vehicles, 29 State House Station, Augusta, Maine 04333. Most Maine municipalities issue registrations and plates as well. Check with your municipality to see if they are a participant in the state's municipal agent program.

    3. How much does a motor vehicle registration cost?

    The registration fee for a passenger vehicle is $35.00. A registration remains valid for one year from the month it is issued. The fee for pick up trucks with a gross vehicle weight of 6,000 pounds is also $35.00. The registration fee for larger trucks increases with the registered gross weight.

    4. Do I need to apply for a Maine title in order to register?

    At the time of first registration, an application for title must be submitted for a vehicle that is model year 1995 or newer.

    5. Is payment of sales tax required?

    When registering any vehicle for the first time in Maine your registration application must be accompanied by a "Use Tax Certificate". This form is used to determine if any Maine sales tax is due. Any sales tax due must be paid at the time of first registration. These forms may be obtained from any Bureau of Motor Vehicles Office or from a municipal tax collector. If the vehicle to be registered was purchased from a Maine auto dealer, the dealer will furnish you with the sales tax form, which must be presented at the time of first registration. If you have any questions concerning sales or use tax, you should contact the Sales Tax Division of Maine Revenue Service at 207-287-2336.

    6. How soon after moving to Maine must I register my vehicle?

    Maine law requires that a Maine motor vehicle registration must be applied for within 30 days if residence in the state of Maine is declared or established.

    Insuring Your Motor Vehicle
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    Maine law requires every owner and operator of a motor vehicle to maintain motor vehicle liability insurance and to present evidence upon request of a law enforcement officer. Any vehicle you are operating must be insured even though you are not the owner. Therefore, you should verify and carry evidence of insurance in the vehicle. Maine law also requires Maine motorists to show evidence of insurance when you register a motor vehicle.

    Acceptable forms of evidence of insurance include: a motor vehicle insurance card, a letter from an insurance company, or agent that the vehicle is covered by a liability insurance policy, an insurance binder or an insurance policy that has a summary document that describes the vehicle insured, the name of the insured, the amount of insurance (must meet Maine's minimum liability requirements), the type of insurance coverage and the period the vehicle is covered (effective and expiration dates) to either the municipal agent or the Bureau of Motor Vehicles.

    Failure to produce evidence of insurance when required can result in a charge of uninsured operation and suspension of license and registration privileges. If you are adjudicated of failure to produce evidence of insurance, you will be required to file proof of financial responsibility through an SR-22 insurance certificate or face suspension of your license and registration privileges. It is a crime to display evidence of insurance that is fictitious or altered.

    If an uninsured motorist causes an injury or property damage of $1000 or more, they may not operate a vehicle until proof of financial responsibility or proper insurance have been shown. In addition, if a court judgment is obtained, driving and registration privileges are suspended until such judgment is satisfied.

    Uninsured Motorist Coverage:By law, all automobile liability policies written in Maine include "uninsured motorist" coverage. This protects the insured for bodily injury damages up to the limits of the Maine Financial Responsibility Law with higher limits optional.

    Assigned Risk
    :Any individual unable to procure insurance coverage through regularchannels for whatever reasons, can obtain coverage through the Maine Automobile Insurance Plan. All insurance companies selling automobile insurance in Maine are required by law, to participate in this shared market.

    Inspecting Your Motor Vehicle
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    All motor vehicles bearing a Maine registration must have a current Maine inspection before being operated on any public way. These inspections must be done at an official inspection station once a year. Check with any of these stations for details. Failure to have a current inspection sticker could mean a fine and loss of points on your driver's license. Motorcycles must have a valid inspection sticker. A police officer may conduct a vehicle safety inspection at any time. In fact, Maine occasionally uses legal road blocks for just that purpose.

    Note: A motor vehicle safety check is also part of the driver examination. Examinations will not be given if vehicles do not pass the regular examination criteria, or if any doors are inoperative, seats are not securely fastened to the floor of the vehicle, or if the glove compartment door is not securely fastened in a closed position.

    These are the major items that are subject to examination which must meet State inspection standards before your vehicle can pass inspection:

    • Vehicle Identification Number - (VIN) Must not be changed, removed or hidden from view.
    • Rear View Mirror - Must not be cracked, broken, clouded or have sharp edges.
    • Horn - Must be loud enough to hear from 200 feet away.
    • Windshield Wipers - Wipers and blades must be in good working condition
    • Defroster - Fan must work and defroster must blow heated air on the windshield.
    • Turn signals, headlights, rear lights, stop lights, and plate light - All lights must work properly and all lenses must be of the proper color and type.
    • Brakes - Your vehicle must have a foot brake and a parking brake. The foot brake must be able to stop the vehicle within 30 feet when the vehicle is going 20 miles per hour. The parking brake must be able to hold the vehicle on a hill.
    • Windshield and Windows - Must not be cracked, broken, clouded, or blocked.
    • Steering and Front End - Parts must be in good working condition and not worn.
    • Exhaust System - All parts must be free of holes and leaks, and must not make excessive noise.
    • Fuel System - All parts must be free of holes and leaks.
    • Tires - Must have 2/32 of an inch tread and be free of cuts, tears or other dangerous conditions. For commercial vehicles of 10,000 pounds G.V.W., 4/32 of an inch tread is required.
    • Registration Plates - All issued plates must be attached to the vehicle and easy to read.
    • Body or Chassis - All parts must be present and free of rust, sharp edges, or other defects.
    • Speedometer-Odometer - Must work properly and not be tampered with or changed.
    • Fuel Inlet - Must not be changed in any way.
    • Catalytic Converter - Must be properly installed and not changed in any way.

    Maintaining Your Motor Vehicle
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    Ensuring that your car is in proper working order may help you to avoid an accident or breakdown. A car in good shape can give you an extra safety margin when you need it.

    While you may need a mechanic to correct the problem, you can perform the safety check yourself.

    Vehicle Maintenance

    Make note of the condition of the following items whenever you drive:

    • Headlights - Replace burned out bulbs and clean dirty lenses, which can cut your night vision by more than half.
    • Signal and Brake Lights - Replace bulbs or fuses when necessary. If these lights don't work properly, you won't be able to communicate with other drivers.
    • Windows and Windshields - Keep the glass clear, inside and out, to reduce glare and ensure good visibility.
    • Tires - Look for signs of worn treads and check air pressure when tires are "cold", before you've driven very far. If your tires aren't in good shape, you'll have less control, use more gas and risk a blow-out.
    • Brakes - Check to see that the pedal stays well above the floor when you step on it. Listen for scraping and squealing and be aware if your vehicle is pulling to one side.
    • Steering - If your steering wheel turns two inches or more without moving the vehicle, it has too much play - you may not be able to turn fast enough to avoid a collision.
    • Windshield Wipers - Check the wiper blades for wear and for tension on the windshield. Keep the windshield fluid bottle full, use a fluid with antifreeze in the winter. If these items are not functioning properly, your visibility will be severely limited.
    • Exhaust System - If you hear loud noises or rattles or notice rust on the muffler or tailpipe, you should have the exhaust system checked by a mechanic. A leaky muffler improperly discharges poisonous fumes. Carbon monoxide is a deadly, odorless gas found in the exhaust of all engines which causes weariness, headaches, dizziness, nausea and ringing in the ears. Prolonged inhalation of carbon monoxide is fatal.
    • Vehicle Emissions - A person may not operate a gasoline-powered motor vehicle on a public way if the motor vehicle emits visible smoke, other than water vapor, in the exhaust emission for a period in excess of 5 consecutive seconds.
    • Gauges - Make sure that all your gauges are in working order. These can serve to notify you of potentially serious problems with your vehicle, such as overheating or loss of oil pressure.
    • Suspension - Push down on the front and rear of your vehicle. If it bounces more than twice, you may need new shocks. When shocks are worn, you may have difficulty staying in your lane on curves.

    On a regular basis, you should also check or have checked:

    • Oil level;
    • Engine coolant;
    • Transmission fluid
    • Brake fluid level; and
    • Fan belt tightness and wear.

    Maintaining your vehicle with frequent oil changes (every 3,000 - 5,000 miles) and engine tune-ups (10,000 - 15,000 miles) will serve as prevention against many common motor vehicle problems as well as maximize your car's performance.

    Tools and Supplies:

    It is advisable to equip your car with the following items in the event of a breakdown or emergency.

    • Owner's manual
    • Spare tire
    • Tire jack
    • Lug wrench
    • First aid kit
    • Blanket
    • Flashlight
    • Road maps

    Part II - Practice Questions:

    1. What is a title and how do you apply for one?
    2. How often should I have my vehicle inspected?
    3. What tax must be paid prior to registering a motor vehicle?
    4. Will I need liability insurance when I register my motor vehicle?
    5. Where and how do I register my motor vehicle?
    6. What are some of the emergency supplies I should have in my vehicle at all times?

    PART III
    Keeping Fit to Drive

    Driving is one of the most complex things that people do. To do it well takes a lot of skill and judgment. When you are a new driver, it takes all the ability you have. If anything happens to lower your ability, you cannot drive well. Your ability to drive is affected by:

    Alcohol and Other Drugs
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    When learning to drive in Maine, one of the most important things to bear in mind is this: OPERATING A MOTOR VEHICLE IN MAINE IS A PRIVILEGE, NOT A RIGHT - those who fail to drive in a safe and prudent manner will be denied that privilege. In other words - if you misbehave behind the wheel, you WILL BE SEVERELY PENALIZED.

    ONE OF THE SUREST WAYS TO LOSE YOUR LICENSE IS TO DRINK AND DRIVE.

    Alcohol is a drug. It is the most used and abused drug in America today; alcohol can and has ruined the lives of untold millions. If you have been drinking DON'T DRIVE. If you are driving DON'T DRINK!

    • Alcohol-related crashes during 2010 represented an average of one alcohol-related fatality every 51 minutes. There were 10,228 nationwide alcohol-related crashes in 2010 according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).
    • In 2010, 16 percent of all fatal crashes during the week were alcohol-related, compared to 31 percent on weekends. The rate of alcohol impairment among drivers involved in fatal crashes in 2010 was four times higher at night than during the day.
    • In 2010, twenty-two percent of the young drivers (ages 15 to 20) involved in fatal crashes were drinking.


    In order to discourage drinking and driving, Maine has enacted one of the nation's toughest operating under the influence (OUI) laws. In fact, the chance of arrest and punishment is higher in Maine than in most other states!
    The following chapter is a summary of Maine's tough OUI law; alcohol's relative cost and its effects on you and your driving; as well as a SPECIAL NOTICE TO TEENAGERS AND YOUNG ADULTS.

    REMEMBER: If you value your life and the lives of others, and the thought of either a criminal record or time in jail does not appeal to you - DON'T DRINK AND DRIVE!
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    How Drinking Impairs Your Driving

    Driving an automobile is not as easy nor as carefree a task as many would have you believe. Driving requires constant decision making and is, by its very nature, difficult and dangerous. Good Driving Requires:

    • Good Judgment - Good judgment is the ability to think clearly and to make quick decisions, including proper evaluations of time, space and distance. Alcohol impairs good judgment. The more a driver drinks, the more rapidly their judgment goes from good, to bad, to deadly.
    • Good Perception - Good perception is the ability to see clearly and be visually aware of what is going on around you while driving. The ability to see well becomes even more important at night since normal vision is reduced by 50% because there is not enough light for your eyes to function properly. Drinking severely diminishes good perception. For instance:
      • Alcohol relaxes the eye muscles and thus reduces your ability to see when there is a sudden increase in light, such as when the headlights of an oncoming car are in your eyes. It normally takes about seven seconds for your eyes to recover from headlight glare. At 55 miles per hour, that is almost the length of two football fields! The eyes of drinking drivers take significantly longer to adjust.
      • Alcohol also affects your ability to identify objects to the side when looking ahead. After consuming alcohol, your ability to see merging, passing or parked vehicles (pedestrians or bicyclists) on the side of a road is reduced.
      • Additionally, alcohol decreases your ability to judge how close or far away another car or object is.
    • Emotional Control - Having control over one's emotions enables the sober driver to use good judgment while driving. As a depressant, alcohol gradually shuts down more and more areas of the brain. As time passes, drinkers become less and less rational, more easily saddened, upset or angry and thus more likely to take risks while driving.
    • Alertness, Concentration, Coordination and Reaction Time - Alcohol also interferes with the brain's ability to react and to concentrate. A driver who has consumed alcohol is more apt to fall asleep at the wheel or drive off the roadway. Moreover, the more a person drinks, the less control they have over coordinating body functions and movements.

    Simply put, a person who has been drinking is more likely to:

    Drive too fast or too slow for prevailing conditions;
    Fail to dim headlights for oncoming traffic;
    Pass improperly - leaving insufficient clearance, taking too long, or swerving too much;
    Make frequent lane changes;
    Fail to remain in the center of the lane;
    Overshoot and/or disregard traffic signals;
    Lose alertness and adaptability in emergencies; and
    Take too long to brake.

    WARNING: Worse yet, as your sight, reflexes, coordination and judgment diminish with each sip of alcohol, you become less and less aware of it. You even develop a false sense of well-being and confidence. In short, you become a menace to yourself and everyone else on or near a highway and you don't even know it!!

    GOOD DRIVERS DON'T DRINK!

    Your likelihood of a car crash increases with each drink! Your chances of an accident increase:
    Alcohol Level (See Page 21)
    0.05grams . 1 times
    0.10grams . 6 times
    0.15grams . 25 times

    Over 50% of all fatally injured drivers have an alcohol level of .06 grams per 100 milliliters of blood or 210 liters of breath.

    Myths Concerning Alcohol

    Beer vs. booze. Some people think that if they drink beer they are consuming less alcohol than those who drink mixed drinks. They are wrong! There is approximately the same amount of alcohol in a 12 oz. can of beer as there is in a 1 oz. shot of 100 proof hard liquor or 4 oz. glass of table wine (or a 10 oz. wine cooler).

    "People get drunk only from switching drinks."WRONG! Actually, switching doesn't usually make much of a difference. People get drunk from drinking too much. Period!

    "People are friendlier when they have been drinking."WRONG! Statistics show that roughly one-half of all murders are alcohol-related, as are one-third of all suicides.

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    "Few women abuse alcohol"WRONG! Alcohol abuse does not discriminate. Women are just as likely to abuse alcohol as men.

    Sobering up.Because everyone's liver oxidizes alcohol at a constant rate, nothing but time will sober you up. Drinking black coffee, taking a cold shower or exercising will only result in a wide awake, wet or sweating drunk!

    Other Drugs and Driving

    The word "drug" commonly refers to prescription medications, over-the-counter remedies, as well as illegal substances. The use of an over-the-counter medication or a prescription drug does not constitute a defense in court. When alcohol and other drugs combine in the body, the risk of having a traffic accident becomes even greater.

    Here are a few things you should remember:

    1. Prescription medications. Be sure to ask your doctor about any side effects which could impair your driving.
    2. Over the counter medications. Some allergy remedies, cough syrups and cold pills which you can buy without prescription contain codeine, alcohol, antihistamines or bromides which can affect driving.
    3. Amphetamines. Amphetamines are used as stimulants, but they can decrease eset smart security 13.0.24.0 license key ability to concentrate and cause hallucinations. Also, when the effect wears off, one is likely to be very tired and depressed.
    4. Tranquilizers. These drugs can cause dizziness or drowsiness when combined with alcohol. They can cause heart failure, dangerously lower blood pressure and cut off the flow of oxygen to the brain.
    5. Barbiturates. Barbiturates are sedatives used primarily to help one to sleep. Excessive use can produce drowsiness, confusion, lack of coordination, tremors and difficulty in thinking clearly.
    6. Marijuana. Studies show that users of marijuana have more arrests for traffic violations than other drivers. Use of marijuana can cause drowsiness and inability to judge time and space. Also, some users report that they tend to concentrate on one object at a time, ignoring other objects around them.
    7. Hard drugs. Hard drugs such as morphine, opium, cocaine and heroin are narcotics. These drugs have the power to make users completely unaware of, or indifferent to, their surroundings. Other side effects include: dizziness, incoherence, nausea and vomiting.
    8. The Drug-Alcohol Mix. Many times worse than alcohol or drugs used alone is the use of alcohol and drugs at the same time. The combined influence of these two substances can produce dangerous effects on the mind and body, often resulting in death.

    It is extremely dangerous to drive under the influence of any drug, legal or otherwise. If you are convicted of driving in this condition you will be subject to the same punishments as those for driving under the influence of alcohol. Additionally, being found in possession of illegal drugs or illegal transportation of drugs by a minor may result in severe penalties.

    KNOW THE LAW: THE FOLLOWING IS A SUMMARY OF MAINE'S OPERATING UNDER THE INFLUENCE (OUI) LAW

    Immediate Suspension by Secretary of State

    If you are the operator of a motor vehicle and are driving with an alcohol level of 0.08 grams per 100 milliliters of blood or 210 liters of breath, you are guilty of a criminal offense of operating under the influence (see description below). You will, in most instances, be promptly arrested and taken off to jail. Following your arrest and based solely on the police report and an alcohol level test result, the Secretary of State will immediately suspend your license. This suspension takes place prior to any court appearance, so while you are waiting for your appearance before a judge, you won't be driving!

    Breath Alcohol Concentration

    Breath Foxit PhantomPDF 11.0.1 Crack + Activation Key 2021 (BrAC) is simply a precise way of recording the percentage of grams of alcohol per 210 liters of breath concentration. It is expressed in grams and measured by chemical analysis. BrAC is determined by the amount of alcohol consumed, the time required by the body to rid itself of alcohol, and the person's weight. The body eliminates alcohol at a constant rate that cannot be changed.
    Note: Any amount of alcohol is likely to impair your driving ability.

    Alcohol Level Testing

    There are two types of tests which can be used to measure alcohol level: the Breath and Bloodtest. These tests are designed to measure the quantity of alcohol in blood. The results of such testing may be used as evidence in court and are fully accepted in all courts as accurate. Under current Maine law, the police officer will administer a breath test (either a Sobermeter or an Intoxilizer) unless the officer determines that it is unreasonable for such a test to be administered. If the breath test is not administered, the driver will be required to submit to a blood test which may be administered by a physician of the driver's choice, if the physician is reasonably available.

    "Implied Consent" What is it All About?

    It is important for Maine drivers to remember that a driver's license is not a basic "right" guaranteed under our Constitution. It is a privilege that is issued and may be withdrawn at the discretion of the State.

    Stated briefly, when you operate a motor vehicle in Maine you automatically consent to a test at any time the authorities wish to administer it. You will not be forced to take such a test, but your driver's license will be immediately suspended if you refuse. The suspension will be for a period of up to six years by the Secretary of State. It is administrative - that means no court action is necessary. In addition, testimony of the arresting police officer Ivacy VPN 5.0.10.0 Serial Key - Crack Key For U your driving performance can result in an OUI conviction even without the alcohol test results to back it up!

    The law further requires any operator of a motor vehicle to submit to a chemical test to determine drug concentration if there is probable cause to believe the driver operated a motor vehicle while under the influence of a drug other than alcohol.

    The administrative suspension issued by the Secretary of State remains in effect even if you are later found innocent of OUI. And if you are found guilty based on the police officer's testimony, your refusal to take a test will be considered as an aggravating factor by the judge and another OUI suspension will be tacked on, so you will have a much longer penalty than if you had taken the test.

    Remember, a test can also protect you. If you are not legally intoxicated, the test will show it.

    If You are Convicted of Operating Under the Influence or Operating with an Excessive Alcohol Level

    1st Court Conviction If you are convicted of OUI and your alcohol level is 0.08 to 0.14 grams per 100 milliliters of blood or 210 liters of breath:

    • you will receive a mandatory fine of at least $500.00, $600.00 with refusal;
    • you lose your license for at least 150 days;
    • pay a license reinstatement fee;
    • and be required to attend an alcohol and other drug education and treatment program.

    Or

    If you are convicted of OUI and your alcohol level is 0.15 grams per 100 milliliters of blood or 210 liters of breath or more; or you are traveling 30 mph or more over the speed limit; or you attempt to elude an officer of the law; or you refuse to take an alcohol level test; or you have a passenger under the age of 21 in the vehicle:

    • you will spend at least 48 hours in jail (96 hours if you refuse a test);
    • lose your license for at least 150 days;
    • pay a license reinstatement fee;
    • and be required to attend an alcohol and other drug education and treatment program.

    2nd Court Conviction (a prior refusal to take an alcohol test is considered a prior offense.) Upon conviction:

    • you will receive at least seven days in jail (twelve days if you refuse the test);
    • a mandatory fine of at least $700.00, ($900.00 if you refuse a test);
    • loss of your license for at least 3 years;
    • pay a license reinstatement fee;
    • and be required to attend an alcohol and other drug education and treatment program.

    3rd Court Conviction Upon conviction:

    • you will receive at least 30 days in jail (40 days if you refuse the test);
    • a fine of at least $1,100. ($1,400 if you refuse a test);
    • the loss of your license for at least six years (no work license);
    • pay a reinstatement fee;
    • and be required to attend an alcohol and other drug education and treatment program.

    In addition, all 2nd and subsequent OUI offenders will photo mechanic student discount - Crack Key For U to demonstrate proof of liability insurance before being allowed to have their license reinstated. Maine offers an ignition interlock program for OUI offenders. Contact the OUI Section (207) 624-9000 ext. 52104 for additional information.

    There are no provisions whatsoever for work or limited licenses during minimum period when suspended for OUI. Offenders are absolutely prohibited from driving!

    Conditional Licenses

    When a person convicted of OUI applies for reinstatement of their license, they are issued a license under the condition that they not operate a vehicle with any amount of alcohol.

    Additional Suspension:

    A suspension period of 275 days must be added to the OUI or refusal suspension if a passenger under the age of 21 was in the vehicle.

    After the first OUI conviction, the reinstated license is conditional for one year. After a second or subsequent conviction, it is conditional for ten years.

    A conditional licensee will have their driver's license suspended for one year, without preliminary hearing if operating a motor vehicle with any amount of alcohol.

    A conditional licensee will have their driver's license suspended for the same suspension periods which apply to 2nd or 3rd OUI convictions if operating with 0.08 grams or more of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood or 210 liters of breath or higher.

    A conditional licensee will have their driver's license suspended for a period of two years for any refusal to submit to an alcohol test, a penalty which will be added to any suspension previously handed down for an OUI conviction.

    Blood Alcohol Level for Drivers Under 21 Years of Age

    For those of you who have not reached the age of 21, it is illegal for you to consume, purchase or transport any alcoholic beverage. Therefore, you may not drive after consuming any amount of alcohol.
    If you are convicted of operating a motor vehicle while under the influence, you will:

    • lose your driver's license for at least one year;
    • receive a stiff fine;
    • possibly spend some time in jail;
    • be required to pay a license reinstatement fee;
    • and be required to complete an alcohol and other drug education, evaluation and treatment program.
    • if you have passengers under the age of 21 with you, your license will be suspended for an additional 180 days.

    Vehicle Seizure

    A person arrested for operating under the influence or operating after suspension if the suspension was for a previous OUI or OUI offense, is subject to vehicle seizure and payment of any towing and storage fees as well as a fine and jail time. This means that you could lose not only your freedom, but your vehicle as well.

    Drivers Involved in Fatal Accidents

    • Every driver involved in a fatal motor vehicle accident or an accident where a death is likely to occur must submit to a chemical test. Failure to do so will result in a one- year license suspension.
    • If the Secretary of State is satisfied that a driver, while under the influence of alcohol or drugs, negligently operated a motor vehicle in such a manner as to cause the death of any person, the Secretary of State shall immediately suspend that operator's license for at least 3 years. This suspension will be consecutive to any suspension imposed for refusal to submit to a chemical test.


    Moreover, a conviction for vehicular homicide in criminal court will result in an extended prison term and a revocation of your driver's license for at least 5 years. If you were under the influence of intoxicants at the time of the offense, your license will be revoked permanently.
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    Open Container Law

    The operator of a vehicle on a public way
    is in violation of law if the operator or a passenger in the passenger area of the vehicle consumes alcohol or possesses an open alcoholic container.

    Exceptions:

    • The operator or a passenger possesses an open alcoholic beverage container in a vehicle not equipped with a trunk if the open alcoholic beverage container is located behind the last upright seat of the vehicle or in an area not normally occupied by the operator or passenger.
    • A passenger transported for a fee consumes alcohol or possesses an alcoholic beverage container in a vehicle designed for the for-hire transportation of passengers other than a taxicab.
    • A passenger possesses an open alcoholic beverage container or a passenger consumes alcohol in the living quarters of a motor home, trailer, semi-trailer or truck camper.
    • The operator or the operator's employer holds a valid off-premise catering license and the alcohol is being transported either to or from a catered event.

    REMEMBER: Any conviction of OUI Results in a Criminal Record!!

    Operating Under the Influence is Costly, in Fact One Drink Over the Legal Limit Could Cost Well Over $7,000:

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    Towing Charges

    $50.00

    Bail bond

    $40.00

    Lawyer

    $2000.00

    Fine

    $500.00

    Alcohol Education course

    $300.00

    3-Year Indurance Surcharge

    $4000.00

    Loss of Work Time (Jail)

    $300.00

    License Reinstatment

    $50.00

    Total

    $7240.00

    Special Notice for Teenagers and Young Adults

    The leading cause of death for young people in the United States (ages 16 to 24) is alcohol related automobile accidents. Approximately 8,500 young adults are killed and an additional 40,000 are crippled or disfigured every year due to drinking and driving in this country.

    Remember, alcohol is a drug, a drug which has damaged or destroyed the lives of tens of millions of drinkers and their families. Alcohol is the Most Dangerous and Widely Used Drug in the United States Today.

    Though one or two drinks may make some people feel more lively, alcohol is a depressant and the more you take in, the more your brain is put to sleep. Once absorbed into your blood stream, alcohol travels to all parts of your body. An abusive drinker is likely to have many serious physical problems as a result of excessive use of alcohol.
    Some of the most common physical problems include:

    • problematic pregnancies and birth defects (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome)
    • skin problems (broken capillaries, wrinkles, acne)
    • weight gain and fluid retention
    • digestive problems (heartburn, ulcers, nausea, constipation)
    • nutritional deficiencies
    • weakened immune system
    • weakened bones and teeth
    • high blood pressure
    • strokes, heart attacks and blood clots
    • cancer
    • liver disease
    • fertility problems
    • decreased sexual arousal and performance

    It's Okay to Say "No" to Alcohol

    In fact, 1 out of 3 adults choose not to drink at all, for reasons such as these:

    • They don't like the taste of alcohol.
    • They dislike feeling out of control.
    • Drinking is against their religion.
    • Alcohol makes them ill.
    • They have been taken advantage of while under alcohol's influence.
    • They have been in too many dangerous situations too often as a result of alcohol.
    • They have a friend or relative whose life has been negatively affected by alcohol.

    Moreover, you can have fun, relax and enjoy life without drinking. Ultimately, whether you choose to drink is up to you. You must however, be aware that it is illegal for you to buy alcohol if you are under 21 years of age. Furthermore, it is illegal for you to transport alcohol in a motor vehicle unless in the scope of employment or at the request of a parent or guardian. It is illegal to transport illegal drugs in a motor vehicle at any time.

    If you are ever found to be operating a motor vehicle with any formz vs sketchup - Free Activators of alcohol in your blood (or refuse to submit to the blood or breath test) you will lose your driver's license for at least one year, and if convicted of OUI, receive a fine and possibly time in jail.

    NOTE:With regard to Maine's OUI laws, all licenses issued to minors (people under 21 years of age) are considered provisional and subject to immediate suspension until the individual attains the age of 21.

    IN ADDITION

    • A criminal record has seldom ever been considered an asset when applying for either a job, college, military service or credit.
    • Overall costs associated with OUI offenses (i.e. fines, increased insurance charges, court costs) are, in most instances, much more prohibitive for teenagers than they are for older, more financially secure adults - $7,240.00 is a lot harder to come by for someone who is either unemployed or making minimum wage.

    Over half of the young people killed in alcohol related crashes were not the ones who were drinking! Protect your future.
    Don't drink and drive, and Don't ride along with anyone who has.
    Call a taxi - catch a bus - call a friend or relative!

    Could you live with yourself if you killed or injured someone while driving after drinking? When you drive, you are responsible for the safety of your passengers, other drivers on the road, and pedestrians. You can protect your family and friends not only by not drinking and driving yourself, but by encouraging others to do likewise.

    MAKE THE RIGHT DECISION: CHOOSE LIFE!!

    Vision and Hearing
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    Most of what you do behind the wheel is based on what you see. Good eyesight means:

    • Seeing clearly. If you cannot see clearly, you cannot judge distances or spot trouble, so you won't be able to do something about it.
    • Good side vision. You need to see out of the corner of your eye. This lets you spot vehicles coming up on either side of you while your eyes are on the road ahead.
    • Judging distance. You can see clearly and still not be able to judge distances. Good distance judgment is important in knowing how far you are from other vehicles.
    • Good night vision. Many people who can see clearly in the daytime have trouble at night. Some cannot see things in a dim light. Others may have trouble with the glare of headlights.

    Have your eyes checked every year or two. You may never know about bad side vision or bad distance judgment unless your eyes are checked.

    Hearing is more important to driving than many people realize. Your hearing can warn you of danger - the sound of horns, a siren, screeching tires. Some times you can hear a vehicle that you cannot see in your blind spots. Hearing problems, like bad eyesight, can come on so slowly that you do not notice them. Drivers who know they have hearing problems can adjust. They can learn to rely more on their seeing habits. Even people with good hearing cannot hear well if the radio is blaring. Keep the radio turned down and do not wear headsets while driving.

    Driver Fatigue
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    Remember, when you're tired, you can't drive as well as you do when you're rested. Decisions are slower and harder to make and you get upset more easily. Or worse, there's always the chance you'll fall asleep behind the wheel.

    Wake Up To The Facts

    The U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration estimates that each year as many as 240,000 accidents are related to sleepiness at the wheel. And in a recent survey, 25% of surveyed drivers reported having fallen asleep while driving, while one in twenty reported having had a crash due to falling asleep or being drowsy while driving. What's more, these crashes can be serious. In a study of fatal crashes on the New York Thruway, an estimated - occurred because the driver fell asleep at the wheel. And here's perhaps an even more sobering thought; like driving under the influence of alcohol, drowsiness severely impairs your driving ability.

    You Can't Fight Off the Sandman

    Most of us believe we can control when we fall asleep. But the reality is, sleep is not voluntary. You can't shake it off with caffeine. You can't stave it off with loud music. And you can't hold it off simply by cracking the window for fresh air. Fact is, if you're drowsy at the wheel, you can fall asleep and never even know it; called "micro-sleeps," these brief naps last only four to five seconds. And when you're cruising along at 55 miles an hour, the tiniest nap can be fatal.

    Catch Up On Your Sleep Before It Catches Up With You.

    If you feel like you're not getting enough sleep, you're not alone. It's estimated that 30% to 50% of us aren't getting the amount of sleep our bodies require. The result is a "sleep debt" we owe ourselves. And the only way to erase this debt is to get more sleep. So don't be fooled by feeling alert just before you plan to drive, because as soon as you get behind the wheel and relax, your sleep debt may take over and put you in serious danger of falling asleep.

    How Much Sleep Does Your Body Really Need?

    Everybody has a biological need for a certain amount of sleep. It's possible you may be able to get by with as little as 6 hours. But you could be someone who requires as much as 10 hours of sleep. How can you know? For starters, you shouldn't have to rely on an alarm clock to wake you every morning; if you're getting enough sleep, your brain will wake you automatically. Here's another way to tell: do you sleep a lot later on weekends or doze off when you're sitting up? If you do, your body is telling you something. And you owe it to your health and safety to listen by getting more sleep.

    Give It A Rest For Safety

    Here are five tips to help assure you arrive safely.

    • Make sure you get plenty of sleep the night before leaving on a trip. Plan to drive only during the time you are normally awake. And never try to push through to your destination rather than pulling off the road and finding a safe place to rest.
    • Avoid driving during your body's "downtime". Take a mid-afternoon break and find a safe place to sleep between midnight and 6 a.m.
    • Talk with your passenger if you have someone along for the trip. Trade off driving duty to allow one another to rest.
    • Make sure both people in the front seats are awake. A driver who needs rest should go to the back seat, buckle up and nap. Why? When the objective is to always remain alert, it doesn't help if the person next to you is sawing logs.
    • Schedule a break every two hours or 100 miles. And, of course, stop sooner if you're experiencing any of the danger signs and take a short 15 to 20 minute nap.

    The Danger Signs of Drowsiness

    • You must make a conscious effort to keep your eyes open.
    • You want to prop your head up.
    • You can't stop yawning.
    • You don't remember driving the last few miles.
    • You keep drifting from your lane.
    • You have wandering, disconnected thoughts.

    If you experience even one of these symptoms, you're only heading for trouble. Pull off the road and find a safe place to take a short nap.

    Your Health
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    Any health problem can affect your drivinga bad cold, infection, or a virus. Even little problems like a stiff neck, a cough, or a sore leg can affect your driving. If you are not "up to par", let someone else drive.

    With short-term illnesses, you must decide for yourself if you can safely drive. With long-term conditions that can affect your driving, the Bureau of Motor Vehicles shares the decision. The driver's license examiner can help you decide when and how you may safely drive and whether you need any special equipment. Many people with long-term medical conditions or disabilities are licensed to drive in Maine.

    Medical conditions and disabilities that are evaluated include, but are not limited to:

    • Conditions that affect alertness. For example, diabetes, heart problems, epilepsy, and Antivirus - Activators Patch lung disorders may reduce alertness. However, if the condition is shown to be stable and well controlled, you may be licensed.
    • Physical disabilities. Many people drive with, for example, multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, amputation of limbs, paralysis or Parkinsonism. Some people need additional training and perhaps special equipment on the vehicle.

    If your condition has changed, or you have started to use special equipment, a driving evaluation may be needed when you renew your license. The examiner will want to see that you can handle the vehicle safely.

    • Vision and hearing problems

    Part III Practice Questions:

    1. What is the BrAC level which denotes operating under the influence (O.U.I.) in Maine for people under 21 years of age.
    2. What is the legal BrAC level for determining O.U.I. in those aged 21 and older in Maine?
    3. What does "implied consent" mean?
    4. What drug is the most damaging and widely used in the United States today?
    5. True or false? An O.U.I. offense could cost you more than $7,000.

    Part IV
    Operating a Motor Vehicle

    Driving a motor vehicle is a serious responsibility and rules and guidelines alone are not sufficient to make you a good driver. While respect for the law is essential, to be a good driver you must also possess an accommodating attitude toward others as well as an ample sense of responsibility.

    Traffic laws and procedures are designed to prevent accidents and to keep traffic moving. Obeying these guidelines at all times will go a long way toward making you a safe and prudent driver. There is, however, some risk involved in all driving. To minimize this risk, you should rely not only on the law, but on paying careful attention to everything going on around you.

    The following sections summarize traffic laws and prudent driving practices and procedures.

    Rules of the Road
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    Rules of the road determine where and when you can drive.

    Control of Traffic at Intersections

    An intersection is any place where roads meet. At an intersection there are usually traffic signals, signs, or right-of-way rules to control traffic, if no police are there. An operator may not drive a motor vehicle through a parking area to avoid obeying the requirements of a traffic control device.

    Traffic Lights

    ImageSteady Red: STOP.Do not enter crosswalk or intersection. A right turn is permitted, after stopping, unless posted otherwise. Vehicles making a right turn must yield to pedestrians and all vehicle traffic.

    Steady Yellow:Caution.Traffic signal is about to change to red. Begin to slow down. A yellow light clears the intersection before the red light.

    Green: GO.When the way is clear of traffic and pedestrians, you may go straight ahead or turn left or right where permitted.

    Flashing Lights

    Flashing Red Light:STOP.Come to a complete stop and go only when the way is clear.


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    Flashing Yellow Light: Slow down and proceed with caution. Flashing yellow lights are found at construction areas and on some vehicles as well as at intersections.

    Sometimes flashing red lights mark a railroad crossing. Sometimes there are gates or barriers. Stop and wait until the light stops and barriers are removed.

    Lighted Arrows

    The color of the lighted arrow means the same thing that it does in a traffic light.

    A red light with a green arrow means you may go cautiously in the direction of the arrow, yielding to all other vehicleand pedestrians.

    A steady yellow arrowclears the turning traffic at an intersection before the red light.

    A steady green arrowpointed upwards means you may go straight ahead.

    A steady red arrowmeans traffic making the turn indicated by the arrow must stop until the arrow changes to green.

    When there is more than one traffic light, obey the one that is over your lane.


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    Lane Use Control Lights:Special overhead lights are sometimes used to indicate which lanes of a highway may be used at certain times:

    Steady Red "X":Do not drive in this lane.
    Steady Yellow "X": Clear this lane, signal is about to change to red.
    Flashing Yellow "X": This lane may only be used for a left turn.
    Green Arrow:You may use this lane.

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    Traffic Signs

    A Stop Sign is red with white letters and has eight sides (octagon). When coming to one, stop before the crosswalk or stop line and do not cross it. If there is no crosswalk or stop line, stop at the point nearest the intersection to enable you to see approaching traffic on the intersecting roadway. The stop must be made before any portion of your vehicle has entered the intersection. If it is a four-way stop, wait your turn. In any case you must wait until a safe interval occurs before moving. Pedestrians have the right of way.

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    A Yield Sign is a triangle. It is red and white (some old signs may
    still be yellow with black letters). It means you should slow down to wait for traffic to clear on the road you are entering or crossing. Give the right- of-way to all vehicles and pedestrians.

    Rectangular white signs with red or black letters contain information about traffic regulations.

    You may find red with white signs at exit ramps and the beginning of one-way streets. They tell you:

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    You are going wise registry cleaner pro - Crack Key For U the wrong direction.

    ImageYou may not enter.

    A red line through a red circle means that you cannot do something.

    Image Image
    This sign means that you cannot turn make a U turn. This sign means you cannot in the direction the arrow is pointing.

    If you see police directing traffic, do as they direct. Police have authority to direct all traffic and pedestrians as needed. It is illegal to refuse or fail to obey police orders. You can lose your license for trying to flee or escape a police officer. When police are not present, traffic signals and signs have the authority of law. It is unlawful to remove or deface traffic signs.

    Right-of-Way

    When there are no signs, symbols, or police to tell you what to do, there are special rules to follow.
    Wait for pedestrians crossing the road:

    • When pedestrians are in a marked crosswalk and there are no traffic lights or police at the intersection.
    • When the car is turning gridinsoft anti-malware 4.0.41 crack - Activators Patch corner and the pedestrians are crossing with the light.
    • When the car is crossing a sidewalk. Cars coming out of driveway or alley must stop before the crosswalk, and wait for pedestrians and traffic.
    • Always yield the right-of-way to school children crossing a street.
    • Wait for all moving traffic to pass when starting from a parked position.
    • Do not pass any vehicle that has stopped for pedestrians in a crosswalk.
    • When approaching an intersection, yield the right-of-way to vehicles which have already entered the intersection.
    • If two cars enter an uncontrolled intersection at about the same time, yield to the car on your right.
    • When entering a traffic circle, the vehicle which is already in the circle has the right- of-way.
    • If two cars enter an intersection at the same time from opposite directions and one driver is signaling for a turn, the right-of-way belongs to the car going straight through.
    • At a 4-way stop, the driver reaching the intersection first gets to go first (of course all vehicles must stop).
    • Cars entering from a private drive or road must yield to any vehicle or pedestrian on a public way. If you are entering a through street or highway you must do so without interfering with other traffic.
    • You must yield to emergency vehicles approaching from any direction when they are sounding a siren and emitting a flashing light. You must immediately drive to the right side of the roadway, clear of any intersection, and stop until the emergency vehicle has passed. Failure to do so is a Class E crime.

    Even though right-of-way rules have the force of law, a good driver youtube downloader - Crack Key For U depends exclusively on them for safety. A driver who has the right of way should use it sensibly, never insist on it.

    Use of Lanes

    Different traffic lanes should be used for different purposes, there are correct lanes for through traffic, passing and turning.

    Lanes for Through Traffic:During ordinary driving, drive in the lane that has the smoothest flow of traffic - the least stopping and starting. Smooth driving allows you to keep more distance between yourself and other drivers. It also helps save gas.

    If there are three or more lanes going in one direction, the middle lane, or lanes, are
    usually the smoothest. The left lane is for drivers who want to pass or turn left. The right lane is used by drivers who go slower or who are entering or turning off the road.

    If a road has only two lanes in one direction, the right lane generally has the smoothest traffic flow. However, some roads have special left turn lanes at intersections. This helps keep traffic moving smoothly in both directions.

    Lanes for Passing:In general, you should pass on the left. Passing on the right can be dangerous because other drivers don't expect it. Cars on the right side are also more difficult for a driver to see.

    • Never pass a vehicle by driving off the pavement or main traveled portion of the roadway.
    • Never pass a vehicle when an official sign or traffic control device limits the use of the center lane to turning only.

    Never pass another motor vehicle on the right side except:

    • When the car you are passing is making a left turn and there is room for two or more lanes to move in the same direction.
    • When the car you are passing is in the left lane on a street or highway with two or more marked lanes for traffic to move in the same direction.

    Lane Restrictions

    On any section of the Maine Turnpike or Interstate-95 that consists of three lanes in either direction, trucks, including truck tractors, but excluding pickup trucks may only operate in the two farthest right hand lanes.

    Lanes for Turning:The safest way to turn is by crossing as few lanes of traffic as you can. Here are two rules to help you:

    Start from the lane closest to where you want to go. If you are turning left, pull out toward the midpoint in the intersection, and wait with wheels straight until it's clear to turn. Keep just left of midpoint as you turn. If you are turning right, start from the right lane, keeping as close to the curb as possible.

    Left Turns

    1. From two-way to two-way street.
    2. From one-way to one-way street.
    3. From divided to divided highway.
    4. From two-way to one-way street

    1.2.3.4.
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    Right Turns

    1. Cars
    2. Larger Vehicles

    1.2.
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    Turn into the lane that is closest to the lane from which you came. On a left turn, turn into the leftmost lane going in your direction, whether on a divided highway, 2- way or one-way street. On a right turn, turn into the right lane.

    When making a left turn from a one-way street, you must be close to the left curb or edge of roadway. If you need to move into another lane, move only after you have finished your turn and when traffic is clear.

    Don't turn the Cacher 2.9.0 Keygen - Crack Key For U before you make the turn. If you are struck from behind, you may be pushed forward into oncoming traffic.

    If you have already started through an intersection, keep going. If you have started to make a turn, follow through. Last second changes cause accidents. If you have made a mistake, go on to the next intersection and work your way back to where you want to go.

    Sign and Road Markings

    Many streets have signs that show what each of the lanes is to be used for:

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    Cars in left lane must turn left. Cars in right lane must go straight or turn right. Cars in left lane may turn left or go straight. Cars in center lane must go straight. Cars in right lane must turn right.

    Solid white lines painted on the roadway separate lanes going in the same direction that have different uses. Broken lines simply indicated the lanes going in the same direction.

    Traffic Circles and Roundabouts

    Traffic circles or roundabouts are sometimes built at intersections of heavily traveled streets and roads. All vehicles approaching traffic circles or roundabouts must yield the right- of-way to vehicles already in the circle or roundabout unless otherwise directed by a police officer or by traffic control devices. Traffic on a roundabout proceeds to the right around the raised center island. Raised pavement on the inside of the circle enables trucks to negotiate around the small island, while vehicles stay in the outer travel lane. At large traffic circles, called rotaries, vehicles also proceed to the right or counterclockwise around the center island at a slow rate of speed until the street desired is approached. Drivers must yield the right-of- way to a vehicle on the operator's left. Exit from the circle or roundabout is then made by making a right turn. Extreme caution should be used when entering and leaving traffic circles or roundabouts and strict attention to highway signs and pavement markings is necessary.

    If you are going to be turning from a rotary circle within two exits, it is suggested that you should be in the right lane (This applies unless otherwise indicated by road markings on pavement or traffic signs specifying the lane to be used.

    Parking

    ImageWhen you park on a public road, make sure you do not get in the way of traffic. You must park parallel to the road except where angle parking lines are painted on the roadway. Leave at least two feet between your car and vehicles parked in front or behind.

    • Move as far away from driving lanes as possible. If there is a roadside shoulder, pull as far onto it as you can. If there is a curb, park as close to it as you can (and no more than 18 inches away)
    • Make sure your car can't move. Set photo mechanic student discount - Crack Key For U parking brake and shift gears to park (first or reverse in a manual shift car).
    • If you are parked on a hill:Turn wheels so that if the car moves downhill the wheels will be stopped by the curb. Kontakt 5 player download, if there is no curb, the wheels will turn the car off the road (not into traffic).
    • Avoid traffic. Get out of your car on the curb side if you can. If you have to use the street side, check for traffic behind you, especially bicycles, before you open the door.
    • Secure your car. Turn off the engine and remove the key when you leave a car. If the car will be out of your sight, lock it.
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    Parallel Parking/Offset Backing

    • Stop even with the car ahead and about 2 feet away from it.
    • Turn wheels sharply right, look over your right shoulder and back slowly toward the car behind.
    • As the front door passes the back bumper of the car ahead, quickly straighten the wheels and continue to back straight.
    • When clear of the car ahead, turn wheels sharply left and back slowly to car behind.
    • Turn wheels sharply right and pull forward toward the center of the parking space.
    • Straighten wheels unless you are on a hill. You should be about 6 inches from the curb, and be sure not to park more than 18 inches from the curb.
    • You may have to make adjustments to this method depending on the size of your vehicle - practice is the key.

    Some municipal ordinances do not allow you to park:

    • In an area reserved for persons with disabilities, unless you have a special parking permit or plates for the disabled ($100 Fine). In addition, Eset smart security 13.0.24.0 license key law prohibits misuse of disability plates and placards ($100 Fine).
    • In a loading zone.
    • Within 10 feet of a fire hydrant.
    • Within 15 feet of a driveway entrance to a fire station or directly across from the entrance.
    • Within 15 feet of a crosswalk.
    • At an entrance to a school, church, theater, hotel, hospital, or public place during hours designated.

    Starting from a Parking Place

    If parked on the right hand side of the road, after starting your motor, look over your left shoulder (not through your rearview mirror). When the way is clear give a proper signal, as you would in making a left turn, then pull slowly out into the street and get into the correct lane as soon as possible. Do the same from left curb, except look over your right shoulder.

    Regardless of the type of street or position, always make sure that the lane which you are about to enter is free of traffic for a safe distance.

    Carrying Passenger and Freight

    No passenger type vehicle should carry a load which extends over the sides of the vehicle beyond the line of the fenders on the left side, or extends more than six inches beyond the line of the fenders on the right side of the vehicle. You must not drive a vehicle if it is so loaded, or when there are more than 3 persons in the front seat, so as to obstruct your view to the front or sides, or as to interfere with your use of controls. Don't let passengers sit on the hood, roof or trunk of a moving vehicle.

    No person may ride in a camp trailer, mobile home, semi-trailer, utility trailer or trunk of a vehicle while it is being moved on any highway.

    When a passenger under 19 years of age is transported in a pick-up truck, that passenger must ride in the passenger compartment of the pick-up truck, except, when the passenger under 19 is a:

    • Worker or trainee, including agricultural worker or trainee, engaged in the necessary discharge of their duties or training or being transported between work or training locations.
    • Licensed hunter being transported to or from a hunting location.
    • Participant in a parade.
    • A passenger secured in a seatbelt in a manufacturer-installed seat located outside the passenger compartment.

    A person driving an open vehicle, including pick-up trucks, and convertibles, may not transport a dog in the open portion of that vehicle on a public way unless the dog is protected in a manner that prevents the dog from falling or jumping or being thrown from the vehicle, except; when a dog is being transported by a farmer or farm employee who is performing agricultural activities requiring services of the dog, or a hunting dog at a hunting site or being transported between hunting sites by a licensed hunter.

    Basic Operating Procedures: Manual Transmission

    The key to smooth clutch operation is learning to sense the friction point. This is the point when, as you let up the clutch pedal, the engine and the transmission engage. As you continue to let up the clutch, you must match the forward (or backward) motion of the car with an increase in pressure on the gas pedal.
    Follow these steps to put the car in motion:

    1. Press the brake pedal with your right foot. With your left foot, press the clutch pedal to the floor.
    2. Shift into first gear.
    3. Release the parking brake.
    4. Switch on your turn signal to indicate the direction you plan to move.
    5. Check for traffic in your rear-view and side-view mirrors. Look over your shoulder to check blind spots.
    6. Slowly let the clutch up to the friction point. Remember: look at the roadway, not down at your feet or hands!
    7. Move your right foot from the brake to the accelerator.
    8. As you press down gently on the accelerator, slowly let up the clutch pedal all the way.

    If the car jerks forward, you either released the clutch abruptly, or you pressed too hard on the gas pedal. If the car lurches and the engine stalls out, you've not fed the engine enough gas.

    How can you use each forward gear?

    Your selection of gears depends on the power and speed you need for various driving tasks. First gear gives the power needed to set a car in motion. Second gear lets you go 15 to 25 mph, depending on the horsepower of the engine and on whether the transmission is 3,4, or 5-speed. You can also use second gear to start on ice or drive in heavy snow. Third gear, in cars with 3-speed transmissions, is generally used for all speeds over 25 mph. If a car has a 4- or 5-speed transmission and a small engine, third is used at speeds up to 30 or 40 mph. Use fourth gear for driving above 35 mph on a flat roadway. When driving uphill, you may have to achieve 40 mph or more before shifting to fourth or fifth gear.

    Shifting to bittorrent pro activation key - Free Activators higher gear

    1. Accelerate to a speed appropriate for the gear you want to be in.
    2. Press the clutch pedal to the floor.
    3. Release the accelerator.
    4. Shift to the next higher gear.
    5. Press again on the accelerator. Release the clutch pedal part way.
    6. Let the clutch pedal up all the way.

    Downshifting

    There are several reasons to downshift: to gain power, accelerate, steer effectively, slowing the car on a down slope (except when the road is slippery), and to slow down or stop. To shift to a lower gear, follow these steps:

    1. Release the accelerator. (If you also want to slow down, press the brake pedal)
    2. Press the clutch pedal to the floor.
    3. Shift to the next lower gear. (A sudden decrease in speed may require you to shift to an even lower gear - as when braking sharply and downshifting from fourth gear to second)
    4. Release the clutch pedal to the friction point. Press down on the accelerator as necessary.

    Holding the car in place

    Learning to move a manual shift car forward after stopping on an uphill grade takes practice. To keep the car from rolling backward:

    1. Set the parking brake.
    2. Press the clutch to the floor, and shift into first gear.
    3. Let the clutch pedal up to the friction point, and press gently on the accelerator.
    4. Release the parking brake as you begin to feel the car pulling forward.
    5. Press the accelerator as you let up the clutch pedal.
    6. Accelerate in first gear until you have gained enough speed to shift into second gear.

    Seeing Well While Driving
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    Most of what you do while driving is a reaction to what you see. To be a good driver, you need to see well. Seeing well means:

    Looking Ahead

    Suppose you are the driver looking through the windshield. You are approaching the end of the lane. If you don't change lanes soon, you may have to make a sudden lane change, or stop and wait for traffic to clear.

    In order to avoid last minut moves, you need to look far enough ahead to see things early. One of the most common mistakes drivers make is looking in front of the car instead of up the road. Expert driver try to keep looking 10 to 15 seconds ahead.

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    In the city, 10 to 15 seconds is about one block.

     

    Looking 10 to 15 seconds ahead also helps you to control the car in another way. When you focus attention about 10 to 15 seconds ahead, it is easier to keep your car on a steady path.

     Image
     

    On the highway, 10 to 15 seconds is about a quarter of a mile.

    Taking in the Whole Scene

    Looking 10 to 15 seconds ahead doesn't mean looking at the middle of the road. It means taking in the entire scene, the sides of the road as well. Scanning the roadside helps you to see:

    • Vehicles and people that may be in the road by the time you reach them.
    • Signs warning of conditions ahead.
    • Signs giving you information about places ahead and how to reach them.
    • Animals. Many cars strike deer, especially in October and November. If you see a deer, sound the horn. Look for other deer following.

    If you look ahead, you will be able to see important things that you can't see later on, such as someone getting into a parked car. The car door might open again or the car might move into your lane right ahead of you.

    Looking to the Sides

    Any time you come to a place where other vehicles or pedestrians may cross or enter your path, look to the sides to make sure no one is coming. These places include: intersections, roadside areas, crosswalks, and railroad crossings.

    Intersections

    An intersection is any place where roads meet, so that one line of traffic meets or crosses another. It includes:

    • Cross streets and side streets,
    • Freeway entrances,
    • Driveway and shopping center entrances.


    Here are some of the rules to follow anytime you approach an intersection.

    Image Looking both ways:
    1.
    Look to the left first, because vehicles coming from the left are closer to you.
    2. Look to the right.
    3. Take one more look to the left before you pull out, just in case there is someone you didn't see the first time.
    Make sure you look both ways, even when you cross a one-way street (Someone might be going the before you pull out, just in case wrong way).

    Don't rely on traffic signals.At an intersection, look left and right, even if other traffic has a red light or stop sign. Someone may run either one.

    Make sure you have a good view. If your view of a cross street is blocked by buildings, trees, a fence or a row of parked cars, edge forward slowly until you can see.

     Image
     Don't start to turn yet! Wait until traffic clears.

    If a line of cars in one lane is blocking your view of another lane, wait until the cars move. If you try to look by edging the front of your car into the other lane, you may get hit.

    Roadside Areas

    Whenever there is a lot of activity along the side of the road, there is a good chance that someone will cross or enter. Therefore, it is very important to look to the sides when you are near:

    • Shopping center and parking lots,
    • Construction areas,
    • Busy sidewalks,
    • Playgrounds, schoolyards, and parks,
    • Lawn and garage sales.
    Image
     

    A 5-sided sign means you are in a school zone and must slow to 15 mph during recess, or when children are going to or leaving school, during school opening or closing hours ( an hour before and an hour after the beginning of the school day and an hour before and an hour after the end of the school day), or when school speed limit signs are flashing during school opening or closing hours.

    School Crossing

     


    Crosswalks

    Crosswalks are special areas set aside for people to cross the street. They are often marked with yellow or white lines. There may be warning signs.
    Most crosswalks are at intersections, but sometimes they are in the middle of a block.
    Be alert for school crossings in the country as well as in town. You must stop when the school crossing guard directs you, and remember to always yield the right-of-way to any schoolchildren crossing the street.

     
    Image
     

    Pedestrian Crossing / School Zone

    Stop Lines

    Stop lines are usually painted on the roadway at a distance from an intersection to give pedestrians a walkway in front of stopped cars. Stop your car before the painted stop lines.

    When turning a corner, watch for people who are about to cross the street. Remember, if you have a green light, the light may also be green for them. You must wait for pedestrians in a crosswalk, marked or unmarked.

    A person who is blind or visually impaired may use a white cane as a means for safe and independent travel. This person may also be led by a guide dog. In either case, this person always has the right of way. If you see anyone in the roadway with a white cane or guide dog, stop at least 10 feet away and wait until the person is out of danger. An operator who fails to yield the right-of-way to a visually impaired pedestrian is liable for a traffic infraction with a minimum $50 and maximum $1,000 fine.

    Railroad Crossings

    A round yellow sign with a black diagonal cross gives warning 350 to 500 feet ahead of a railroad crossing.

     Image 

    A black-lettered white cross marks the railroad crossing and shows the number of tracks, if more than one.

    Image

    Look both ways as you approach a railroad crossing.

    • Be alert for buses, school buses, tank trucks, etc. that must stop at all railroad crossings.
    • If you have to stop in heavy traffic, stop before the tracks - not on them.
    • Slow down, look both ways, even if the warning sign is not flashing. It may not be working.
    • If red lights are flashing, stop at least 10 feet from the crossing and wait until they go out, or until you see that the way is clear in both directions. Do not drive around any railroad crossing gate or barrier.
    • If you are stopped at a railroad crossing where there is more than one set of tracks, don't start as soon as a train passes. Wait until you have a clear view down the track in both directions before you start across. Another train could be coming from the other direction.
    • Don't shift a manual transmission while crossing the railroad tracks. Being in gear gives you better control on the uneven surface.
    • Tracks marked "Exempt" are not used often, but may be in use. Check all tracks regardless of these signs.

    Looking Behind

    Check your mirror often for traffic behind you - every 6 to 8 seconds. This way you will find out if someone is following too closely or coming up too fast, and you will still have
    time to do something about it. Additionally, you will know how much space you have behind the car.

    You need to look behind you whenever you slow down quickly, back up, or drive down a long or steep hill.

    When You Change Lanes

    Whenever you change lanes, give the correct signal and look over your shoulder in the direction you are about to move to make sure you do not get in the way of a vehicle that is already there. Never rely solely on your rearview mirrors.

    Changing lanes includes:

    • Changing lanes from one lane to another on a roadway,
    • Entering a freeway or a highway from an entrance lane,
    • Entering the roadway from the curb or shoulder.

    Here are some important things to do when you check traffic behind you:

    • Glance in the rearview and side mirrors. Make sure that nobody is preparing to pass you.
    • Look over your left or right shoulder. Look on the side you want to move to. Be sure no one is near the left (or right) rear corner of your car. These areas are called "blind spots" because you cannot see them through the mirrors. You have to turn your head and look. Be alert for motorcycles or bicycles.
    • Check quickly. Do not take your eyes off the road ahead for more than an instant. The vehicle ahead of you could stop suddenly while you are checking behind.
    • No matter what kind of car you have, or how well you adjust your mirrors, there is still a blind spot. Never rely solely on your mirrors. It is the car you don't see that is the most dangerous.
    • Check all lanes. Someone in another lane may plan to move into the same spot you do.
    • Always signal what you intend to do at least 100 feet before making a change.


    Image

    When You Slow Down Suddenly

    Look in the mirrors quickly before you slow down or stop. It is very important to do this
    Nero Video 23.0.1.12 Crack + Serial Key Full Free Downlaod when you slow down suddenly.

    Here are some situations when you need to check behind before slowing:

    • When you slow down for something in the road ahead that the driver behind you cannot see (for example, you come around a corner and see a car stalled in the middle of the road).
    • When you are preparing to turn into a side road or driveway. (When the turn is just before a large intersection, a driver behind will not expect you to slow down and may be close behind)
    • When you are stopping to pull into a parking space.

    When You Back Up

    Backing is dangerous because it is so hard for you to see behind your car. Whenever you have to back your car:

    • Check behind the car before you get in. Children or small objects are hard to see from the driver's seat.
    • The best way to check is to turn your shoulders and head to the right so that you can look directly through the rear window. So not depend solely on your mirrors.
    • Back slowly. Your car is much harder to control and to stop while you are backing. Back no faster than a slow walk.

    Because it is hard to see while you are backing, try to do as little backing as possible. Avoid backing into traffic. When you enter a driveway or parking space, back into it unless signs forbid it. That way you will be going forward when you pull out.

    When You Are Going Down a Long or Steep Hill

    Check your mirrors. Drivers of trucks and buses often try to build up speed so that they can make it to the top of the next hill. If you see them early, you can change lanes.

    Having Clear Windows and Mirrors

    The three sections before this one tell you where to look. This section and the next three will tell you how to have a clear view wherever you are looking.

    By law, and for safety's sake, you must be able to see clearly through the windows, windshields and mirrors. To see clearly you should:

    • Keep the windshield clean. Bright sun or headlights on a dirty windshield make it hard to see. Carry a rag so that you can stop and clean your windshield anytime it needs it.
    • Keep the washer bottle full. However, do not use washers on very cold day; the mixture may freeze on the windshield.
    • Smoking while driving causes a film to build up on the glass inside the car. Clean the inside of the windows frequently if you smoke.
    • Clear snow, ice, or frost from all windows and head and taillights before you start to drive.
    • Don't hang things from the mirror or clutter the windshield with decals. Anything in the car that blocks a driver's vision is against the law.

    Adjusting Your Seat and Mirrors

    • Adjust the seat so that you are high enough to see the road. If the seat is too low, use a seat cushion. Don't move the seat so far forward that you can't steer properly. If you have an air-bag, you should be at least twelve to fifteen inches away from the steering wheel.
    • Adjust the rearview and side mirrors before you start. In heavy traffic when you really need them, you won't have time to adjust them.
    • If you have a day/night mirror, use it to guard against glare from the headlights of cars behind you.

    Seeing Well At Night

    It is harder to see things at night than during the daytime. But you can do some things to help you see better.

    • Use the high beams whenever there are no oncoming vehicles nor vehicle close ahead. High beams let you see twice as far as low beams. Be sure to use high beams on unfamiliar roads, in construction areas, or where there may be people along the side of the road.
    • When a vehicle equipped with multiple beam road lights approaches an oncoming vehicle within 500 feet or follows a vehicle within 300 feet, the operator shall dim the headlights or switch to a low beam and shall turn off a fog auxiliary light.
    • Use low beams in fog, snow, or heavy rain. Light from high beams reflects back from such precipitation and causes glare.

    If a vehicle comes toward you with high beams on, and fails to dim the lights, slow down and look toward the right side of the road. This will keep you from being blinded by the other car' s headlights. Eset nod32 full crack - Crack Key For U should also be able to see enough of the edge of the lane to stay on course until the car passes.

    Do not try to "get back" at the other driver by keeping the bright lights on. If you do, both of you will be blinded.

     Image
     

    If you look to the right you can see the edge of the lane.

    Wearing Glasses

    If you wear glasses or contact lenses:

    • Always wear them or when you drive.
    • Keep an extra pair of glasses in the car, in case your regular glasses are broken or lost.
    • Avoid using dark glasses at night. They cut down the light and make it hard to see.

    Communicating With Others
    Image

    Accidents often happen because one driver doesn't see another driver. Or when one driver does something the other driver doesn't expect. Drivers must let others know where they are and what they plan to do. This is communicating. It includes:

    Using the Headlights

    Besides helping you to see at night, headlights help other people see you in the daytime.

    • On rainy, snowy, or foggy days, it's sometimes very hard for other people to see your car. On gray days, cars seem to blend into the surroundings. Whenever the light is too dim for you to see 1000 feet ahead, you must turn on the headlights and at any time when windshield wipers are in constant use.
    • If you turn on the headlights a little early-when it begins to get dark-you will help other drivers to see you. You must have headlights on when driving anytime from half an hour after sunset to half an hour before sunrise.
    • Whenever you are moving and lights are necessary, use your headlights.
    • It is not good driving practice to operate a motor vehicle with only the parking lights on.
    • Turn on the headlights whenever you have trouble seeing other cars. If you can't see them they can't see you.
    • Motorcyclists are required to have their headlights on at all times when operating a motorcycle in Maine.

    Using the Horn

    People cannot see you unless they are looking your way. The horn can get their attention. Use it whenever it will help prevent an accident. Horns can be wrongly used. You should not use them without cause or to make an unreasonably loud noise. Tap the horn lightly, well in advance, to warn others you are there. Try to avoid using the horn around bicycles or horses because the riders may lose control if startled. But if danger is near, don't be afraid to sound a sharp blast.

    Keeping Your Car Where It Can Be Seen

    • Drive where your car can be seen. Do not drive in another driver's blind spot.
    • Try to avoid driving on either side and slightly to the rear of another vehicle for a long period of time. Either speed up or drop back so the lane is clear.
    • When passing another vehicle, get through the other driver's blind spot as quickly as you can.

    Using Emergency Signals

    If your car breaks down on the highway, make sure that other drivers can see it. Some accidents occur because a driver didn't see a stalled car until it was too late to avoid hitting it.

    If you are having car trouble and have to stop:

    • If possible, pull all the way off the road out of traffic.
    • Turn on your emergency flashers.
    • If your car doesn't have flashers, use the turn signals.
    • Lift the hood to signal an emergency.
    • If you cannot get completely off the roadway, try to stop where people have a clear view of you.
    • Try not to stop just over a hill or around a curve.
    • Give other drivers plenty of warning. If you have emergency flares place them at least 100 feet behind the car (Large vehicles must place 3 emergency devices in specified places). This allows other drivers to change lanes if they need to.
    • If you don't have emergency flares, stand by the side of the road, and wave traffic around. Use a cloth or a flag if you have it. Stay off the roadway. Don't even change a tire if it means you have to stand in a traffic lane.

    Signaling Change of Direction

    Other drivers expect you to keep driving in the same direction. If you are going to change direction, let them know by signaling with the directional lights, or by hand. It gives them time to react.

    Always signal before you:

    • Change lanes,
    • Turn at an intersection
    • Enter or leave a freeway.

    It is a good idea also to signal before you:

    • Pull away from the curb,
    • Pull over to the side of the road.

    If you do not signal, other drivers will not know what you plan to do. To make sure others do know:

    • Make it a habit to signal every time you change direction. Signal even when you don't see anyone around. The car you don't see is the most dangerous.
    • Signal as early as you can-at least 100 feet before any change or turn.
    • Use hand signals if the turn signals are not working.
    • If you plan to turn beyond an intersection, signal after crossing. If you signal before the intersection, another driver might get the wrong idea and pull into your path.
    • After you have made a gradual turn or lane change, make sure the signal is off.

    Hand Signals

    Image

    Left turn

    Right turn

    Slowing or stopping

    Signaling When You Slow Down or Stop Unexpectedly

    Your brake lights let people know that you are slowing down. If you are going to stop or slow down at a place where another driver doesn't expect it, tap your brake pedal three or four times quickly.

    Signal with your brakes when you slow down:

    • To turn off a highway.
    • To park or turn into a driveway.
    • To avoid something in the road ahead that the driver behind you cannot see (For example, you come over the top of a hill and see a car stalled in the road).

    Distractions

    We live in a 24-hour-a-day, information-driven society in which instant communications are an accepted part of life. Data shows that 91% of Americans have a cell phone, and text messaging has increased over 2,200% in the last five years!

    Instant communications can make businesses more efficient, increase productivity and bring other benefits to society, including rapid response to emergencies. However, the use of communication devices in moving vehicles can distract the driver's attention from the primary task of driving and lead to crashes as critical and as devastating as those caused by impaired driving or other dangerous driving behavior.

    Distracted driving may now be the single largest contributing factor to traffic crashes. According to the U.S. Department of Transportation, distracted driving resulted in nearly 6,000 deaths and more than a half million injuries in 2008.

    An in-cab driving study of commercial truck drivers by the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute indicated that by far the most dangerous distraction observed was texting. The study revealed that truck drivers who texted while driving had 23 times the risk of being involved in a crash or a near-crash incident.

    Laws that prohibit cell phone use and texting have an impact on safety, but stopping the senseless crashes and deaths that distractions can cause is best accomplished by changing driver behavior.

    To manage or eliminate distractions, it's important to understand the three distinct types:

    Visual distractionsthat cause the driver to look away from the road and view something unrelated to driving, such as billboards, accident scenes, street signs and other external stimuli.

    Manual distractionsin which the driver removes one or both hands from the steering wheel or other driving parallels desktop to perform a non-driving task, such as eating, drinking, adjusting mirrors, tuning the radio or programming a GPS.

    Cognitive distractionsin which mental thoughts and feelings (anger, anxiety, worry, etc.) distract the driver and divert attention from the road.

    And while the news media and regulators have focused primarily on the dangers of texting and hand-held cell phone use in moving vehicles, other types of distractions are equally dangerous. Nearly all accidents involve a combination of two or even all three types of distractions!

    Short glances at vehicle instrumentation, mirrors, installed communication devices, or other technology can be done safely if these scans are limited to less than one second and are related only to the driving task. In the rush to be on time for a pick-up or delivery deadline, or to get ahead of traffic congestion, don't make the sometimes-fatal mistake of attempting to multi-task behind the wheel.

    Using a Cellular Telephone in Your Vehicle

    Properly used, cellular phones enhance driver safety and provide a mobile alert network for the community. To help ensure car phone users drive safely, please follow the common sense advice offered below.

    • Recognize that driving requires your full attention.
    • Before you get behind the wheel, familiarize yourself with the location and function of the phone's buttons.
    • Pull off the road before dialing.
    • Have your vehicle fitted with a hands-free or speaker phone.
    • Pull off the road if the conversation is an sony vegas pro crack - Free Activators or complex one, or a business call that requires note taking.
    • Ask a passenger in the car to place the call for you.
    • Monitor traffic conditions before answering or making calls.
    • For emergencies, tell the operator whether you are reporting a medical or police emergency, your exact location, and whether there appear to be injuries.
    • Put portable phones in their cradles to avoid their becoming projectiles in a crash.

    A person who has not attained the age of 18 years is prohibited from operating a motor vehicle while using a mobile telephone or hand held electronic device. A violation of the statute is considered a traffic infraction.

    Excessive Sound System Noise

    A person may not operate a sound system in a vehicle on a public way at a volume that is audible at a distance greater than 25 feet and that exceeds 85 decibels or that is greater than is reasonable with due regard to the location of the vehicle and the effect on persons in proximity to the vehicle. Violation of this law is a traffic infraction and will be assessed $50 for a first offense, $100 for a 2nd offense and $150 for a 3rd or subsequent offense.

    Adjusting Your Speed to Conditions

    What is a safe speed? How fast is too fast? It all depends on conditions. How fast you can drive, and be safe, depends on:

    Speed Limits

    Speed limits are posted on many roads. These limits are based on the condition of the
    road, how far you can see, and what typical traffic is like. Posted speed limits do not tell you at what speed to drive. They only say you cannot go faster than the speed shown. If road and weather conditions make the posted speed unsafe, you must slow down.

    Maximum speeds in Maine, unless posted otherwise, are:

    • 45 Miles per hour outside any business or residential or built-up area of Maine.
    • 25 Miles per hour in a business, or residential district, or built-up area of format factory 64 bit full crack - Crack Key For U state.
    • 15 Miles per hour when passing a school during recess, or when children are going to or from school during the school's opening or closing hours. It is difficult to know just when these periods are. When in doubt, use extreme care. A fine twice that of the usual fine is imposed for exceeding the posted speed limit in a school zone.

    Traffic experts have studied road conditions, traffic, and accidents on the road to decide wilcom embroidery studio E4.5 full crack download - Free Activators a reasonable speed limit. It is illegal to exceed the posted speed limit. Racing on the highway and driving recklessly are not allowed. Maine law also says you must not drive so slowly that you interfere with the normal and reasonable movement of traffic except where reduced speed is necessary for safety. Some highways may have minimum posted speed limits.

    What is the Road Surface Like?

    The only contact your car has with the road is through the tires. And, at any time, the four tires together have only one square foot of rubber on the surface of the road. How good a grip this one square foot provides depends on the condition of the road and the tires. Many new drivers do not pay attention to road conditions. That is why new drivers have more "out of control" accidents than experienced drivers. (Also check the tread of the tires. Test tread
    wear as described under Owning and Maintaining a Motor Vehicle. Replace tires before they get too worn for safety.)

    Curves

    On a curve, speed must be slowed to keep the car on the road. About two tons of car are moving in a straight line with only the front tires to control the turn. If the curve is too sharp, or if youare going too fast, the tires can lose their grip and cause a skid. Slow down before you enter the curve so you don't have to brake in the curve. Braking in a turn can cause a skid. Bad curves are usually posted with yellow diamond shaped signs. That is,warning signs like these:

     Sharp curve to the left.Image
    Curve to the right

    Water on the Roadway

    At low speeds, most tires will wipe water from a road surface. It is like July 17, 2021 - Free Activators way a windshield wiper cleans water off the window. As you go faster, your tires cannot wipe the road as well. They start to ride up on a film of water, like water skis. This is called "hydroplaning." In heavy rain, the tires can lose all contact with the road at high speeds. Bald or almost bald tires lose contact at much lower speeds. In that case, a slight change of direction or a gust of wind could throw your car into a skid. The best way to keep from hydroplaning is to be sure that your tires are in good condition and that you keep your speed down.

    Slippery Roads

    If the road ahead is slippery, it does not provide the grip your tires need. You have to drive slower than you would on a dry road.
    Here are some guidelines for how much to slow the car:

    • Wet road: Slow down 5 to 10 mph.
    • Packed snow: Slow down to half speed.
    • Ice: Slow to a crawl.

    Falling or drifting snow, wet leaves, or gravel on the road may make it slippery. Some road surfaces are more slippery than others when wet.


    These roads are usually posted with warning signs:
     Image

    You know it is important to slow down when the road is slippery. But you have to watch out for slippery roads:

    • When it starts to rain, pavement can be very slippery for the first few minutes. Heat causes oil in the asphalt to come to the surface. Also, oil may have dropped on the road surface. Rain makes the road slippery until the oil is washed off.
    • On cold, wet days, bridges and overpasses can hide spots of ice. These areas freeze first and dry out last.
    • When the temperature is near freezing, ice is wet and is more slippery than at colder temperatures.

    How Well Can You See?

    If something is in your path, you need to see it in time to be able to stop. Assuming you have good tires and brakes and dry pavement the following chart should help to determine how far ahead you should see to drive safely when traveling certain speeds.

    M.P.H.

    Reaction Time Distance (feet)

    Braking distance (feet)

    Total Stopping Distance (feet)

    Total Stopoping Distance in Approximate Vehicle Lengths (Vehicle Length = 16 ft.)

    10

    11

    9

    20

    1

    20

    22

    23

    45

    3

    30

    33

    45

    78

    5

    40

    44

    81

    125

    8

    50

    55

    133

    188

    13

    60

    66

    206

    272

    18

    70

    77

    304

    381

    25

    Some Things Keep You From Seeing:

    • Darkness. You must be closer to an object to see it at night than during the day. Never drive so fast that you cannot stop within the distance you can see ahead with your lights. Headlights will let you see clearly only about 250 feet ahead. Therefore, if you drive faster than about 50 mph on a dark road, you are really "driving blind."
    • Rain, Fog, or Snow. In very heavy rain, snowstorm or thick fog, you may not be able to see, even when you drive slowly. If this happens, pull off the road and wait until it clears.
    • Intersections. Trees, bushes, or buildings at intersections can block your view of cars coming from the side. You need to approach a "blind" intersection slowly enough to be able to stop if a car pulls out suddenly.
    • Hills and Curves. You never know what's on the other side of a steep hill or a sharp curve. If a stalled car is there you must be going slowly enough to stop. When you come to a steep hill or curve, slow down so that you can stop if you need to.
    • Parked Cars. Cars parked along the side of the road block your view. People may be ready to get out of a car or walk out from between parked cars. Give parked cars plenty of room. Be ready to stop.

     

    How Much Traffic is There?

    When there are lots of cars there is less driving space; therefore, you have less space to react. You need to reduce your speed to have time to react in the shorter space.

    Some of the places where you need to reduce speed are:

    • Shopping centers, parking lots, and downtown areas. They are packed with cars and people moving in different directions at the same time.
    • In heavy traffic.
    • Narrow bridges and tunnels. Cars approaching each other are forced closer together.
    • Toll plazas. Cars are changing lanes as they approach and leave.
    • Schools, playgrounds, and residential streets.

    How Fast Is Traffic Moving?

    Cars moving in the same lane at the same speed cannot hit one another. Accidents tend to happen when one driver is going faster or slower than other cars on the road.

    Driving in traffic.If you are going faster than traffic (even if you are keeping within the posted speed limit), you have to keep passing other cars. Each time you pass another car, there's more chance for a collision. The car you are passing may change lanes suddenly. On a two-lane road an oncoming car may appear suddenly. True, it may not be a big chance, but if you are passing one car after another, the chances begin to add up. And speeding does not save more than a few minutes out of an hour's driving.

    Going slower than other cars or stopping all of a sudden can be just as bad as speeding. Cars bunch up behind you and could cause a rear-end crash. If many cars are pulling out to pass you, and you are driving at the posted speed, you should drive slower or pull over to the right side and wait until they pass.

    Entering traffic.You need skill and caution to enter a freeway safely from an access lane, and merge smoothly with the fast-moving traffic. Look for a gap, then increase speed in the entrance lane and enter the gap at highway speed.

    Leaving traffic.On an expressway, do not slow down until you move into the exit lane. When you turn off a road at an intersection or driveway, try not to slow too early or go too slowly (below 5 to 10 mph). Slowing way down or stopping will increase your chances of being hit from behind.

    Reacting to slow-moving traffic.Some vehicles have trouble keeping up with the speed of traffic. When you see these vehicles ahead, adjust your speed before you reach them. Slowing suddenly is one cause of Antares AutoTune Pro Free Download accidents. Watch for large trucks and small cars. These vehicles may lose speed on long or steep hills. And, when entering traffic, they take longer to get up to speed.

    Image
    Farm tractors, animal-drawn carts and roadway maintenance vehicles usually go 25 mph or less. These vehicles have a red edged orange triangle (slow-moving vehicle sign) on the back.

    Warning Signs

    There are many signs that warn you of danger ahead. If you see these signs, you should reduce your speed. Then you will have time to react if there is trouble.

    Warning signs are almost always yellow and shaped like a diamond. Here are some of the most common ones:
    Image

    1. There is a traffic signal ahead.

    2. There is another lane of traffic on the right merging with your lane ahead.

    3. There is two-way traffic.

    4. The divided highway ends ahead.

    5. The divided highway begins ahead.

    6. There is a place ahead where deer often cross the road.

    7. The right lane ends ahead.

    8. Bicycles or bicycle crossing ahead, pay extra attention.

    9. There is an intersection ahead.

    10. There is a stop ahead.

    When is it acceptable to park in a disability parking spot with an access aisle?

    A person parking in a disability parking spot, with an access aisle, must utilize the aisle to enter or exit the vehicle. A disability plate or placard must be displayed.

    • Used when the access aisle is needed to enter or exit the vehicle when using a platform lift or other mobility device.
    • The vehicle must display a disability plate or disability parking placard.

     

     

    Image

    Access Aisle
    Parking in an access aisle is prohibited.


    Misuse of an access aisle is considered a traffic infraction and subject to a fine of not less than $200.00.

    For additional information regarding the issuance of disability plates and disability parking placards in the State of Maine, please contact the Bureau of Motor Vehicles at (207) 624-9000, extension 52149.

    Construction and Maintenance Work Zones

    You probably have noticed construction and maintenance projects on the state's public road system, work that is being done to improve and repair our roadways. Because closing a road and detouring traffic adds expense and travel time, the work must go on while traffic passes through the work site or in nearby lanes.

    Image 

    Flashing Arrow Panels:Large flashing or sequencing arrow panels may be used in ahead is closed. Prepare to slow down and move into the lane indicated.


    Image
    Image

    Construction Warning Sign:These signs are posted to alert drivers of road construction or maintenance activity ahead. They also serve to guide a motorist safely through or around the work site. These signs are black symbols or lettering on an orange background and are often diamond shaped.

    Image 


    Channeling Devices:
    Barricades, vertical panels, concrete barriers, drums and cones are the commonly used devices to guide drivers safely through the work zone. When driving near these devices, keep your vehicle in the middle of the lane and maintain a responsible speed. As you leave the work zone, stay in your lane and maintain your speed-don't change lanes until you are completely clear of the work zone and have checked the traffic behind you.


    Image
     

    Flaggers: Flaggers wear high visibility vests, shirts or jackets and use a stop/slow paddle and hand signals to control traffic through the work zone. Usually a flagger is stationed on each end of the work zone to let the two directions of traffic alternately travel past the work zone. Be patient and always obey their signals. They normally wear orange vests, shirts or jackets and use red flags or paddles to direct traffic safely WebStorm 2019.1.1 Activation Key - Crack Key For U the work zone, and to let workers or construction vehicles cross the road. It's very important to be patient and obey their signals.

    The most important thing to do when you are approaching a work zone is to "SLOW DOWN." This helps protect you hd tune pro free download the driver and the workers who are working in a dangerous location.

    Maintaining a Safe Cushion
    Image

    When a driver makes a mistake, other drivers need time to react. The only way you can be sure you will have enough time to react is by leaving plenty of space between your car and the cars around you. That space becomes a "space cushion" which protects you from others. In general, you should try to keep a cushion of space on all sides of your motor vehicle which properly reflects existing speed and road conditions.

    Keeping a Cushion Ahead

    Rear-end crashes are common because many drivers follow too closely. When the car ahead stops, they cannot stop in time. You can tell if you are following too closely by using the two-second rule:
    Image

    • When the rear bumper of the car ahead passes a post, shadow or other mark on the pavement, start counting the seconds it takes you to reach the same spot in the road.
    • Count one second one, two seconds two.
    • If you pass the mark before you finish, you are following too closely.

    In some situations you should allow an extra cushion. A three to four-second following distance may be needed:

    • On slippery roads. If the car ahead should slow or stop, you will need more distance to stop your car.
    • When following motorcycles or bicycles. If the cyclist should fall, you will need extra distance to avoid striking the rider. The chances of a fall are greatest on wet or icy roads, metal surfaces such as bridge gratings or railroad tracks, and on gravel.
    • When the driver behind you wants to pass, slow to allow room in front of your car to help the driver to pass.
    • When following drivers whose view to the rear is blocked. The drivers of trucks, buses, vans, or cars pulling campers or trailers can't see you very well if you are too close. They could slow down suddenly without knowing you are behind.
    • When following trucks, tractor-trailers and buses, there are several things you should keep in mind:
      • Don't follow so closely that their drivers can't see you in their rearview mirrors or your view of the road ahead is blocked.
      • Trucks and buses often make wide turns, leaving an open space to their right in the process. Don't pass such vehicles on the right if there is a chance that they are making a right hand turn.
      • Large vehicles gain a substantial amount of momentum when going down hill and often lose speed when climbing. Take these factors into consideration when deciding whether or not to pass a large vehicle.
      • Leave space in front of you when stopped behind a truck or bus at an intersection, especially on a hill, in case the vehicle rolls back when starting.
    • When you have a heavy load or are pulling a trailer, the extra weight increases your braking distance.
    • When speeds are high.

    School buses and tank trucks carrying flammable liquids must stop at railroad crossings. So expect the stops and slow down early to allow plenty of room. You should also allow a space cushion when you are stopped on a hill. The vehicle ahead may roll back when it starts up.

    Keeping a Space Cushion to the Side

    You need a space cushion to the side to have room to react to sudden moves toward your lane by other cars.

    • Avoid driving alongside other cars on multi-lane streets. Move ahead of the other car or drop back. Someone may crowd your lane or try to change lanes and pull into you.
    • Keep as much space as you can between yourself and oncoming cars. Keep right except to pass. When you are in the lane next to the center line, there is no space for escape. And an oncoming vehicle could swerve across the center line or turn left without signaling.
    • Make room for cars entering freeways. If there's no one next to you, move over a lane.
    • At freeway exits, don't drive alongside other cars. A driver on the freeway may pull off suddenly or a driver leaving may swerve back on you.
    • Keep a space between yourself and parked cars. Someone may step out of a car or from between the parked cars. A car may start to pull out suddenly.

    Splitting the Difference
    Image

    Image
    Sometimes there will be dangers on both sides of the road. There may be parked cars to the right and oncoming cars to the left. In this case, steer a middle course between the oncoming cars and the parked cars. Split the difference.

    If one danger is greater than the other, give more room to the worse danger. Suppose in a narrow lane, there are oncoming cars to the left of you and a bicyclist ahead. In some instances an inexperienced bicyclist will be less predictable. Therefore, give extra room. An experienced bicyclist will often "command the lane" by moving further into the roadway. Motorists must yield. Slow down to avoid an accident. When it is safe to pass allow at least three feet to your right side when passing.

    Taking Dangers One at a Time

    Sometimes you can take two dangers one at a time. Suppose there is only one oncoming car to the left and a bicyclist to the right. Instead of driving between the car and the bike, take them one at a time. Slow down and let the car pass. Then, move to the left to allow plenty of room before you pass the bicyclist.

    Don't pass yet. Wait until the approaching car passes the bicycle.

    Then pull out and pass the bicycle.

    Keeping a Space Cushion Behind

    The driver behind you has more control over the space behind you than you do. However, you can help by keeping a steady speed, and signaling in advance when you have to slow down.

    If you are being followed too closely and there is a right lane, move over to the right. If there is no right lane, wait until the way ahead is clear, then reduce speed slowly to encourage the tailgater to pass.

    Allowing a Space Cushion for Problem Drivers

    There are certain people you should give a lot of room to while driving. If you are alert you will learn to spot them as you drive.
    Image

    Drivers who cannot see you.

    Someone who cannot see you may enter your path without knowing you are there. People who have trouble seeing you include:

    • Drivers at intersections, or driveways, whose view is blocked by buildings, trees or other cars.
    • Drivers backing out of driveways or parking spaces.
    • Drivers whose windows are covered with snow or ice.


    Image

    People who are distracted.Even when others can see you, allow extra room if you think they may be distracted. People who may be distracted include:

    Delivery men and women.
    Construction workers.
    Children who often run into the street without looking.

    People who may be confused.A person who is confused is very likely to make a move without looking. People who may be confused include:

    • Tourists, often at complicated intersections.


    Image

    This tourist may be confused by the sign and may change lanes suddenly. Be prepared to react.

    Drivers who slow down for what seems to be unknown reasons.

    Image

    The driver has pulled into the exit lane and then braked suddenly. Be careful because the car may swing back into your lane.

    Drivers in trouble.If other drivers make mistakes, do what you can to help them out. Drivers who need help include:

    • Drivers who pass as you approach a curve or an oncoming car. Slow down and let them back in your lane.
    • Drivers who may be forced into your lane by a car, pedestrian, bicyclist, obstruction in the road, or narrowing of the roadway.

    School buses.Where there are school buses, there are usually children. And children are likely to do something unexpected.

    It is illegal to pass a stopped school bus with red lights flashing on school property, on any undivided highway or parking area in Maine.If you are approaching a stopped school bus from either direction, with its red lights flashing, you must bring your vehicle to a complete stop in front or rear of the school bus and wait while children are getting on or off the photo mechanic student discount - Crack Key For U. You must not proceed until the bus resumes motion or until signaled by the school bus driver to do so. Violations carry severe penalties.


    Image

    Multi-lane Divided Highway

    Motorcycles.There are more and more motorcycles on the road. They have as much right to the road as cars. Give them as much space as you would give a car. When you pass a motorcycle, give it a whole lane. Don't try to squeeze past in the same lane. The motorcyclist moves from side to side quickly, in order to see and be seen, and to avoid objects on the road.

    Motorcycles give their riders no protection. This is why they are involved in nearly 10%
    of all motor vehicle deaths, although they make up only 4% of the vehicles on the road.

    In many motorcycle accidents, drivers of other vehicles are at fault. Drivers turning left in front of an oncoming motorcycle cause many of the accidents. They fail to see the motorcyclist or they think the motorcycle is going slower than it really is.

    Wait for an oncoming motorcyclist to pass before turning left.

    Emergency Vehicles.Make room for ambulances, fire trucks, police cars, and other emergency vehicles. These vehicles often move at high speeds and use lights and sirens to clear the way for themselves. At such times, this requires that you pull over to the side of the road and stop. If you are at an intersection, get out of it before you pull over. It is unlawful to follow within 500 feet of any fire truck responding to a fire alarm.

    Horses and other Animals.Animals driven, ridden or led along the side of a roadway are easily frightened by passing vehicles. They are usually even less predictable than people in their reactions, tending to rear, swerve or stop suddenly when startled. The alert motorist can prevent accidents by anticipating potentially dangerous situations and slowing down and proceeding cautiously when approaching animals.

    It is against the law to purposefully frighten any animal being ridden, driven or led on or near a public way.

    Wildlife Safety

    It happens all the time. In Maine, cars and trucks crash into moose and deer thousands of times every year. It's that big of a problem. Of course, most people are delighted to see a beautiful white-tailed deer or a majestic bull moose. But few people know how to handle a head-on encounter with Maine's largest and wildest creatures.

    Collisions with deer increase in the autumn, peaking in November - during breeding season. But they can happen any time of the year.

    May and June are Peak Moose Collision Months!
    Collisions with moose increase dramatically in these months. Autumn incidents are also common. But don't let your guard down. Crashes happen 12 months a year.

    Tip: Deer eyes refect light from headlights very well. But because moose are taller, drivers won't see their eyes refected in the headlights. This makes moose even harder to see in time to avoid a collision.

    From Dusk to Dawn
    Although collisions can happen any time of the day, moose and deer are most active around dawn and dusk. They also travel at night. So be especially alert after sunset because dark colored animals can be very hard to see until they are right in front of your headlights.

    Warning Signs Mean Business
    The locations for Maine's moose and deer crossing signs are chosen based on where there are high concentrations of wildlife and where collisions are a problem.

    "Herd" the One About the Traveling Moose?
    Moose and deer often travel in small groups. If one animal crosses the road, you can bet that there are more animals nearby that may be crossing.

    The Moose Standoff
    If you see a moose standing in or near the roadway, use extreme caution, especially during mating season from August through October.

    • Slow Down
    • Do not try to drive around the moose
    • Stay in your vehicle. Do not get out to observe or to chase it of the road. By getting out of the car, you put yourself and other drivers at risk. Moose can be unpredictable and may attack your vehicle
    • Give moose plenty of room and let them wander back of the road.

    What if a Crash is Unavoidable?
    If a crash with an animal is imminent, apply the brakes and steer straight. Let up on the brakes just before impact to allow the front of your vehicle to rise slightly and aim to hit the tail end of the animal. This can reduce the risk of the animal striking the windshield area and may increase your chances of missing the animal. Duck down to protect yourself from windshield debris.

    Pedestrian Laws For Motorists

    • When turning at intersections with traffic signals, you must yield to pedestrians crossing the intersection on a green light.
    • When VScodePrint Free Download devices are not in operation, an operator must yield the right-of- way to a pedestrian crossing within a marked crosswalk.
    • You must yield the right-of-way to any person crossing the street in a marked crosswalk.
    • You must not overtake or pass other vehicles stopped or slowing to yield to pedestrians in a crosswalk.
    • When crossing a sidewalk, you must yield to all pedestrians or bicyclists on the sidewalk.
    • In spite of all laws, you must exercise care to avoid colliding with pedestrians or bicyclists.
    • Use extreme caution where children are playing or walking.

    Sharing the Road with Bicycles

    There MP3Studio YouTube Downloader 2.0.5.1 Crack + Activation Key 2021 - Free Activators nearly 900,000 bicycles in Maine and most bicycling is done on the roadways of Maine. As a motorist you should drive defensively around a bicyclist because the slightest mistake by you or the bicyclist, can result in death. The biggest differences between bicyclists and motorists as road users is that bicycles are less visible, quieter, and do not have a protective vehicle casing around them. This means you need to look a little harder and drive a little more cautiously when encountering bicyclists. Here are some rules to help you share the road with bicyclists.

    • Share the road with bicyclists; they have a legal right to its' use.
    • Be courteous and cautious even if it takes a little longer.
    • Bicyclists should operate on the right portion of the way as far as practical except when it is unsafe to do so as determined by the bicyclist. In some instances, it is safest for a bicyclist to "command the lane" by riding toward the center or to the left if turning.
    • Bicyclists may be moving faster than you realize (experienced bicyclists can easily travel over 30 mph). They also have smaller profiles and sometimes are not noticed in traffic. Look carefully for bicyclists, especially before turning or opening a car door.
    • Learn to recognize situations and obstacles which may be hazardous to cyclists, such as potholes, debris, and drain grates. Give them adequate space to maneuver.
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    • When a road is too narrow for cars and bikes to ride safely side by side, bicycles should "take the travel lane," which means riding in or near the center of the lane.
    • A person operating a motor vehicle near a person operating a bicycle may not make a right turn unless the turn can be made with reasonable safety and without interfering with the safe and legal operation of the bicycle.
    • When turning left at an intersection, yield to oncoming bicyclists just as you would yield to oncoming motorists.
    • Children or inexperienced adults on bicycles are often unpredictable in their actions. Expect the unexpected.

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    Bicyclists are vehicles and have all the rights and responsibilities of other vehicle drivers. Although a license isn't required to drive a bicycle on Maine's roadways, bicycle drivers must obey all the rules of the road. If you break any traffic laws, like riding a bike on the left side of the road, running a stop sign or traffic light you are subject to fines.

    Be sure to practice on your bicycle before entering traffic. Never ride in traffic above your skill level. When riding a bicycle follow these rules:

    • Regularly inspect and maintain your bicycle. Bicycles like any machine need to be cared for to perform correctly. Be safe and keep your bike tuned up or take it to a bicycle shop for inspection regularly (a professional inspection is recommended every six months.)
    • Properly secure loads. Never hang bags or packages on your handlebars or hold them in your arms. Secure loads on a rack, in bike bags, or on a bicycle trailer. Only use back packs for light loads.
    • Wear a helmet correctly. When worn correctly, a bicycle helmet can reduce your chances of head injury in an accident. Only use an ANSI/Snell approved helmet designed specifically for bicycling. Once a helmet has sustained any impact it should be replaced. Helmets should also be replaced if they are five years old or older or are left in a hot car. Worn correctly, a helmet should be set just above your eyebrows and is snug on your head so that it stays in place if you shake your head. If your helmet is loose or tilted back exposing your forehead it cannot adequately protect your head. All persons under 16 years of age riding on bicycles are required to wear helmets and sit on passenger seats when traversing public ways.
    • Ride with traffic. Always ride on the right side of the road. Do not pass motorists on the right side. If you approach an intersection with a right turning lane and intend to continue straight, do not enter the right turn lane. Ride with the through traffic.
    • Watch for potential road hazards. Scan the road 50 to 100 feet ahead at all times for road hazards like drain grates, potholes, railroad tracks (cross them at right angles), puddles (which may be hiding a pothole), or road debris. Slow down and allow time to maneuver around these hazards and negotiate with traffic.
    • Avoid opening car doors. Give yourself three or four feet of room between yourself and parked vehicles.
    • Ride in a predictable manner. Always ride straight and be predictable. Do not weave from side to side, or suddenly move out into traffic. Be alert and plan ahead to avoid obstacles. If the road is narrow for a bicycle and a car to travel side by side, the bicyclist should occupy the lane until it is safe to move back to the right. Always check over your shoulder before changing your lane position. Never weave between parked cars.
    • Signaling turns. As vehicle driver you must always signal your intent to turn, using the hand signals illustrated earlier in this section. Look before you make a lane change or turn. Make sure lanes are clear of traffic to make a lane change or turn.
    • Left hand turns. You may turn left as a vehicle by moving in to the left lane or the left side of the travel lane. Before you maneuver, look behind for traffic, signal your turn and change lane position when clear to do so. Or, you can make a left turn in two parts by crossing the intersection and pulling over to the side. Then, when it is safe to do so, turn to your left and proceed across the intersection.
    Источник: https://www.maine.gov/sos/bmv/licenses/motoristhandbook.html

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    Iconic One Theme

    Mechanical engineering

    Engineering discipline and economic branch

    NamesMechanical Engineer

    Activity sectors

    applied mechanics, dynamics, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, production technology, and others
    Competenciestechnical knowledge, management skills, design (see also glossary of mechanical engineering)

    Education required

    See professional requirements below

    Fields of
    employment

    technology, science, exploration, military

    Mechanical engineering is an engineering branch that combines engineering physics and mathematics principles with materials science to design, analyze, manufacture, and maintain mechanical systems.[1] It is one of the oldest and broadest of the engineering branches.

    The mechanical engineering field requires an understanding of core areas including mechanics, dynamics, thermodynamics, materials science, structural analysis, and electricity. In addition to these core principles, mechanical engineers use tools such as computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), and product lifecycle management to design and analyze manufacturing plants, industrial equipment and machinery, heating and cooling systems, transport systems, aircraft, watercraft, robotics, medical devices, weapons, and others. It is the branch of engineering that involves the design, production, and operation of machinery.[2][3]

    Mechanical engineering emerged as a field during the Industrial Revolution in Europe in the 18th century; however, its development can be traced back several thousand years around the world. In the 19th century, developments in vmix 21 pro crack - Activators Patch led to the development of mechanical engineering science. The field has continually evolved to incorporate advancements; today mechanical engineers are pursuing developments in such areas as composites, mechatronics, and nanotechnology. It also overlaps with aerospace engineering, metallurgical engineering, civil engineering, electrical engineering, manufacturing engineering, chemical engineering, industrial engineering, and other engineering disciplines to varying amounts. Mechanical engineers may also work in the field of biomedical engineering, specifically with biomechanics, transport phenomena, biomechatronics, bionanotechnology, and modelling of biological systems.

    History[edit]

    Main article: History of mechanical engineering

    The application of mechanical engineering can be seen in the archives of various ancient and medieval societies. The six classic simple machines were known in the ancient Near East. The wedge and the inclined plane (ramp) were known since prehistoric times.[4] The wheel, along with the wheel and axle mechanism, was invented in Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) during the 5th millennium BC.[5] The lever mechanism first appeared around 5,000 years ago in the Near East, where it was used in a simple balance scale,[6] and to move large objects in ancient Egyptian technology.[7] The lever was also used in the shadoof water-lifting device, the first crane machine, which appeared in Mesopotamia circa 3000 BC.[6] The earliest evidence of pulleys date back to Mesopotamia in the early 2nd millennium BC.[8]

    The Sakia was developed in the Kingdom of Kush during the 4th century BC. It relied on animal power reducing the tow on the requirement of human energy.[9]Reservoirs in the form of Hafirs were developed in Kush to store water and boost irrigation.[10]Bloomeries and blast furnaces were developed during the seventh century BC in Meroe.[11][12][13][14] Kushite sundials applied mathematics in the form of advanced trigonometry.[15][16]

    The earliest practical water-powered machines, the water wheel and watermill, first appeared in the Persian Empire, in what are now Iraq and Iran, by the early 4th century BC.[17] In ancient Greece, the works of Archimedes (287–212 BC) influenced mechanics in the Western tradition. In Roman Egypt, Heron of Alexandria (c. 10–70 AD) created the first steam-powered device (Aeolipile).[18] In China, Zhang Heng (78–139 AD) improved a water clock and invented a seismometer, and Ma Jun (200–265 AD) invented a chariot with differential gears. The medieval Chinese horologist and engineer Su Song (1020–1101 AD) incorporated an escapement mechanism into his astronomicalclock tower two centuries before escapement devices were found in medieval European clocks. He also invented the world's first known endless power-transmitting chain drive.[19]

    During the Islamic Golden Age (7th to 15th century), Muslim inventors made remarkable contributions in the field of mechanical technology. Al-Jazari, who was one of them, wrote his famous Book of Ingenious Devices in 1206 and presented many mechanical designs. Al-Jazari is also the first known person to create devices such as the crankshaft and camshaft, which now form the basics of many mechanisms.[20]

    In the 17th century, important breakthroughs in the foundations of mechanical engineering occurred in England and the Continent. The Dutch mathematician and physicist Christiaan Huygens invented the pendulum clock in 1657, which was the first reliable timekeeper for almost 300 years, and published a work dedicated to clock designs and the theory behind them.[21][22] In England, Isaac Newton formulated Newton's Laws of Motion and developed the calculus, which would become the mathematical basis of physics. Newton was reluctant to publish his works for years, but he was finally persuaded to do so by his colleagues, such as Edmond Halley. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz is also credited with developing the calculus during this time period.[23]

    During the early 19th century industrial revolution, machine tools were developed in England, Germany, and Scotland. This allowed mechanical engineering to develop as a separate field within engineering. They brought with them manufacturing machines and the engines to power them.[24] The first British professional society of mechanical engineers was formed in 1847 Institution of Mechanical Engineers, thirty years after the civil engineers formed the first such professional society Institution of Civil Engineers.[25] On the European continent, Johann von Zimmermann (1820–1901) founded the first factory for grinding machines in Chemnitz, Germany in 1848.

    In the United States, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) was formed in 1880, becoming the third such professional engineering society, after the American Society of Civil Engineers (1852) and the American Institute of Mining Engineers (1871).[26] The first schools in the United States to offer an engineering education were the United States Military Academy in 1817, an institution now known as Norwich University in 1819, and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1825. Education in mechanical engineering has historically been based on a strong foundation in mathematics and science.[27]

    Education[edit]

    Archimedes' screwwas operated by hand and could efficiently raise water, as the animated red ball demonstrates.

    Degrees in mechanical engineering are offered at various universities worldwide. Mechanical engineering programs typically take four to five years of study depending on the place and university and result in a Bachelor of Engineering (B.Eng. or B.E.), Bachelor of Science (B.Sc. or B.S.), Bachelor of Science Engineering (B.Sc.Eng.), Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech.), Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering (B.M.E.), or Bachelor of Applied Science (B.A.Sc.) degree, in or with emphasis in mechanical engineering. In Spain, Portugal and most of South America, where neither B.S. nor B.Tech. programs have been adopted, the formal name for the degree is "Mechanical Engineer", and the course work is based on five or six years of training. In Italy the course work is based on five years of education, and training, but in order to qualify as an Engineer one has to pass a state exam at the end of the course. In Greece, the coursework is based on a five-year curriculum and the requirement of a 'Diploma' Thesis, which upon completion a 'Diploma' is awarded rather than a B.Sc.[28]

    In the United States, most undergraduate mechanical engineering programs are accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) to ensure similar course requirements and standards among universities. The ABET web site lists 302 accredited mechanical engineering programs as of 11 March 2014.[29] Mechanical engineering programs in Canada are accredited by the Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board (CEAB),[30] and most other countries offering engineering degrees have similar accreditation societies.

    In Australia, mechanical engineering degrees are awarded as Bachelor of Engineering (Mechanical) or similar nomenclature, although there are an increasing number of specialisations. The degree takes four years of full-time study to achieve. To ensure quality in engineering degrees, Engineers Australia accredits engineering degrees awarded by Australian universities in accordance with the global Washington Accord. Before the degree can be awarded, the student must complete at least 3 months of on the job work experience in an engineering firm.[31] Similar systems are also present in South Africa and are overseen by the Engineering Council of South Africa (ECSA).

    In India, to become an engineer, one needs to have an engineering degree like a B.Tech or B.E, have a diploma in engineering, or by completing a course in an engineering trade like fitter from the Industrial Training Institute (ITIs) to receive a "ITI Trade Certificate" and also pass the All India Trade Test (AITT) with an engineering trade conducted by the National Council of Vocational Training (NCVT) by which one is awarded a "National Trade Certificate". A similar system is used in Nepal.[32]

    Some mechanical engineers go on to pursue a postgraduate degree such as a Master of Engineering, Master of Technology, Master of Science, Master of Engineering Management (M.Eng.Mgt. or M.E.M.), a Doctor of Philosophy in engineering (Eng.D. or Ph.D.) or an engineer's degree. The master's and engineer's degrees may or may not include research. The Doctor of Philosophy includes a significant research component and is often viewed as the entry point to academia.[33] The Engineer's degree exists at a few institutions at an intermediate level between the master's degree and the doctorate.

    Coursework[edit]

    Standards set by each country's accreditation society are intended to provide uniformity in fundamental subject material, promote competence among graduating engineers, and to maintain confidence in the engineering profession as a whole. Engineering programs in the U.S., for example, are required by ABET to show that their students sony vegas pro crack - Free Activators "work professionally in both thermal and mechanical systems areas."[34] The specific courses required to graduate, however, may differ from program to program. Universities and Institutes of technology will often combine multiple subjects into a single class or split a subject into multiple classes, depending on the faculty available and the university's major area(s) of research.

    The fundamental subjects required for mechanical engineering usually include:

    • Mathematics (in particular, calculus, differential equations, and linear algebra)
    • Basic physical sciences (including physics and chemistry)
    • Statics and dynamics
    • Strength of materials and solid mechanics
    • Materials engineering, Composites
    • Thermodynamics, heat transfer, energy conversion, and HVAC
    • Fuels, combustion, Internal combustion engine
    • Fluid mechanics (including fluid statics and fluid dynamics)
    • Mechanism and Machine design (including kinematics and dynamics)
    • Instrumentation and measurement
    • Manufacturing engineering, technology, or processes
    • Vibration, control theory and control engineering
    • Hydraulics and Pneumatics
    • Mechatronics and robotics
    • Engineering design and product design
    • Drafting, computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)[35][36]

    Mechanical engineers are also expected to understand and be able to apply basic concepts from chemistry, physics, tribology, chemical engineering, civil engineering, and electrical engineering. All mechanical engineering programs include multiple semesters of mathematical classes including calculus, and advanced mathematical concepts including differential equations, partial differential equations, linear algebra, abstract algebra, and differential geometry, among others.

    In addition to the core mechanical engineering curriculum, many mechanical engineering programs offer more specialized programs and classes, such as control systems, robotics, transport and logistics, cryogenics, fuel technology, automotive engineering, biomechanics, vibration, optics and others, if a separate department does not exist for these subjects.[37]

    Most mechanical engineering programs also require varying amounts of research or community projects to gain practical problem-solving experience. In the United States it is common for mechanical engineering students to complete one or more internships while studying, though this is not typically mandated by the university. Cooperative education is another option. Future work skills[38] research puts demand on study components that feed student's creativity and innovation.[39]

    Job duties[edit]

    Mechanical engineers research, design, develop, build, and test mechanical and thermal devices, including tools, engines, and machines.

    Mechanical engineers typically do the following:

    • Analyze problems to see how mechanical and thermal devices might help solve the problem.
    • Design or redesign mechanical and thermal devices using analysis and computer-aided design.
    • Develop and test prototypes of devices they design.
    • Analyze the test results and change the design as needed.
    • Oversee the manufacturing process for the device.
    • Manage a team of professionals in specialized fields like mechanical drafting and designing, prototyping, 3D printing or/and CNC Machines specialists.

    Mechanical engineers design and oversee the manufacturing of many products ranging from medical devices to new batteries. They also design power-producing machines such as electric generators, internal combustion engines, and steam and gas turbines as well as power-using machines, such as refrigeration and air-conditioning systems.

    Like other engineers, mechanical engineers use computers to help create and analyze designs, run simulations and test how a machine is likely to work.

    License and regulation[edit]

    Engineers may seek license by a state, provincial, or national government. The purpose of this process is to ensure that engineers possess the necessary technical knowledge, real-world experience, and knowledge of the local legal system to practice engineering at a professional level. Once certified, the engineer is given the title of Professional Engineer (United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Bangladesh and South Africa), Chartered Engineer (in the United Kingdom, Ireland, India and Zimbabwe), Chartered Professional Engineer (in Australia and New Zealand) or European Engineer (much of the European Union).

    In the U.S., to become a licensed Professional Engineer (PE), an engineer must pass the comprehensive FE (Fundamentals of Engineering) exam, work a minimum of 4 years as an Engineering Intern (EI) or Engineer-in-Training (EIT), and pass the "Principles and Practice" or PE (Practicing Engineer or Professional Engineer) exams. The requirements and steps of this process are set forth by the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES), a composed of engineering and land surveying licensing boards representing all U.S. states and territories.

    In the UK, current graduates require a BEng plus an appropriate master's degree or an integrated MEng degree, a minimum of 4 years post graduate on the job competency development and a peer reviewed project report to become a Chartered Mechanical Engineer (CEng, MIMechE) through the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. CEng MIMechE can also be obtained via an examination route administered by the City and Guilds of London Institute.[40]

    In most developed countries, certain engineering tasks, such as the design of bridges, electric power plants, and chemical plants, must be approved by a professional engineer or a chartered engineer. "Only a licensed engineer, for instance, may prepare, sign, seal and submit engineering plans and drawings to a public authority for approval, or to seal engineering work for public and private clients."[41] This requirement can be written into state and provincial legislation, such as in the Canadian provinces, for example the Ontario or Quebec's Engineer Act.[42]

    In other countries, such as Australia, and the UK, no such legislation exists; however, practically all certifying bodies maintain a code of ethics independent of legislation, that they expect all members to abide by or risk expulsion.[43]

    Further information: FE Exam, Professional Engineer, Incorporated Engineer, Washington Accord, and Regulation and licensure in engineering

    Salaries and workforce statistics[edit]

    The total number of engineers employed in the U.S. in 2015 was roughly 1.6 million. Of these, 278,340 were mechanical engineers (17.28%), the largest discipline by size.[44] In 2012, the median annual income of mechanical engineers in the U.S. workforce was $80,580. The median income was highest when working for the government ($92,030), and lowest in education ($57,090).[45] In 2014, the total number of mechanical engineering jobs was projected to grow 5% over the next decade.[46] As of 2009, the average starting salary was $58,800 with a bachelor's degree.[47]

    Subdisciplines[edit]

    The field of mechanical engineering can be thought of as a collection of many mechanical engineering science disciplines. Several of these subdisciplines which are typically taught at the undergraduate level are listed below, with a brief explanation and the most common application of each. Some of these subdisciplines are unique to mechanical engineering, while others are a combination of mechanical engineering and one or more other disciplines. Most work that a mechanical engineer does uses skills and techniques from several of these subdisciplines, as well as specialized subdisciplines. Specialized subdisciplines, as used in this article, are more likely to be the subject of graduate studies or on-the-job training than undergraduate research. Several specialized subdisciplines are discussed in this section.

    Mechanics[edit]

    Main article: Mechanics

    Mechanics is, in the most general sense, the study of forces and their effect upon matter. Typically, engineering mechanics is used to analyze and predict the acceleration and deformation (both elastic and plastic) of objects under known forces (also called loads) or stresses. Subdisciplines of mechanics include

    • Statics, the study of non-moving bodies under known loads, how forces affect static bodies
    • Dynamics the study of how forces affect moving bodies. Dynamics includes kinematics (about movement, velocity, and acceleration) and kinetics (about forces and resulting accelerations).
    • Mechanics of materials, the study of how different materials deform under various types of stress
    • Fluid mechanics, the study of how fluids react to forces[48]
    • Kinematics, the study of the motion of bodies (objects) and systems (groups of objects), while ignoring the forces that cause the motion. Kinematics is often used in the design and analysis of mechanisms.
    • Continuum mechanics, a method of applying mechanics that assumes that objects are continuous (rather than discrete)

    Mechanical engineers typically use mechanics in the design or analysis phases of engineering. If the engineering project were the design of a vehicle, statics might be employed to design the frame of the vehicle, in order to evaluate where the stresses will be most intense. Dynamics might be used when designing the car's engine, to evaluate the forces in the pistons and cams as the engine cycles. Mechanics of materials might be used to choose appropriate materials for the frame and engine. Fluid mechanics might be used to design a ventilation system for the vehicle (see HVAC), or to design the intake system for the engine.

    Mechatronics and robotics[edit]

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    Main articles: Mechatronics and Robotics

    Mechatronics is a combination of mechanics and electronics. It is an interdisciplinary branch of mechanical engineering, electrical engineering and software engineering that is concerned with integrating electrical and mechanical engineering to create hybrid automation systems. In this way, machines can be automated through the use of electric motors, servo-mechanisms, and other electrical systems in conjunction with special software. A common example of a mechatronics system is a CD-ROM drive. Mechanical systems open and close the drive, spin the CD and move the laser, while an optical system reads the data on the CD and converts it to bits. Integrated software controls the process and communicates the contents of the CD to the computer.

    Robotics is the application of mechatronics to create robots, which are often used in industry to perform tasks that are dangerous, unpleasant, or repetitive. These robots may be of any shape and size, but all are preprogrammed and interact physically with the world. To create a robot, an engineer typically employs kinematics (to determine the robot's range of motion) and mechanics (to determine the stresses within the robot).

    Robots are used extensively in industrial automation engineering. They allow businesses to save money on labor, perform tasks that are either too dangerous or too precise for humans to perform them economically, and to ensure better quality. Many companies employ assembly lines of robots, especially in Automotive Industries and some factories are so robotized that they can run by themselves. Outside the factory, robots have been employed in bomb disposal, space exploration, and many other fields. Robots are also sold for various residential applications, from recreation to domestic applications.[49]

    Structural analysis[edit]

    Main articles: Structural analysis and Failure analysis

    Structural analysis is the branch of mechanical engineering (and also civil engineering) devoted to examining why and how objects fail and to fix the objects and their performance. Structural failures occur in two general modes: static failure, and fatigue failure. Static structural failure occurs when, upon being loaded (having a force applied) the object being analyzed either breaks or is deformed plastically, depending on the criterion for failure. Fatigue failure occurs when an object fails after a number of repeated loading and unloading camtasia studio 9 blogspot - Crack Key For U. Fatigue failure occurs because of imperfections in the object: a microscopic crack on the surface of the object, for instance, will grow slightly with each cycle (propagation) until the crack is large enough to cause ultimate failure.[50]

    Failure is not simply defined as when a part breaks, however; it is defined as when a part does not operate as intended. Some systems, such as the perforated top sections of some plastic bags, are designed to break. If these systems do not break, failure analysis might be employed to determine the cause.

    Structural analysis is often used by mechanical engineers after a failure has occurred, or when designing to prevent failure. Engineers often use online documents and books such as those published by ASM[51] to aid them in determining the type of failure and possible causes.

    Once theory is applied to a mechanical design, physical testing is often performed to verify calculated results. Structural analysis may be used in an office when designing parts, in the field to analyze failed parts, or in laboratories where parts might undergo controlled failure tests.

    Thermodynamics and thermo-science[edit]

    Main article: Thermodynamics

    Thermodynamics is an applied science used in several branches of engineering, including mechanical and chemical engineering. At its simplest, thermodynamics is the study of energy, its use and transformation through a system.[52] Typically, engineering thermodynamics is concerned with changing energy from one form to another. As an example, automotive engines convert chemical energy (enthalpy) from the fuel into heat, and then into mechanical work that eventually turns the wheels.

    Thermodynamics principles are used by mechanical engineers in the fields of heat transfer, thermofluids, and energy conversion. Mechanical engineers use thermo-science to design engines and power plants, heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems, heat exchangers, heat sinks, radiators, refrigeration, insulation, and others.[53]

    Design and drafting[edit]

    Main articles: Technical drawing and CNC

    Drafting or technical drawing is the means by which mechanical engineers design products and create instructions for manufacturing parts. A technical drawing can be a computer model or hand-drawn schematic showing all the dimensions necessary to manufacture a part, as well as assembly notes, a list of required materials, and other pertinent information.[54] A U.S. mechanical engineer or skilled worker who creates technical drawings may be referred to as a drafter or draftsman. Drafting has historically been a two-dimensional process, but computer-aided design (CAD) programs now allow the designer to create in three dimensions.

    Instructions for manufacturing a part must be fed to the necessary machinery, either manually, through programmed instructions, or through the use of a computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) or combined CAD/CAM program. Optionally, an engineer may also manually manufacture a part using the technical drawings. However, with the advent of computer numerically controlled (CNC) manufacturing, parts can now be fabricated without the need for constant technician input. Manually manufactured parts generally consist of spray coatings, surface finishes, and other processes that cannot economically or practically be done by a machine.

    Drafting is used in nearly every subdiscipline of mechanical engineering, and by many other branches of engineering and architecture. Three-dimensional models created using CAD software are also commonly used in finite element analysis (FEA) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

    Modern tools[edit]

    An oblique view of a four-cylinder inline crankshaft with pistons

    Many mechanical engineering companies, especially those in industrialized nations, have begun to incorporate computer-aided engineering (CAE) programs into their existing design and analysis processes, including 2D and 3D solid modelingcomputer-aided design (CAD). This method has many benefits, including easier and more exhaustive visualization of products, the ability to create virtual assemblies of parts, and debut video capture code 2019 - Free Activators ease of use in designing mating interfaces and tolerances.

    Other CAE programs commonly used by mechanical engineers include product lifecycle management (PLM) tools and analysis tools used to perform complex simulations. Analysis tools may be used to predict product response to expected loads, including fatigue life and manufacturability. These tools include finite element analysis (FEA), computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM).

    Using CAE programs, a mechanical design team can quickly and cheaply iterate the design process to develop a product that better meets cost, performance, and other constraints. No physical prototype need be created until the design nears completion, allowing hundreds or thousands of designs to be evaluated, instead of a relative few. In addition, CAE analysis programs can model photo mechanic student discount - Crack Key For U physical phenomena which cannot be solved by hand, such as viscoelasticity, complex contact between mating parts, or non-Newtonian flows.

    As mechanical engineering begins to merge with other disciplines, as seen in mechatronics, multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is being used with other CAE programs to automate and improve the iterative design process. MDO tools wrap around existing CAE processes, allowing product evaluation to continue even after the analyst goes home for the day. They also utilize sophisticated optimization algorithms to more intelligently explore possible designs, often finding better, innovative solutions to difficult multidisciplinary design problems.

    Areas of research[edit]

    Mechanical engineers are constantly pushing the boundaries of what is physically possible in order to produce safer, cheaper, and more efficient machines and mechanical systems. Some technologies at the cutting edge of mechanical engineering are listed below (see also exploratory engineering).

    Micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)[edit]

    Micron-scale mechanical components such as springs, gears, fluidic and heat transfer devices are fabricated from a variety of substrate materials such as silicon, glass and polymers like SU8. Examples of MEMS components are the accelerometers that are used as car airbag sensors, modern cell phones, gyroscopes for precise positioning and microfluidic devices used in biomedical applications.

    Friction stir welding (FSW)[edit]

    Main article: Friction stir welding

    Friction stir welding, a new type of welding, was discovered in 1991 by The Welding Institute (TWI). The innovative steady state (non-fusion) welding technique joins materials previously un-weldable, including several aluminumalloys. It plays an important role in the future construction of airplanes, potentially replacing rivets. Current uses of this technology to date include welding the seams of the aluminum main Space Shuttle external tank, Orion Crew Vehicle, Boeing Delta II and Delta IV Expendable Launch Vehicles and the SpaceX Falcon 1 rocket, armor plating for amphibious assault ships, and welding the wings and fuselage panels of the new Eclipse 500 aircraft from Eclipse Aviation among an increasingly growing pool of uses.[55][56][57]

    Composites[edit]

    Composite cloth consisting of woven carbon fiber

    Main article: Composite material

    Composites or composite materials are a combination of materials which provide different physical characteristics than either material separately. Composite material research within mechanical engineering typically focuses on designing (and, subsequently, finding applications for) stronger or more rigid materials while attempting to reduce weight, susceptibility to corrosion, and other undesirable factors. Carbon fiber reinforced composites, for instance, have been used in such diverse applications as spacecraft and fishing rods.

    Mechatronics[edit]

    Mechatronics is the synergistic combination of mechanical engineering, electronic engineering, and software engineering. The discipline of mechatronics began as a way to combine mechanical principles with electrical engineering. Mechatronic concepts are used in the majority of electro-mechanical systems.[58] Typical electro-mechanical sensors used in mechatronics are strain gauges, thermocouples, and pressure transducers.

    Nanotechnology[edit]

    Main article: Nanotechnology

    At the smallest scales, mechanical engineering becomes nanotechnology—one speculative goal of which is to create a molecular assembler to build molecules and materials via mechanosynthesis. For now that goal remains within exploratory engineering. Areas of current mechanical engineering research in nanotechnology include nanofilters,[59] nanofilms,[60] and nanostructures,[61] among others.

    See also: Picotechnology

    Finite element analysis[edit]

    Main article: Finite element analysis

    Finite Element Analysis is a computational tool used to estimate stress, strain, and deflection of solid bodies. It uses a mesh setup with user-defined sizes to measure physical quantities at a node. The more nodes there are, the higher the precision.[62] This field is not new, as the basis of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) or Finite Element Method (FEM) dates back to 1941. But the evolution of computers has made FEA/FEM a viable option for analysis of structural problems. Many commercial codes such as NASTRAN, ANSYS, and ABAQUS are widely used in industry for research and the design of components. Some 3D modeling and CAD software packages have added FEA modules. In the recent times, cloud simulation platforms like SimScale are becoming more common.

    Other techniques such as finite difference method (FDM) and finite-volume method (FVM) are employed to solve problems relating heat and mass transfer, fluid flows, fluid surface interaction, etc.

    Biomechanics[edit]

    Main article: Biomechanics

    Biomechanics is the application of mechanical principles to biological systems, such as humans, animals, plants, organs, and cells.[63] Biomechanics also aids in creating prosthetic limbs and artificial organs for imagenomic portraiture v2 3 keygen. Biomechanics is closely related to engineering, because it often uses traditional engineering sciences to analyze biological systems. Some simple applications of Newtonian mechanics and/or materials sciences can supply correct approximations to the mechanics of many biological systems.

    In the past decade, reverse engineering of materials found in nature such as bone matter has gained funding in academia. The structure of bone matter is optimized for its purpose of bearing a large amount of compressive stress per unit weight.[64] The goal is to replace crude steel with bio-material for structural design.

    Over the past decade the Finite element method (FEM) has also entered the Biomedical sector highlighting further engineering aspects of Biomechanics. FEM has since then established itself as an alternative to in vivo surgical assessment and gained the wide acceptance of academia. The main advantage of Computational Biomechanics lies in its ability to determine the endo-anatomical response of an anatomy, without being subject to ethical restrictions.[65] This has led FE modelling to the point of becoming ubiquitous in several fields of Biomechanics while several projects have even adopted an open source philosophy (e.g. BioSpine).

    Computational fluid dynamics[edit]

    Main article: Computational fluid dynamics

    Computational fluid dynamics, usually abbreviated as CFD, is a branch of fluid mechanics that uses numerical methods and algorithms to solve and analyze problems that involve fluid flows. Computers are used to perform the calculations required to simulate the interaction of liquids and gases with surfaces defined by boundary conditions.[66] With high-speed supercomputers, better solutions can be achieved. Ongoing research yields software that improves the accuracy and speed of complex simulation scenarios such as turbulent flows. Initial validation of such software is performed using a wind tunnel with the final validation coming in full-scale testing, e.g. flight tests.

    Acoustical engineering[edit]

    Main article: Acoustical engineering

    Acoustical engineering is one of many other sub-disciplines of mechanical engineering and is the application of acoustics. Acoustical engineering is the study of Sound and Vibration. These engineers work effectively to reduce noise pollution in mechanical devices and in buildings by soundproofing or removing sources of unwanted noise. The study of acoustics can range from designing a more efficient hearing aid, microphone, headphone, or recording studio to enhancing the sound quality of an orchestra hall. Acoustical engineering also deals with the vibration of different mechanical systems.[67]

    Related fields[edit]

    Manufacturing engineering, aerospace engineering and automotive engineering are grouped with mechanical engineering at times. A bachelor's degree in these areas will typically have a difference of a few specialized classes.

    See also[edit]

    Lists
    Associations
    Wikibooks

    References[edit]

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    9. ^G. Mokhtar (1 January 1981). Ancient civilizations of Africa. Unesco. International Scientific Committee for the Drafting of a General History of Africa. p. 309. ISBN . Retrieved 19 June 2012 – via Books.google.com.
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    12. ^Collins, Robert O.; Burns, James M. (8 February 2007). A History of Sub-Saharan Africa. Cambridge University Press. ISBN  – via Google Books.
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    14. ^Humphris J, Charlton MF, Keen J, Sauder L, Alshishani F (June 2018). "Iron Smelting in Sudan: Experimental Archaeology at The Royal City of Meroe". Journal of Field Archaeology. 43 (5): 399–416. doi:10.1080/00934690.2018.1479085.
    15. ^Depuydt, Leo (1 January 1998). "Gnomons at Meroë and Early Trigonometry". The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. 84: 171–180. doi:10.2307/3822211. JSTOR 3822211.
    16. ^Slayman, Andrew (27 May 1998). "Neolithic Skywatchers". Archaeology Magazine Archive. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 17 April 2011.
    17. ^Selin, Helaine (2013). Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Westen Cultures. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 282. ISBN .
    18. ^"Heron of Alexandria". Encyclopædia Britannica 2010 - Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Accessed: 9 May 2010.
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    20. ^Al-Jazarí. The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices: Kitáb fí ma'rifat al-hiyal al-handasiyya. Springer, 1973. ISBN 90-277-0329-9.
    21. ^Marconell, M. H. (1996). Christiaan Huygens: a foreign inventor in the Court of Louis XIV, his role as a forerunner of mechanical engineering (Ph.D. thesis). The Open University.
    22. ^Yoder, J. G. (1996). "Following in the footsteps of geometry: The mathematical world of Christiaan Huygens". DBNL. Retrieved 30 August 2021.
    23. ^Sayeed, Ahmed (24 September 2019). You Could Be the Winner (Volume - II). Sankalp Publication. ISBN .
    24. ^Engineering – Encyclopædia Britannica, accessed 6 May 2008
    25. ^R.A. Buchanan. The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 38, No. 1 (Feb. 1985), pp. 42–60.
    26. ^ASME historyArchived 23 February 2011 at Wikiwix, accessed 6 May 2008.
    27. ^The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001, engineering, accessed 6 May 2008
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    30. ^Accredited engineering programs in Canada by the Canadian Council of Professional EngineersArchived 10 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Accessed 18 April 2007.
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    48. ^Note: fluid mechanics can be further split into fluid statics and fluid dynamics, and is itself a subdiscipline of continuum mechanics. The application of fluid mechanics in engineering is called hydraulics and pneumatics.
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    59. ^Nilsen, Kyle. (2011) "Development of Low Pressure Filter Testing Vessel and Analysis of Electrospun Nanofiber Membranes for Water Treatment"
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    66. ^"What is CFD

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