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Using the CELL FRACTURE Add-On for Blender - Step by Step Tutorial! RGB channels toggle to sequencer preview (r)
  • Fix sequencer crash when pasteing strips after creating new file (r)
  • Composite/Nodes
  • Fix # Inputs list in file output doesn't appear properly. (r)
  • Fix # Crash when using image output node (r)
  • Fix # "Record Composite" image op segfaults in compositor code (r)
  • Fix # Inconsistent behavior of "Color Mix Node" and "Alpha Over Node" (r)
  • Fix # Adding reroute node into invalid links would crash the compositor (r)
  • MovieClip/Tracking
  • Fix memory leak when loading multilayer EXR as movie clip (r)
  • Fix for incorrect subpixel precision of marker when using track offset (r)
  • Render
  • Fix # Displacement map Bake margin does not work (r)
  • Fix # Node editor delete texture crash (r)
  • Fix # Image Sequence texture didn't allow "Offset" with fcurves. (r)
  • Fix # Weird noise bug with Texture nodes (r)
  • Fix for texture preview render with show alpha enabled (r)
  • Fix image transparency backwards compatibility. Now the texture datablock has a 'Use Alpha' option again. (r)
  • Render (Cycles)
  • Fix # viewport render stuck with no objects in the scene. (r)
  • Fix # hair render in dupligroup did hide the emitter properly in some cases. (r)
  • Modifiers
  • Fix # Shrinkwrap modifier project along normal did not work correctly (r)
  • Fix # applying screw modifier turns object to black (r)
  • Tools
  • Fix # Border select in UV Image window crashed (r)
  • Fix for weight paint using values over when blending (r)
  • Fix for regression in 'shopzoro.us_key_transfer' operator since BMesh merge (r)
  • Fix # Edge slide results in segmentation fault on certain mesh (r)
  • Fix # Origin to Center of Mass is missing in menu Object > Transform (r)
  • Fix selecting linked faces (r r)
  • Fix # shopzoro.us_mode operator could not be configure the use_extend and use_expand properly. (r)
  • fix # Selection of bones in armature edit mode only toggles between two bones (r)
  • Fix # Copy/Paste objects hangs (r)
  • Fix (regression) # Solidify crease error (r)
  • Fix missing select menu for weight, vertex, texture paint modes. (r)
  • Fix joining meshes could loose crease/bevel weights (r)
  • Fix (regression) # Edge toggline bevel failed (r)
  • Sculpt
  • Fix # Collapse-Edges crash in dyntopo (r)
  • Fix # Crash when dyntopo enabled and using view plane mode (r)
  • Fix # Blender Crashes on toggling modes, dynatopo sculpt/object mode. (r)
  • Game Engine
  • Fix projection clipping (r)
  • Fix # Character walkDirection ADD mode -#INF error. (r)
  • Fix # Enable alpha buffer (useful for TV broadcasting). (r)
  • Fix # Ray cast on Triangle mesh bounded Rigid Body Object crashes (r)
  • Fix # Webcam support under Linux in Standalone broken (r)
  • Fix # Action Actuator "caching" the previous ran actions (r r r)
  • Fix error using actions with multiple scenes (r)
  • Fix object color channels can now be animated separately without zeroing out the other channels (r)
  • Fix error using uninitialized variables for rendering (r r)
  • Fix # Game-Engine - Multi UV mesh's materials not backwards compatible (r)
  • Fix Game-Engine crashing when on material conversions (r)
  • Fix # Motion blur (2d filter) not working in osx (r)
  • Fix # # # converting multi-uv layers. (r)
  • Fix # 2D-Filter produces render error (r)
  • Fix # 2D-Filter causes mouselook script drifting effect (r)
  • Rigid Body
  • Fix motion paths calculation being incorrect for rigid bodies (r)
  • Allow rigidbody collision groups to be animated (r)
  • Fix # Planes with Rigid Body always keep distance to colliding objects (r)
  • Fix # Rigid objects not resetting original properly after running a simulation. (r)
  • Fix inconsistency with world rebuilding with the start frame (r)
  • Text Editor
  • Fix Fix text editor bug: ctrl+F is not configurable (r)
  • Fix # freeze when turning on syntax highlight (r)
  • Fix crash when overwriting ascii character with multibyte character (r)
  • Python
  • Fix Python console bug: "autocomplete" doesn't advance cursor properly when completion includes UTF8 characters (r)
  • Fix # foreach_get crash for any non existant attribute (r r)
  • Fix # shopzoro.ush_set not working with normals (r)
  • Fix for python exception getting the ID from an operator button (r)
  • Other
  • Fix freeing all bakes in particle mode (r)
  • Fix file with packed images crashes on load (r)
  • Fix image alpha version patch with library linked files (r)
  • Fix # Collada export crash with armature (r)
  • Fix X3D import error loading UV's (r)
  • Fix X3D import for images (r)
  • Rigify fixes (r r r)

  • Changes for v - va

    • Fix # cycles environment texture not showing image sequence options properly. (r)
    • Fix # Fluid Simulations Speed factor animated wrong result (r)
    • Fix # IK solver stretch was less stable after a code refactor (r)
    • Fix # cycles OSL now autodetects the presence of emission and transparent closures to enable multiple importance sampling and transparent shadows. (r)
    • Fix # cycles CPU image textures were offset wrong by half a pixel compared to OpenGL/CUDA/OSL rendering. (r)
    • Fix # Right click on 'confirm reload' crashes (r)
    • Fix # Scaling normals with Alt (maintains shell thickness) producing wrong result. (r)
    • Fix related to # blender-internal volume rendering, the camera inside volume wasn't accurate (r)
    • Fix # when transforming, tapping shift twice and holding did not enable precision mode. (r)
    • Fix # rotate around selection doesn't work when .blend saved in sculpt mode (r)
    • Fix # Mask points are add offset for the mouse when adding on viewer node with aspect != 1 (r)
    • Fix # Bezier Curve Tilt in transform panel does not work beyond degrees (r)
    • Fix # Blender Crash when selecting "Point select mode" in Particle Mode with and 0 hairs object (r)
    • Fix # vertex paint subtract mode was broken, always resulting in black. (r)
    • Fix # Shift+Numpad 2/4/8 shortcuts for zoom in image and clip editor don't work in Windows, Use Ctrl+Numpad (r)
    • Fix # GPU mipmap generation is not working on some ATI cards (r)
    • Fix # Bevel wire edges would crash (r)
    • Fix # Dynamic Paint modifier surfaces not copied (r)
    • Fix # Knife cut-through code to connect across a face didn't stop after it found one. (r)
    • Fix # End Caps on a curve array with subsurf crashes blender when entering Edit Mode (r)
    • Fix # Building proxies will remove strip animation (r)
    • Fix/Workaround # Checker de-select by default gives uneven selection on a circle (r)
    • Fix # Vertex colors added to meshes with no faces whenver exiting/entering editmode (r)
    • Fix # The Screw Tool in Edit Mode isn't calculating the correct angle step divisions per turn (r)
    • Fix # Motion blur with shutter time > 1 did result in the correct evaluation of some modifiers because it set the subframe to values > 1.
    • Add subframe support for shape keys.
    • Point density texture was using an current frame value that was never set. (r)
    • Fix # Game-Engine did not convert objects with rotation modes other than Euler XYZ correctly (r)
    • Fix # Manipulator showing incorrect local axes in armature pose mode. (r)
    • Fix # Masking keyframes disappear from dope sheet when using undo. (r)
    • Unreported Fixes Fix Game-Player still not using fast GPU mipmap generation (r)
    • Fix issue where image stamp data's strings could be short enough not to fit the entire ID name length. (r)
    • Fix Moving panels in a buttons-region around was calling menu code reading NULL pointer (r)
    • Fix for default startup file having compositor background scale set very small (r)
    • Fix timer events getting handled, after stopping a timer. (r)
    • Fixes for ctrl+click on panel header (r)
    • Fix part of # Cloth pre-roll had a wrong tooltip and low limit of frames. (r)
    • Fix for pose-bones and edit-bones ignoring active element pivot mode (r)
    • Fix (OSX) makeKeyAndOrderFront would show window from orderedWindows list on every loop, so use makeKeyWindow only to avoid flicker when closing app (r)
    • Fix for bevel using the wrong property name when shift was held (r)
    • Fix square color picker drawing the 'cursor' incorrectly (r)
    • Other Changes 3D View: Add back a key to access view-cursor (Alt+Home) (r)
    • Cycles: make "Open Shading Language" a boolean toggle, the other option "GPU Compatible" was confusing. (r)

    Changes for va - v

    • The Blender Foundation and online developer community is proud to present Blender We focused on making this the most stable release in the cycle yet, fixing over bugs.
    • Fire simulation was added along with many improvements in smoke simulation. In Cycles, motion blur, open shading language and anisotropic shading support was added. For mesh modeling, the bevel tool was blender cell fracture crack it - Crack Key For U improved, a new symmetrize mesh tool was added, and new Laplacian smooth, decimate, and triangulate modifiers are available.
    • release: December 10th,
    • Fire and Smoke
    • Fire simulation was added to the Smoke Simulator. The domain received major updates to improve performance and usability. Smoke can be emitted from mesh surfaces, without the need for a particle system. A smoke flow force field was added to improve interaction with other simulations. Colored smoke simulation and mixing is possible and the interaction of smoke with collision objects has been improved.
    • Mesh Modeling
    • The bevel tool now includes rounding and was otherwise much improved, preserving the requested bevel width more evenly and generating better topology. A new symmetrize tool was added to make mesh topology and data symmetric.
    • More Features
    • New features include: a tool transfer vertex weights from one mesh to another, antialiased viewport drawing, connected proportional editing in UV editor, improved DPX file read and write, more control over curve taper, collision masks in the game engine and improved camera title safe drawing.
    • Bug fixes
    • In addition to the new features, over bugs that existed in previous releases have been fixed.
    • Cycles Render
    • Support for writing custom shaders in the Open Shading Language is now available. Motion blur rendering was also added, to make moving objects and cameras appear blurry. There is also an anisotropic shading node, and BSDF nodes can now have different normals, which can be set using the new bump and normal map nodes.
    • Modifiers
    • The decimator was rewritten, and now preserves UV's and vertex colors, has an un-subdivide and a mode to dissolve vertices to create planar n-gons. A new laplacian smooth modifier can reduce noise or smooth the mesh while preserving edges and volume. A triangulate modifier was also added, which can be useful for creating game assets with baked normal maps.
    • Addons
    • UV texture to vertex color baking was added, the PDB atomic visualization addon was improved, and film response curves were added for the RGB Curves node in the compositor.

    Changes for v - v

    • This release was focused on integrating and stabilizing the long awaited BMesh modelling system, which has full support for N-sided polygons and many new modelling tools. New tools include Dissolve, Inset, Bridge, Vertex Slide, Vertex Connect, Bevel, and improved versions of Knife, Subdivide and Rip.

    Changes for v - v

    • The Blender Foundation and online developer community is proud to present Blender The x series is being targeted at including all work that happened in branches or patches past years.
    • The Cycles render engine now has layers/passes, you can track objects inside videos now, have much better and faster boolean intersections and use great new UV Tools.

    Changes for va - v


    Changes for va - v RC 1

    • Motion tracking
    • Cycles Render Engine
    • Dynamic Paint
    • Ocean Simulation
    • Adobe After Effect add-on
    • bugfixes!

    Changes for v - va

    • 3D window: Armature-bones with wire draw type were not displaying in solid view mode - r
    • 3D window header: After collapsing the pull-down menus, no icon available to make them show again. - r
    • Dopesheet: Fixed crash when moving keys in editor - r
    • Audio export: export was being miscalculated - r
    • Game Engine: Action actuator breaks animation. IPO options can be set too frequently - r
    • 3D Window: missing updates when changing smoke flow settings - r
    • Node editor: missing updates when assigning/removing Materials on Objects - r
    • Adding a new pose to the Pose Library crashed - r
    • Fix for un-handled exception in audio library - r
    • Incorrect keying set names 'Scale' vs 'Scaling', where 'Scale' was hard coded in auto keyframe when 'Only Insert Needed' - r
    • Python: RNA/API, getting would crash - r
    • Addons / Exporter: Quake MAP export gives an error for UV textured geometry - r

    Changes for va - v

    • Prominent features (the cool stuff)
    • 3D Mouse support "NDOF"
    • Blender is now built with support for 3D Connexion devices, for more natural control during view navigation and fly mode - r
    • Custom Keymaps
    • User edited keymaps now no longer override the builtin keymaps entirely, but rather save only the difference and reapply those changes. This means they can stay better in sync when the builtin keymaps change.
    • Keymaps in blender are now separated so Addons can properly define their own keymaps without them conflicting with user keymaps
    • See commit log for details - r
    • Ivy Generator (Addon)
    • This tools adds the ability to "grow" curves over an existing mesh with the option of adding leaves and adjusting many parameters for the final result - r
    • See:
    • Sapling (Addon)
    • This tree generator creates completely parametrically generated trees from curves - r
    • See:
    • Grease Scatter (Addon)
    • Grease scatter was used for sintel to place objects around the ally, using grease pencil lines as a guide as to where to scatter objects - r
    • Node editor enhancements
    • Several enhancements are done related to the node editor/compositor.
    • Material passes: Materials have pass-index. This pass-index can be used in the compositor to create mattes. It works the same as object passes.
    • Node insert: Nodes that have no connections can be inserted on a noodle. Just move the node over the noodle and release when the noodle turns orange.
    • Delete with reconnect: It is possible to delete a node that is connected in the tree, without loosing the connections. The node is deleted, but the links are reconnected as if the node were muted. Select a node and press CTRL-X.
    • Noodle curves: Some users like straight noodles, other like curved, in the user preferences the level of the curvation can be changed.
    • Node properties: The UI of the side panel and on the node can now be different. See the Color balance node in the side panel.
    • Additions
    • Material passes (like object passes), (See commit log for details) - r
    • New option for multires modifier: Subdivide UVs - r
    • Improved bleed option when baking for seamless edges on UV bounds - r
    • Node: Add delete with reconnect feature - r
    • Node: Curvature is now a setting - r
    • Node: On dragging a non-connected node on a noodle, it will insert it - r
    • UV Straighten tool - r
    • Object Align: high quality option for perfect alighment - r
    • Python API:
    • shopzoro.ust_point_on_mesh() function - r
    • shopzoro.usme because "//" prefix breaks shopzoro.usme - r
    • shopzoro.us_squared to use instead of - r
    • Fixes
    • Tools/Editors:
    • fix # 3D manipulator widget lost on mesh in edge mode - r
    • fix # Relax Pose crashes blender on bone with ChildOf constraint in linked rig - r
    • fix # object actions did not get duplicated on full scene copy - r
    • fix # autokey bones with individual origins transform not working - r
    • fix # IK stretch gives inaccurate results. Tweaked translation segment convergence weight a bit to match angles better at typical scales - r
    • fix # Curve handle snaps/locks when it shouldn't - r
    • fix # Unable to delete vgroup - r
    • fix # Border select tool fails to select nodes in Node Editor using tweak mode - r
    • fix # PET: Shift-O cycling skips "random falloff" - r
    • fix # UV propertional editing was incorrectly influenced by the mesh X mirror option - r
    • fix # Unchecking 'self project' messes up 'Snap to Vertex' - r
    • fix # Select Pattern don't select all the bone in edit mode & some style changes - r
    • fix # custom RNA properties fail to update drivers - r
    • fix # Diffuse reflection IPO curve not imported correctly from b files - r
    • fix # make single user copy of object data doesn't work - r
    • fix # Unwrap Menu (U) -> Lightmap Pack throws Python Exception - r
    • fix # Undoing Grease pencil removes last 2 strokes - r
    • fix # textboxes properties not animatable - r
    • fix for crash undoing grease pencil session - r
    • allow bone transforms again for proxy'ed bones - r
    • corrected View Selected operator for image editor so now it works fine for images with different X and Y aspect ratio - r
    • Object Align now correctly computes a global bounding box for all objects - r
    • Sculpt/Painting:
    • fix # Custom gradient for weight painting in mask mode not working properly - r
    • fix # Vertex paint crash - r
    • fix # Texture (paint) bleeding on edges - r
    • fix # Linked Library objects or object->data should not allow to go to sculptmode - r
    • Modifiers:
    • fix # UV 'Project from view' ignores camera lens shift - r
    • fix # bevel angle limit at 90deg wasn't working well on cube - r
    • fix # optimal display with 2 subsurf modifiers fails - r
    • fix # many modifiers crashed when used on a lattice with a vertex group - r
    • fix part of # crash trying to apply subsurf modifier as shape key - r
    • fix part of # absolute shape keys should not show influence value in list - r
    • fix: uv project panorama mode was scaled 2x too high - r
    • fix: uv project scaled camera objects would incorrectly effect the result - r
    • Physics:
    • fix # Particle x-axis mirror editing not working as expected - r
    • fix # Particle cache problem with multiple systems - r
    • fix # particle/collision kill interacting strangely - r
    • fix # crash on enabling high resolution smoke - r
    • fix # particles instancing a whole group didn't take group offset into account - r
    • fix # softbody collision doesn't respect subsurf+displace modifiers - r
    • fix # Blender hangs when baking a particle system when microsoft office 2019 mac - Crack Key For U driver is present - r
    • fix # Animated displacement modifier on an object doesn't work with hair particle objects - r
    • fix # Hair: Render Option - Object does not point objects to end of "hair path" - r
    • fix # Group Instance of particle system is rendered wrong - r
    • fix # Particle systems with animated groups render incorrectly in viewport - r
    • fix # Particle group instance 'Use Count' value gets reset on file-load - r
    • fix # Blender crashes when loading a new scene while baking fluid dynamics - r
    • fix: particle cache should only be cleared on the exact first integer frame, not in the case of a subframe between the first and second frame - r
    • fix: Effector calculations were not thread safe - r
    • fix: loading a file that had particles using a dupligroup from a liblinked file without the library file being present crashed - r
    • Display/Viewport:
    • fix # OpenGL render animation don't respect .png RGB option - r
    • fix # bones drawn blue in file, was still checking stride bone, flag for drawing even though that feature is no longer in - r
    • fix # bone envelope head/tail radius not dynamically updated in viewport - r
    • fix # mesh with negative scale disappears while sculpting, clipping planes were wrong in that case - r
    • fix # Camera missing orange selection lines
    • fix # Motion Paths shown in 3DView even when Only Render option is enabled - r
    • fix part of # color managment discrepancy in GLSL materials with nodes - r
    • Sequencer (Video Editor):
    • fix # time extend / E key not work in sequence editor - r
    • fix # sequencer strip hard cut looses soft trim on second strip - r
    • fix # sequencer separate images operator lost strip properties like blend mode, opacity, etc - r
    • fix # sequencer didn't draw overlapping strips well, selected were drawn under unselected, and active strips red border color for active strips was not clear enough - r
    • fix # Sequence Swap Data Operator does not work - r
    • fix # Pressing Y on an image sequence to seperate the images takes them out of their meta strips
    • fix: add strips not checking for overlap by default - r
    • Collada:
    • fix # Collada import doesn't handle UVW mapping - r
    • option to export only the selection - r
    • Rendering:
    • fix # vertex color disabled when in a reused node material - r
    • fix # nan pixels in render with degenerate faces - r
    • fix # Render artifacts in - r
    • fix # Deleting a material output of many causes no output
    • fix # Alpha transparency with Raytrace Mirror doesn't render - r
    • fix # baking ambient occlusion, do not consider closer object - r
    • fix # blender crashes when "mpeg" selected for animation rendering - r
    • fix for crash of multires baker when baking from sculpt mode - r
    • fix bug with multires baking to float buffers - r
    • Compositing:
    • fix # different texture nodes result after decompose/compose - r
    • fix: bokeh blur in the blur node is wronlgy calculated - r
    • Game Engine:
    • fix # blenderplayer showing a different viewport size in b - r
    • fix # Copy Game Property broken - r
    • fix # Custom projection matrix doesn't work in custom viewport - r
    • Python:
    • fix # converting curve spline type from python crashes - r
    • fix # using preset_paths() with an absolute path returns twice the same thing raise an error when an invalid subdir is passed to preset_paths() - r
    • fix # point density texture doesn't bake - r
    • fix # breaks mt->mat_nr - r
    • fix # assigning RNA arrays such as face UV's would fail in some cases - r
    • fix # error when enabling an addon newer then the blender version - r
    • fix for shopzoro.ush(), if a path was passed it would get the last directory cut off - r
    • fix for crash when setting layers or saving when there is no active scene - r
    • fix for scripts with python - r
    • fix for crash/assert on running dir() on a non collection property - r
    • supports slicing again - r
    • fix for crash with negative index access not being clamped - r
    • corrected matrix, vector multiplication order (was wrong!) - r
    • rna function calls with optional parameters were not giving correct default values for arrays - r
    • allow pose bone matrix to be set - r
    • Interface:
    • fix # file browser filter, sort. parameters were not saved. This is useful if you have a screen setup with a file browser editor - r
    • fix # activating a texture node inside material nodes did not show that texture in the texture properties - r
    • fix # Python Add-Ons are constantly reloaded if twice in the path - r
    • fix # Continuous Grab does not work for movement of the "Backdrop" in the Node Editor - r
    • fix # armature edit mode transform panel shows "nothing selected" even when something is selected - r
    • fix # Cannot restore Add-ons tab in user preferences after a failed attempt to install an add-on - r
    • fix # Imperial unit for inches inconsistently displayed as mils and thous - r
    • fix: icon scaling with the DPI setting - r
    • fix: python error in image sampling panel drawing when there is no texture slot available - r
    • fix: icon listview where the icons would only wrap once - r
    • include menu ID's in tooltips when python tips are enabled - r
    • System:
    • fix # keyboards with a comma instead of a dot on the numpad now get converted to a dot when typing into number buttons, for easier number entry - r
    • fix # weird mouse warping with continuous grab on OS X - r
    • fix # writing .avi files > 4 GB not working on windows - r
    • fix # Old issue with OSX Cocoa code: shift+scrollwheel should send a 'horizontal wheel' event to Blender - r
    • fix # Typing 'C:' into the file selector's directory asks to make a new directory - r
    • fix # Opening files in the text editor ignores the last newline '\n' - r
    • fix "Problem with clock" atthe overflow of the clock was causing crash in the game engine in Linux - r
    • fix Modifier key sticks after Alt-tab on Win32 - r
    • Blender Addons
    • Import/Export:
    • DirectX
    • Export fix for relative paths - r
    • fix for direct-x exporting vertex groups which had indicies out of the objects defgroup range - r
    • Make Human (MHX)
    • Importer Support for rigify - r
    • Added switch for ignoring Limit rotation and distance constraints - r
    • Quake MAP Export
    • fix Quake MAP export error for - r
    • fix r Quake MAP exports incomplete brush data from - r
    • added options: scale, snap to whole value, face thickness, default brush - r
    • X3D
    • fix issue #1 Names exported as "MA_Black" - r
    • fix issue #2 zero length rotation axis exported - r
    • fix issue #3 exporting dupli objects failed - r
    • fix X3D export incorrectly uses collision node - r
    • fix export non existing shopzoro.usAngle - r
    • fix for exporting empty scene - r
    • OBJ
    • fix exporting dupli objects - r
    • fix OBJ export fails when mesh has no material - r
    • 3DS
    • fix transformation matrix not exported - r
    • Lightwave
    • fix Crash adding EdgeSplit/Bevel modifier to imported lwo mesh - r
    • FBX
    • fix FBX Export can result in missing data and lost animation(s) - r
    • fix Exporting linked groups to FBX to load on Unity3D - r
    • fix error where armature connections were written out twice - r
    • added option not to export 'Default Take' - r
    • Add XNA compatibility mode - r
    • Option to export XNA compatible armature rotations - r
    • Option not to export mesh edges - r
    • Always export armatures as 'Limb' type - r
    • Other:
    • Netrender
    • fix Netrendering "path:" failing - r
    • Save As Runtime
    • Skip expoting python libs on OSX since its already included - r
    • fix phytondll caused "Appcrash" => Runtime crashes - r

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    How To Get Rid of Ants- The Ultimate Guide for

    When ants invade your home, yard, car, or business they are a worthy opponent. Ants have extraordinary capabilities that are not readily appreciated when battling an ant infestation. To get rid of ants quickly and thoroughly, whether you use bait or trap you should have some background knowledge about their behaviors, biology, and abilities. With over 12, species of ants throughout the world, proper ant identification is vitally important to successfully get rid of ants.

    Ants are found on every continent on earth, except Antarctica. Ants are social insects, meaning they live together in groups called colonies. Colonies are divided into 2 castes, workers and reproductive, both male and female. As Aesop’s Fable The Ants and the Grasshopper suggests, ants are productive and hard-working creatures. The worker ants, sterile females, have many responsibilities. They must construct, repair, and defend the nest, feed and nurture the young and other adult ants in the colony, forage for food and water, and take out the colonies&#; trash. The Bible points us to the work ethic of the female worker ant and challenges us to emulate her self-motivation and work ethic. Proverbs states, “Go to the ant, you sluggard! Consider her ways and be wise, which, having no captain, overseer or ruler, provides her supplies in the summer, and gathers her food in the harvest.” The reproductive female ants are also called queens; their primary function is reproduction. Some queens live for years and produce millions of young. In some ant species, the queen may help by caring for and feeding the first brood of workers. Depending on the ant species, a colony may have 1 queen ant or dozens of queens. Male ants’ only job is to mate with the queen. After they mate, they die.

    Let’s consider again the remarkable physical feats that ants are capable of. Ants can lift times their body weight. If humans were capable of such weight-lifting capabilities, a pound man would easily lift a car. Ants do not have lungs. Similar to stomata on plant leaves, oxygen enters ants’ bodies through tiny holes all over them, and carbon dioxide exits their bodies through these same holes.

    Ants communicate with one another by leaving trails of pheromones. You may wonder how seemingly thousands of ants have found their way to your bathroom or kitchen. The answer is the foraging ant who located the food source left a scent trail proclaiming the find for the other ants! Ant communication through scent is complex but effective. Ants use pheromones to warn of danger to the colony, to remove sick or dying ants from the nest, and to tell others where to go to find food.

    Some ants utilize fairly sophisticated “farming” techniques. Just as humans raise, care for, and protect sheep, goats, cows, and chickens, some species of ants raise aphids. Ants fiercely protect their “herds” of aphids from predators and parasites and ensure they have enough food to consume. In return, aphids provide ants with a reliable supply of sweet honeydew, which is a sugar-sweet meal for the ants. This symbiotic relationship is so powerful that some aphids are dependent upon the ants to “milk” them. Ants will stroke the aphids to stimulate the release of honeydew.

    Another example of an ant farming technique is found in the leafcutter ant. Leafcutter ants are found mostly in Central and South America but are also becoming prevalent in Texas, Arizona, southern California, and western Louisiana. Leaf Cutter Ants cut leaves and carry the pieces back to their nests, which are in the soil. Leaf Cutter Ants have gardens of fungus, and the fungus needs decaying plant matter to grow. The Leaf Cutter Ant’s diet consists only of this fungus that is grown inside their nests.

    Ants have a proficient survival instinct. Some species of ants can swim and float. This phenomenon is most easily observed with fire ants. When a fire ant infested field floods, fire ants will abandon their nest and clump together in the shape of a pancake. In this arrangement, fire ants can float for weeks without drowning. These flotillas of fire ants are often seen in the south in the aftermath of hurricanes.

    We have briefly discussed some of the more remarkable abilities of ants in general; each species has its own food preferences, behavioral characteristics, and biological impulses. To permanently kill the ants infesting your home, business, or vehicle, accurately identifying the species of ants is necessary. Once the ant identification is confirmed you will know what they prefer to eat, how and when they forage, and how to kill the ants.

    How to Get Rid of Ants in the House

    Ant infestations are the number one reason people call a professional pest control company. Ants in your home are tough to get rid of! It seems like no matter how many you kill, there is another army of ants to take their place. Ant species come in many sizes, colors, and food preferences. The first step in getting rid of ants is to perform a thorough inspection of your home and yard. A thorough inspection should reveal the type of ant you are dealing with and possibly where the nest is located. Typically, kitchens and bathrooms are the best places to begin your ant inspection, but your inspection will likely lead you outdoors as well.

    Ant Inspection

    • Using a flashlight, look behind and under the appliances such as the oven, refrigerator, dishwasher, under the sink, and inside cabinets.
    • If the ant infestation is severe, you may be able to follow the ant trail from the kitchen or bathroom to the nest. Since foraging activity may be greater at night, an inspection in the evening may yield more conclusive results.
    • If a foraging trail is not clear, sometimes it helps to encourage ant excitement by placing food options out for them. Ants either crave sweet sugary foods or protein-rich foods. Leave a pea-sized drop of honey or simple syrup and a pea-sized dab of peanut butter in the areas where you have seen ants. In a surprisingly short time, you will have ants gathered up at your buffet. At best, this test will give you enough ants to follow back to the nest, at worst it will tell you if they prefer to eat sweets or proteins.
    • By following the ant trail, you will likely end up outdoors. Ants are survivors and can build nests in a variety of conditions and they may be very well hidden. Look under firewood piles, under yard debris, under the siding on your home, inside decaying tree stumps, and any vegetation on or near the ground near the ant trail.

      Because many ants are described as small, black, sugar ants, a more definite identification may be difficult without the aid of an entomologist, a specimen sample, and a microscope. If you need help identifying an ant specimen, most county extension offices have personnel that will try to identify the ant for you. Here at Nextgen Pest Solutions, we have an Entomologist on staff who can identify the less common ants we encounter.

    Get Rid of Ant Food Sources

    Another integral facet of getting ants in your home under control is sanitation. An ant problem does not mean that your home is filthy. Sanitation in pest control terms simply refers to ensuring there is no available food or water for pests (ants, roaches, rats, or mice). Ant control efforts will be ineffective if the dripping honey jar is not cleaned up from the back of the pantry. Food spills or crumbs that are left will be a constant draw and frustrate your best intentions on killing ants. Don’t forget to thoroughly clean the caked-on food from your small appliances such as your blender or stand mixture. These appliances often host sweet treats that ants will exploit. Also, limit food consumption to one room of the house. A Halloween candy bucket filled with Jolly Rancher wrappers will surely draw ants to your child’s hiding place!

    Seal the Ant Entry Points

    When dealing with larger species of ants such as carpenter ants, if you can figure out where ants are coming in, you can eliminate the ant problem much more quickly and easily by sealing the entryway. Following the ant trail may lead you to a window with a cracked or broken seal. By sealing that window or door, or caulking around the cable wire, you can prevent ants from finding their way inside your home. Ants are highly industrious and will utilize the smallest of cracks.

    Ants – Bait vs. Sprays

    When killing ants, the goal is to kill the entire colony, including the queen. Even if you can not locate and treat the nest, with today’s highly technical and specialized insecticides, it is possible to kill the entire colony. Insecticides have come a long since the stinky white residue left along the baseboards of the s. Well-informed modern Pest Control Operators favor baiting for ants rather than applying a chemical treatment spray inside your home. Baiting is considered a safer, more green option for households, and it also proves to be the most effective method of killing ants.

    Ant baits come in a variety of formulations such as gels, liquids, granules, and solids. All ant baits contain some attractant or a combination of attractants, usually a sugar, carbohydrate, or a protein, and an active ingredient pesticide. The active ingredient is designed to be slow-acting and not cause immediate death. Baits work well for ants because of their societal structure. Worker ants forage for food and bring it back to the nest where they feed the queen and the male ants. Because these baits work slowly, the foraging ants have time to tell the others of the easy “food” supply and make multiple trips from the nest to the bait.

    The active ingredients in ant baits vary. One of the most common and effective is boric acid, or borax, which is found in laundry detergent. Other ant baits utilize the active ingredients fipronil, avermectin, and indoxacarb, which are also found in the flea and tick medications you put on your dog or cat. The active ingredients in baits are generally in such low doses that the likelihood of poisoning by human ingestion is very low.

    The drawback of baiting for ants is that ants can be very picky eaters. Understanding ant feeding behavior is necessary to get ants to “take the bait.” Within the same species of ant, at times they crave or prefer protein, and at other times they crave carbohydrates. If the correct attractant is not in the bait that is being offered, the pest ants may ignore the bait completely. Many professional pest control operators couple their edible bait offering with a chemical spray on the outside of the home. However, the correct class of spray must be used.

    Ant Sprays – Repellent vs. Non-Repellent

    Have you ever grabbed the can of bug spray from under the kitchen sink and sprayed the ants that were marching across your kitchen counter? What did they do? They probably immediately stopped the march, made a series of right and left turns, and proceeded to go right around the spray. That is the hallmark characteristic of a repellent spray. While repellent sprays have their appropriate uses, ant control is not one of them. If using a repellent spray on ants, you are essentially chasing them around your kitchen and bathroom.

    If you have used a repellent spray on a surface that you blender cell fracture crack it - Crack Key For U need or want to use for bait placement, you can try to clean that surface. Ants have an extremely sensitive sense of smell. Try cleaning the surface with warm soapy water and a paper towel followed by a water rinse to remove any residue from the repellent spray.

    Non-repellent sprays are highly effective in the battle against ants. Ants cannot smell non-repellent insecticide sprays; therefore they do not avoid it as the ants did in the above scenario. These non-repellent sprays operate on the same principle as baits, only you do not have to convince the ants to eat what you are offering. Instead, they walk through the invisible insecticide and take it back to the nest. Like a germ, they spread the active ingredient from one ant to the next, and ultimately the colony is eliminated.

    Spraying indoors should be a last resort. Most ant problems can be solved without using spray indoors. Some non-repellent sprays that are labeled for use for ants should only be used on the outside of your home. The label on the bottle of the product is the law. It is a violation of federal law to use a product in a manner that is inconsistent with the label. Be sure to read and follow the label on your product, but generally, you may spray around the foundation of your home and around entry points such as doors and windows. You may use the spray around the holes where cable lines and electric lines come into the structure as well.

    How to Get Rid of Ants in the Kitchen

    As with all of the pest species that we deal with, ants are drawn to your home because of the abundance of food, water, and shelter. Even in the cleanest of kitchens, the industrious ant can find a meal. To kill ants in the kitchen, a few special considerations should be made.

    Remember above where we talked about the importance of following the ant trail? Now is where that becomes important! Baiting for ants actually brings more ants to the table (bait tray). If you place a tray of bait on your kitchen counter, you will see more ants than before you treated, and that is never the point of pest control! If you are horrified by the ants marching across your kitchen counter, feed them the bait earlier in their march. By following the ant trail to a windowsill or door frame, you can intercept them and feed them the bait before they come to the kitchen. You will see an immediate reduction in the number of ants in your kitchen.

    By stopping the ants before they reach your kitchen, you will have an opportunity to assess whether they are eating the bait. If you place a bait tray brimming with sweet bait, and they are ignoring it completely and heading for your kitchen, they are craving something different. Ant baits are formulated to satisfy ants’ various cravings, such as sugars, proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. You may need to switch baits until you find one the ants accept.

    Of special concern for ants in the kitchen is keeping the area ant-free. Clean up any spills quickly and thoroughly. Never leave uncovered food on the counter. Create a routine for regularly cleaning spills in cabinets and pantries and other hard-to-reach areas. Inspect and promptly fix any leaking faucets or plumbing pipes; excess moisture invites pests of all kinds to your kitchen.

    How to Get Rid of Ants in the Bathroom

    Ant infestations in your bathroom can be handled with the same protocols that you use in the other areas of your home with a few special considerations. If ants are congregating in your bathroom, they are likely there because they are getting something from your bathroom that they need to survive. Water is the most obvious life-sustaining element ants are receiving from your bathroom.

    The most likely species of ant in your bathroom is the carpenter ant. Carpenter ants and how to kill them will be discussed in greater detail below, but they often build nests in the damp wall behind the tiles or walls in your bathroom. Carpenter ants do not eat wood, but they can excavate and remove damaged wood in your structure to build their nests. Carpenter ants are one of the most difficult ants to exterminate, especially when they are nesting inside your bathroom.

    Argentine ants are another ant species that regularly makes an appearance in the bathroom. Argentine ants build nests outside in moist areas that are close to food. Indoors, that may mean under the bathroom sink, inside the toilet tank, or behind the toilet. Argentine ants are considered super-colony ants. They are highly adaptable and survive in conditions ares commander vs autocad - Activators Patch most other ants cannot. All efforts should be used to eradicate the entire Argentine ant colony if you find one in your bathroom.

    How to Get Rid of Carpenter Ants

    Carpenter ants are one of the most common indoor pests. Carpenter ants are easily recognizable by their large size and black and red color pattern; adult carpenter ant workers are about ½ to 5/8 inches in length. Carpenter ants live in large colonies and are considered one of the most difficult species of ants to kill. To fully eliminate carpenter ants from your home, it is especially important to locate the nest. Carpenter ants can build their nest indoors, or the nest may be outside. Killing carpenter ants requires specialized knowledge and often some serious detective work.

    Carpenter ant treatment protocols are similar in many ways to other species of ants and different in others. Earlier we discussed baiting ants with edible ant baits. If the bait is eaten, the ants take it back to the nest and feed it to the other ants. This is problematic with carpenter ants because they so often choose to eat both live and dead insects rather than baits placed out for them. The most popular and effective bait specific to carpenter ants has been taken off the market, however, there are other baits labeled for carpenter ants. To make baiting matters more difficult, at different times of the year, carpenter ants will only eat specific things. You may have to alternate between or offer a combination of sweet, protein, and carbohydrate-based baits to effectively control carpenter ants. Trial and error of baits may be necessary if the nest is indoors and inaccessible.

    In addition to edible baits, a non-repellent chemical spray can be very effective against carpenter ants. You can almost always achieve % control by using low toxicity baits indoors and a non-repellent chemical spray outdoors. Spraying indoors for ants should be a last resort. As discussed before, it is very important to follow the ant trails. Carpenter ants are most active at night and are therefore difficult to follow. If your carpenter ant trail leads you out a window or sliding glass door, you are in the realm of using a non-repellent chemical spray. This is not the time to reach under the sink and grab the can of bug spray you picked up at the grocery store. Carpenter ants cannot smell or discern in any way a high-quality non-repellent insecticide. Carpenter ants preferred food is live insects. Even if they are nesting indoors, they must trail outside to get their live insect meals. When they trail outdoors they will come into contact with the insecticide sprayed around your home. The insecticide coats the ants&#; efootball pes 2020 - Free Activators and bodies and, as they interact with the other ants in the nest, is transferred among all the ants in the nest. Eventually, the slow-acting insecticide causes death to the carpenter ant colony. These sprays may be used to treat the perimeter of your home, around superantispyware key doors and windows, and any cable or electric lines that the ants could be entering through. If you find the carpenter ant nest, check the product label to see if you may treat the nest and nearby shrubbery or trees with the insecticide.

    Another useful tool against carpenter ants is treatment with non-repellent foam. If a carpenter ant nest is inside of a wall void or another inaccessible area, the use of a pesticidal foam may be appropriate. By drilling a small hole into the wall and injecting foam, you may be able to get insecticide close enough to the nest to allow it to be brought inside by the foraging ants, thus killing the colony.

    Because they exhibit many unique characteristics, carpenter ants are one of the most difficult problems presented in pest control. Whether it is in the form of edible baits (liquid or granular), chemical sprays, or on-repellent foams, the key is to kill the entire colony. The ultimate carpenter ant control is established when both satellite nests and the nearby parent nest are eliminated.

    Carpenter Ants Feeding and Foraging

    Carpenter ants forage at night and often individually. Carpenter worker ants forage up to yards from the nest to find food and water; that is the length of a football field! Carpenter ants are unique in that they eat sweet nectars and honeydew like other ants, but they also eat other smaller insects, both alive and dead. In your home, they can satisfy their protein cravings with pet food. If the carpenter ant nest is outdoors, a foraging carpenter ant will use trees that touch the roofline or a cable or electric line to gain entry into your home.

    Carpenter ants require water to survive, therefore carpenter ants are sometimes referred to as an indicator species. The presence of carpenter ants may be warning you of a water leak, rotting wood, or other moisture issues inside your home.

    In addition to foraging for food and water, carpenter ants forage for nesting spots as well. A large, mature carpenter ant colony may establish as many as 9 – 12 satellite nests. If you only kill one satellite nest, the problem is still multiplying on your property. Indoor satellite nesting spots require less moisture than the parent nest and may be found under attic insulation, inside wall voids, and other hollow spaces. Usually, if a carpenter ant nest is indoors, it is a satellite nest, not the parent nest. Satellite nests are usually feet from the parent nest. Satellite nests consist of workers, mature brood, and often winged reproductives. Although satellite nests cannot reproduce without a queen, these nests are a bustle of carpenter ant activity for years if left undisturbed.

    Do Carpenter Ants Damage Wood?

    The name carpenter ant implies these ants will hack and saw away at the solid wood holding your house together. Carpenter ants prefer to nest in wood damaged by wood rot, decay, mold, or termites, however, the black carpenter ant can chew through good sound wood. In an effort to establish a nest, carpenter ants tunnel and remove wood in your home. They do not eat wood for nutritional purposes like a termite, but they can and do chew through wood causing structural damage. In creating their nests, they excavate wood for tunnels and pathways. The wood that they cut through is then chewed up into fine powdery sawdust and expelled from the tunnels. Carpenter ant damage is visually distinct from wood that has been damaged by termites. An experienced Pest Management Professional or an Entomologist can identify which insect caused the damage.

    Carpenter Ants or Termites?

    Carpenter ants develop through complete metamorphosis, the life stages being egg, larva, pupa, to either an adult worker or adult alate or reproductive. Carpenter ants create new colonies when winged males and females, the reproductives, fly from the nest for their mating or nuptial flight. After they mate the male dies, and the female attempts to bury herself and establish her new colony with her fertilized eggs. During this swarm season between April and June, dead male winged carpenter ants fall on windowsills and door frames. Since these winged ants are rarely seen, they are often confused for termites. The trained and experienced eye of a Pest Management Professional can determine whether it is carpenter ants or termites that are swarming in or near your home. Here is a summary of the differences between carpenter ants and termite alates.

    • Antennae
      • Carpenter Ant Alate – antennae are elbowed, meaning they turn at nearly a right angle
      • Termite Alate – antennae are beaded, meaning they are short and appear to be strung together like beads on a necklace
    • Wings
      • Carpenter Ant Alate – the wings closer to the head (fore wings) are larger than the hind wings
      • Termite Alate – the front and back wings are the same sizes
    • Waist
      • Carpenter Ant Alate – waist is constricted or pinched in and slender
      • Termite Alate – waist is broad and thick

    If you find either winged carpenter ants or winged termites near or in your home, we recommend you contact Nextgen Pest Solutions for a professional inspection, insect identification, and treatment plan to kill the pests swarming near your home.

    Carpenter Ant Nests

    Carpenter ant nests begin when the newly fertilized queen drops from her mating flight. She seeks out loose bark, wood debris, or a dead tree stump where she buries herself and rears her first brood. It takes approximately days for carpenter ants to develop from egg to adult stage. The colony quickly grows as the queen can live up to 25 years and produce thousands of young in her lifetime. The average carpenter ant colony has between 4, and 10, worker ants.

    As stated earlier, a mature carpenter ant colony will establish satellite nests. These satellite nests are usually between feet away from the parent nest and do not have a queen. These nests require less moisture and can tolerate higher temperatures than the parent nest. These are the nests that are more likely to be found indoors. Indoors, carpenter nests are usually found in areas with some moisture seepage such as bathrooms and kitchens, although they are commonly found in attics as well. Additional common locations for indoor carpenter ant nests are wall voids, under the eaves, under bathtubs, around doors and windows that are susceptible to rain or sprinklers, behind or under appliances (especially the dishwasher), in flat roofs, and behind wall panels. Damage caused by excavating carpenter ants is much slower than termite damage, but it nonetheless occurs. If these nests are allowed to persist in your home, structural damage may occur.

    Locating the nest and treating the nest is key to killing carpenter ants. A thorough carpenter ant treatment involves not only finding and treating the satellite nest but the parent nest as well. If a satellite nest is treated, but foraging workers from the parent nest are still coming into your home, the problem is only partially solved. If the conditions that allowed the initial carpenter ant infestation are not remedied, ie. moisture issue or untrimmed branches creating a highway to your attic eaves, and the entire colony is not destroyed, carpenter ants will continue to forage into your home.

    How to Get Rid of Sugar Ants

    Have you ever had little black ants surrounding the one drop of maple syrup before the breakfast table is even cleared? If so, you probably cursed sugar ants. How did they get there so quickly? Ants have 5x more odor receptors than most other insects. Many common species of pest ants seem to have an insatiable sweet tooth, hence we generically call them sugar ants. There is a species of ant called the banded sugar ant, but it is only located in Australia. Here in the United States, what we colloquially refer to as sugar ants are usually ghost ants, pharaoh ants, or odorous house ants.

    Sugar ants are notoriously attracted to sweets such as jelly drips from your child’s sandwich, syrup, or honey. A box of sugary cereal left open in the back of the cabinet will attract sugar ants. Outdoors, these ants eat honeydew secreted from aphids and nectar from flowers. Usually, when sugar ants invade your home or office breakroom, they are being drawn a spill in the pantry or a cabinet.

    How to Get Rid of Ghost Ants

    In Florida, ghost ants are the number one reason a person calls a pest control company. Ghost ants are a tropical species of ant and are most concentrated in Florida in areas south of Orlando, although isolated colonies have been found as far north as Jacksonville. North of Florida, ghost ants are confined to greenhouses and other areas that are protected from the environment.

    Ghost ant workers are very small, between to mm long. Their head and thorax are dark brown, but the ghost ant’s abdomen is milky-white to opaque. They are small and hard to see, but easily distinguishable from other species of ants because of their opaque abdomen. Similar to odorous house ants, ghost ants give off a musty coconut-type odor when crushed.

    If you happen to have ghost ants in your kitchen, children love this simple experiment of feeding them. By mixing sugar water and food coloring and depositing it near the ghost ants trail, you can watch as their abdomen turns red, green, or yellow. Kids are always fascinated by insects; although ghost ants will not be permitted to stay in your kitchen, it is always fun to take an opportunity to learn something new!

    Ghost ants almost always nest outside and trail indoors. Ghost ants are tiny, but trail for hundreds of feet. The nest may be located in your neighbor’s yard, but they will skip your neighbor’s home and raid your kitchen instead. Ghost ant colonies may contain more than one queen. Often ghost ants choose nesting locations that are small and cannot accommodate an extremely large colony. They create “transient nests” which can be easily moved. A ghost ant colony may be divided into subunits or subnests; this process is called budding. When the colony has depleted nearby food or they have run out of space, they create a subnest. Ghost ants move a queen, workers, and brood (young ghost ants) are taken to a new nest where food and space are more plentiful. Since these subunits or subnests have a queen, they can reproduce. The worker ghost ants within the colony as a whole can exchange workers between the parent nest and the subnests. The mantra, “The brood is moved to the food” is true with ghost ants. If ghost ants perceive your home or office breakroom to have an abundant supply of food, water, and shelter, they will establish a subnest and often bring their young along with them. Think of this process of budding like opening a franchise rather than starting a brand-new business concept.

    The best prevention and control measure against ghost ants is sanitation. Create a habit of quickly wiping up spills and putting food away. Create a schedule so that the cupboards and pantries are regularly emptied and wiped clean. Remove plants that attract aphids or any other insects that produce honeydew. Address any moisture issues such as leaky faucets.

    If proper sanitation doesn’t do the trick, or if ghost ants have created a subnest in your house, a bait treatment should kill the ghost ants utilizing that nest. Follow the ghost ant trail to determine where the ants are coming from. By tempting ghost ants with either a sugary bait or carbohydrate or protein-rich bait, you ensure they will bring the food/insecticide bait back to the nest where it will be shared with the reproductives and the young. Continue placing bait out until there are no signs of ghost ants.

    How to Get Rid of Pharaoh Ants

    Pharaoh ants, a native of Africa, got their name because of the mistaken belief that they were one of the 10 plagues brought upon Egypt. Pharaoh ants are now found across the United States and are considered notoriously difficult to kill. Pharaoh ants are about 1/16 of an inch in length and their bodies are usually yellowish to reddish with a darker abdomen. In northern parts of the country, Pharaoh ants can not survive outdoors year-round, but in south Florida, they can survive outdoors.

    Pharaoh ants eat a wide variety of foods and tend to create nests in unusual locations such as inside electrical switches and light bulb sockets, between sheets, and even in piles of trash. When a worker Pharaoh ant leaves the nest and finds food, she leaves a pheromone trail for others to follow. Pharaoh ants have been observed following wiring inside of walls and hot water pipes. If initially treated improperly, Pharaoh ant colonies tend to fracture or abandon that nest and spread throughout the facility exacerbating your problem.

    Baits are recognized as the best option for controlling Pharaoh ants; however, in a food-rich environment such as a hospital or food processing facility, convincing them to eat the bait is no easy task. Sprays are generally not labeled for nor recommended in sensitive environments such as a nursing home or assisted living facilities. Often Pest Management Professionals must utilize a variety of baits and bait placements to gain control of Pharaoh ants. Outdoor sprays do offer some control in Florida where Pharaoh ants go outdoors. Like carpenter ants, Pharaoh ants like eating insects in the landscape when they crave protein. When they leave their indoor nest, and trail outdoors in search of food, they will come into contact with the perimeter spray. An active chemical barrier around the perimeter of your property should be maintained, to help eliminate the current infestation and to prevent new Pharaoh ants from establishing residence within your walls. When Pharaoh ants are infesting apartment buildings or other multi-unit dwellings, the entire building should be treated. Unless every nest in and around the property is eliminated, Pharaoh ants will return time and time again.

    Pharaoh Ant Indoor Nests

    Pharaoh ants are well adapted for nesting and reproducing indoors. Indoors pharaoh ants create nests in inaccessible areas such as wall voids, behind baseboards, under floorboards, and even inside of furniture. Similar to ghost ants discussed above, pharaoh ants create new nests by the process of budding. The size of pharaoh ant colonies varies dependent upon factors such as space and availability of food and water. Pharaoh ant colonies are usually a few thousand workers, with the largest observed at a few hundred thousand pharaoh ants. There are usually several queens, or females capable of reproduction within a colony. Male pharaoh ants die within a few days of mating.

    When space in the nest runs short or a more plentiful supply of food is found, the pharaoh ant nest splits through the process of budding. A queen, along with workers and some immature youth pharaoh ants will leave the main nest to form a daughter or subnest. Indoors, pharaoh ant nests are usually found in areas with a plentiful supply of food, water, and warmth. They have been located in light bulb sockets, potted plants, cracks and crevices in walls. Pharaoh ants are especially problematic for grocery stores, warehouses, commercial bakeries, factories, office buildings, food distribution facilities, and medical facilities. The design of these types of facilities provides endless opportunities for pharaoh ant nests.

    Pharaoh Ants in Medical Facilities

    Pharaoh ants live in large colonies and have a propensity to invade not only homes and businesses but medical establishments such as hospitals and nursing homes. Pharaoh ants are attracted to many of the elements utilized in a hospital or assisted living situation. Feeding tubes filled with sugar, protein, and carbohydrate-rich liquids, trash cans containing medical and food waste, and food brought into nearly every room in the medical facility and eaten in bed, makes hospitals, nursing homes, and long-term care facilities at risk for pharaoh ant infestations. Pharaoh ants have been known to penetrate the gauze covering on burn patients and feed on their wounds and seek moisture from sleeping patient’s mouths. It has been demonstrated that pharaoh ants act as vectors for certain diseases within the hospital setting. Pharaoh ants are small and highly mobile, they crawl through the trash and waste, then into IV tubes and incubators used for infants contaminating sterile areas and increasing the risk of healthcare-associated infections. Medical offices and facilities large and small should partner with competent and experienced Pest Management Professionals and have a robust protocol against pharaoh ants in place.

    How to Get Rid of Odorous House Ants

    Odorous House Ants, also sometimes called Stink Ants or Coconut Ants, are a common household pest and found throughout the United States. Odorous Folder lock software freeware download - Free Activators Ants emit a pungent rotten coconut odor when they are crushed. Odorous House Ants are small, approximately 1//16 of an inch in length, and are dark brown or black. Odorous House Ants do not bite unless provoked and like other ants, we have discussed feed on sugary and protein-rich substances.

    Odorous House Ants are considered a Tramp Ant. Many of the most difficult to control species of ants are classified as Tramp Ants. Tramp Ants are ants that have adapted to comfortably live very close to humans, in fact, they are more prevalent in areas where human development has limited the natural landscape. The following characteristics of Tramp Ants make their control difficult:

    • Colonies have multiple queens and multiple sub-colonies
    • Related colonies are not aggressive with each other
    • Live in close association with humans
    • Varied Diet
    • Wide Range of Nesting Habits

    Odorous House Ants are known to move their nesting sites frequently, but they prefer to nest in moist, shady areas close to a food source. Outdoors Odorous House Ants create nests under rocks, firewood piles, mulch, and leaf litter. Inside, Odorous House Ants prefer to create nests near moisture leaks or condensation. They usually move indoors seeking shelter when there is excess rain outside. You may find an Odorous House Ant nest under carpets, bathtubs, or toilets. They may also nest inside attics near a roof leak, or near window or door frames. Odorous House Ants are unique in that they often come back to the abandoned nest and utilize it when conditions revert back to favorable.

    Odorous House Ant colonies reproduce by both mating flights and budding. Mating flights are when male and female winged reproductives fly from the nest and mate. After the flight, the female drops and attempts to establish a nest in the environment with her fertilized eggs, and the male dies. This is infrequent but occasionally occurs within an Odorous House Ant colony. Odorous House Ant colonies have multiple queens allowing for a process called budding. When space begins to get tight, or the nest conditions change, either because of weather or human intervention such as a pesticide application, Odorous House Ants will leave that location. A queen and workers will take immature ants to a new location and establish a subcolony.

    The connection between the original nest and subnests or subcolonies is an important factor in completely killing Odorous House Ants. A well-established Odorous House Ant colony in an urban environment, with multiple queens, may have tens of thousands of workers. Now add in the subnests and you may have hundreds of thousands of workers. An ant supercolony is one in which the many subcolonies use the same foraging trails and even workers and brood are exchanged. Odorous House Ant super colonies have been known to have as many as 6 million workers.

    This complex structure, nest mobility, and the sharing of subnest resources amongst themselves create a difficult environment to kill all of the odorous house ants. A Pest Management Professional or homeowner must locate and bait as many foraging trails as possible. Often these colonies are so large that the nest is not even on your property. If your neighbor is not aggressively baiting for odorous house ants, long-term control is difficult due to these ants’ propensity to reinfest previously used nesting locations. If you are dealing with an odorous house ant super colony, the baiting procedure looks very different than baiting for an occasional sugar ant. There are specialized liquid bait stations that can be placed around your property that hold anywhere from 16 to 32 fluid oz of bait at a time. These bait stations must be maintained, refilled when empty, and checked for freshness. Granular baits may be used in conjunction with liquid baits. Check the label on your product, but granule insecticides can usually be broadcast in the turf and scattered near the foundation.

    To get rid of odorous house ants, a combination of tactics must be used. Odorous house ant nests will fracture and move at the first sign of disturbance or pesticide application. Improper use of pesticides, including baits and liquids, makes killing the entire odorous house ant colony even more difficult. Aggressive and plentiful baits in conjunction with a non-repellent spray around the perimeter of the structure are often effective at getting rid of odorous house ants. The non-repellent chemical will stick to the ants’ bodies and be transferred to the others in the nest. Non-repellent chemicals do not scatter ants, cause colonies to fracture, and disrupt foraging trails. The ants operate normally until they die.

    To locate odorous house ant nests, follow the ant trails. If you find an odorous house ant nest outdoors, it may be treated with a residual insecticide. Check the label Folder Lock Key 7.8.5 Crack + Serial Key Free Download 2021 your product to verify it can be used to target odorous house ants and the location and manner in which you plan to treat them. Mix the chemical according to the label. Odorous house ant nests are usually shallow. If it is covered in mulch or leaf litter gently expose the nest. Apply the pesticide and cover it back up. Once you begin to disturb the nest work quickly to avoid causing the nest to split.

    Odorous house ants are fascinating to entomologists because out in the woods, without human structures and foodstuff, odorous house ant colonies remain small. When introduced to urban areas, their numbers explode into super colonies of sometimes millions of ants. It seems that the colonies are larger when close to people as opposed to in nature. Multiple treatment methods are often necessary to get rid of these annoying little ants, and neighbors need to work together to solve their odorous ant problem.

    How to Get Rid of Big-Headed Ants

    Another tramp ant that is a pest of significance in Florida is the big-headed ant. The big-headed ant is native to the islands of the Indian Ocean but it now well established in south and central Florida. Thankfully, big-headed ants do not normally bite humans or sting, in the insect world they are considered pretty aggressive. The worker caste is divided into two categories, majors and minors. The minor workers are small brown “normal” looking ants. The major workers are the name-sake of the species. They are about twice the size of the minor workers and their heads are very large in relation to their bodies. With the strong jaws of the major worker, big headed ants can defend their nest against fire ants and other invading insects.

    Big-headed ants can develop into super colonies. Super colony ants require different pest control methods and customer expectations. These colonies become so extensive, they can extend beyond your property lines. Inadequate treatments can make the problem worse. Often, to gain complete control of a large colony of big headed ants, a community or neighborhood effort is required. Big headed ant colonies can have multiple queens and they can easily take their brood and move to a new location if they are disturbed or there is an environmental change. These sub-colonies or sub-nests will connect to each other via interlocking trails and food, brood, and workers may be exchanged. With this expansive footprint and behaviors, completely eliminating big headed ants is a large undertaking.

    Big headed ants nest in the soil. They displace large amounts of soil as they excavate their underground tunnels. They often build nests under objects such as bricks, flower pots, along the base of structures and walkways. The “ant piles” created by big headed ants are numerous and distinctive. They can tunnel under foundations and come into your home via cracks in the foundation or slab. When foraging big-headed ants come indoors they often leave dirt and debris around baseboards, windows, and bathrooms, and kitchens.

    Big-headed ants are omnivorous and have a varied diet. They feed on sweet honeydew and nectar, dead insects, and they will forage through trash to eat fats and proteins. Because they have big-headed stronger workers, they can tackle larger chunks of food than most other ant species. Big headed ants can recruit the majors from among the colony to help disassemble and carry back large insects, such as beetles, back to the nest for food.

    To get rid of big-headed ants, a combination of treatment methods will likely need to be deployed. Most big-headed ant colonies are manageable, but once they explode into super colony status, elimination becomes much more difficult. You should follow the big-headed ant foraging trails and carefully inspect sandy areas of your yard for ant mounds. Pay careful attention to areas where sand has visibly accumulated. Closely inspect the foundation, under or around bricks and stepping stones, and where the sidewalk meets the grass blender cell fracture crack it - Crack Key For U sand. This inspection should give you an idea of the breadth of the ant colony. If your yard is well manicured and has thick green grass, chances are you will not see the evidence of big-headed ants in the middle of the yard.

    A big-headed ant pest control treatment should provide enough ant bait both indoors and outdoors to ensure the entire colony will consume a fatal amount of ant bait. If you only kill the ants utilizing one sub-nest, you will only see temporary big-headed ants results. If the colony is still active in and around your yard and neighborhood, big-headed ants may turn into a chronic problem. For this reason, we recommend a full-yard treatment. Big-headed ants, when catapulted to super colony status cannot be eliminated because you alone are treating your house. However, you can turn your yard and house into an ant free island in a sea of ants. Fight the battle at your property line rather than at your doorstep. If this is your situation, call Nextgen Pest Solutions today. We have the technical experience to get rid of big-headed ants for good.

    How to Get Rid of White-Footed Ants

    White-footed ants are the reason for many calls to pest control companies. Although they do not bite or sting, they have remarkably large colonies. White footed ants are small and black or dark brown in color. They are aptly named as they have white or yellowish feet. Mature white footed ant colonies may have as many as 8, to 3 million individuals. Their colonies grow so large because up to 30% of the ants in the colony are capable of reproducing. Like big-headed ants discussed above, white footed ants are a super colony ant species. They build extensive nests and cooperatively share resources and food. A super colony of white-footed ants may extend for several square miles.

    White-footed ants are strongly attracted to sweet nectar and honeydew. Although this is not an agricultural issue in the United States, in some countries, white-footed ants are known to “farm” honeydew producers such as aphids, mealybugs, and scales. White-footed ants will actually take care of these honeydew producers and defend them against predators. This has caused great crop losses due to aphids, mealybugs, and scales.

    In the United States, they are most often a problem because they are aggressive foragers and often wind up in kitchens and bathrooms. Although they do not cause structural damage, they may nest in abandoned termite galleries. Often, white-footed ants nest in moist areas such as loose bark or rocks, decaying tree branches and leaf litter, in trees and bushes, and sometimes in wall voids and attics.

    As with all ants, to kill white-footed ants, we must understand both their foraging and reproductive behavior. As stated earlier, almost half of all female white footed ants are capable of reproduction. Whitefooted ant colonies expand in two ways, by a nuptial flight and a process called budding. During the nuptial flight a male and female fly from the nest, mate, and the female attempts to establish a new colony with her fertilized eggs. Budding occurs when a female reproductive and workers carry immature ants off to a new location and begin to reproduce. Often, this new nest is connected to other nests by foraging trails. Therefore, to kill the colony, you must kill all the white-footed ant nests.

    Most ant colonies are fed by the process of trophallaxis. Trophallaxis is the process by which foraging ants regurgitate some of their food and place it in the mouths of non-foraging ants. This process is exploited when baiting ants. Early researchers believed that white-footed ants do not feed through trophallaxis, thus baiting may be ineffective. Turns out, this belief was an identification mistake; bait is an effective weapon against white-footed ants. Their numbers are so massive however, the amount of bait required to impact their population is voluminous. For example, if you know that a tree contains a white footed ant nest, place a container of sweet bait at the base of the tree. You can significantly impact the health of the colony if you eliminate most of the foragers. Bait is a necessary component of killing white-footed ants, just be aware, you will be using a lot of bait!

    White-footed ant control requires plenty of fresh bait and the application of a non-repellent spray. White-footed ants are numerous and often forage along walls and hard edges. During your inspection, it is imperative that you follow the ant trails. The non-repellent spray should be applied according to the label. Ants can not smell this spray and therefore do not avoid it. This spray transfers to other ants in the nest eventually causing the elimination of the colony. With the careful selection and application of a non-repellent spray, you do not need to rely on the ants consuming the bait.

    White-footed ants are often especially difficult to treat once their numbers are in the millions. A key part of controlling white footed ants is limiting their access to your home. Trim all tree branches and bushes so that they are not touching your home. Any vegetation touching your home is a highway for white footed ants. The foliage common in south Florida are favored by white-footed ants. Nearly all palm trees, fruit trees, and trees with large flowers and sweet nectar should be carefully inspected and treated for white footed ant nests if necessary.

    How to Get Rid of Argentine Ants


    Blender is a cross-platform community-driven project under the GNU General Public License (GPL) and runs equally well on Linux, Windows and Macintosh computers. Its interface uses OpenGL to provide a consistent experience. It provides a broad spectrum of modeling, texturing, lighting, animation and video post-processing functionality in one package. Through its open architecture, Blender provides cross-platform interoperability, extensibility, an incredibly small footprint, and a tightly integrated workflow. Blender is one of the most popular Open Source 3D graphics applications in the world. It supports the entirety of the 3D pipeline—modeling, rigging, animation, simulation, rendering, compositing and motion tracking, even video editing and game creation.

    There is Blender's API available for advanced users who know Python scripting to customize the application and write specialized tools for Blender; more often these contributed tools are included in next releases of Blender. Blender has no price tag, but you can invest, participate, and help to advance a powerful collaborative tool: Blender is your own 3D software.

    Blender is being actively developed by hundreds of volunteers from all around the world. These volunteers include artists, VFX experts, hobbyists, scientists, and many more. All of them are united by an interest to further a completely free and open source 3D creation pipeline. You can get involved with this awesome project and contribute in anyway you like to do.

    Main Features:
    • Cycles Render Engine
    • Motion Tracking
    • UV Tools
    • "Carve" Booleans
    • Remesh modifier
    • Game Engine
    • Collada
    • Python API
    • More Features.

    What's in this release:
    • Cycles: Built-in Denoising, Shadow catcher, Principled shader, AMD OpenCL optimizations.
    • Grease Pencil: New frame interpolation tools, per-layer onion skinning.
    • Alembic: Improvements to compatibility, stability and support.
    • User Interface: Initial support for reusable custom configurations, automatic DPI scaling.
    • Twenty Three new and several updated add-ons.
    • Application templates to define a reusable configuration.
    • Reorganized sequencer and UV editor panels.
    • Custom shortcuts for keyframing and drivers.
    • New tools for interpolating between grease pencil frames.
    • Per-layer onion skinning, add blank frame tool, and UI improvements.
    • New: Dynamic Sky, Archipack, Magic UV, Mesh Edit Tools, Skinify, Display Tools, Brush Menus, Btrace, Is Key Free, Turnaround Camera, Auto Mirror, Blender cell fracture crack it - Crack Key For U Rigs, Snap Utils Line, Add Advanced Objects, Export Paper Model, Kinoraw Tools, Stored Views, Render Clay, Auto Tracker, Refine Tracking Solution, Materials Library VX, Mesh Tissue, Cell Fracture Crack It.
    • Updated: Collada, POV-Ray, OBJ, Rigify, Ant Landscape, Add Curve Extra Objects, Viewport Pie Menus, Blender ID, Node Wrangler.
    • Various fixes and improvements across the board.

    Blender via this PPA available for Ubuntu Artful/ Zesty/ Xenial/ Trusty/Linux Mint 18/17/and other Ubuntu derivatives
    To install Blender in Ubuntu/Linux Mint open Terminal (Press Ctrl+Alt+T) and copy the following commands in the terminal:

    Terminal Commands:

    sudo add-apt-repository ppa:thomas-schiex/blender

    sudo apt-get update

    sudo apt-get install blender

    Available as snap package for Ubuntu Artful/ Zesty/ Xenial/ Trusty/Linux Mint 18/17/and other Ubuntu derivatives
    To install Blender in Ubuntu/Linux Mint open Terminal (Press Ctrl+Alt+T) and copy the following commands in the terminal:

    Terminal Commands:

    sudo apt-get install snapd xdg-open-snapd

    sudo snap install blender --classic

    That's it

    Visit on site



    Version history for Blender (portable bit)

    <<Back to software description

    Changes for v - v

    • Crash when adjusting sequencer property [T]
    • GPencil: Fix unreported missing strokes in interpolation [dcf7a]
    • Crash related to viewing video files [T]
    • Mantaflow Field weights cannot be animated [T]
    • Batch Generate-Previews doesn’t work anymore [T]
    • Dimensions fail on negative scaled axis [T]
    • Scale to Fit Text Box fails when text is too narrow [T]
    • Copy-pasting strip twice crashes Blender [T]
    • Prefetching can corrupt .blend files [T]
    • Random crash editing shader nodes with textures [T]
    • Missing depsgraph relation when using sound strips in VSE [T]
    • Fix View3D “Mirror” menu, both “Global” and “Local” items are GLOBAL [4a9de2bfd]
    • Crash displaying many aligned buttons [T]
    • Follow Active Quads, divide by zero error [T]
    • Crash when removing strips with prefetching [T]
    • Fresh install of blender not able to save user startup file [T]
    • Weight Transfer Operator target mesh doesn’t update [T]
    • Weight Transfer Operator “Deform Pose Bones” destination setting [T]
    • Object disappears when scaled, set origin etc after applying smooth [T]

    Changes for v - v

    • Fix alignment/size issue on ARM/RPi architecture [9cef4]
    • EEVEE: Cubemaps shows black [T]
    • Blender Freezes when using the 3d Scale Gizmo [T]
    • GPU: Apple/Nvidia Proxy check [T]
    • Fix missing GPU image free in background mode [ba]
    • Overlay: Weight colors are not in render in the right colorspace [T]
    • Cycles OpenCL error rendering empty scene [T]
    • Overlay: Edit mode + wire drawtype + infront not transparent [T]
    • Overlay: Sulpt overlay not working if object use in-front option [T]
    • Sculpt mode performance regression in [T]
    • Faces missing, weird faces added [T]
    • Fix error when filtering in Outliner “Blender File” mode with libraries [d0cb]
    • Fix crash when use GPencil merge without materials [T]
    • Fix undefined behavior when using BSDF nodes inside volume shaders[T]
    • GPencil interpolation crash [T]
    • GPencil: Strokes go missing after Interpolation from another layer [T]
    • Workbench: “Not enough texture slots!” Message being spammed and lags the entire computer [T]

    Changes for v - v

    • Random crash when rendering animation [T]
    • Overlay: “Outline Selected” overlay doesnt affect armatures [T]
    • Crash when closing window while Outliner shows screens [ef0ded4df]
    • Crash on undo Draw Face Sets stroke with dyntopo active [T]
    • Fix random crash in Cycles smoke volume loading [2dbe54d]
    • UV Editor: Fix Vertex Overlay color not being color managed [fbef35d24]
    • Crash after any alembic import undo in an empty scene [T]
    • Crash on proxied rig, custom bone shape, driver targeting rig [T]
    • Crash in VR session when opening material preview [T]
    • Fix memory leak calculating deform modifiers in edit-mode [91bc00f28]
    • Incorrect handling of negative-scale bit in DRWResourceHandle [T]
    • VSE Sequencer/Preview crash after fullscreen [T]
    • Compositor Disabled Node Config -> SegFault [T]
    • Undo crash due to IDTemplate operations missing undo push [T]
    • Simple scene created in version crashes Blender [T]

    Changes for v - v

    • Fix T New undo code broken by ‘make local’ behavior
    • Audio SDL: Video editor Sound muted without muting it
    • Fix T IK Degrees of freedom drawing glitch
    • Fix (unreported) wrong size of UserPreferences’ `dupflag` parameter. Fix Applied rBdceaef92d7a4: Fix (unreported) wrong size of UserPreferences’ `dupflag` parameter
    • Fix T Cycles OSL microfacet closure not working in custom shaders
    • GPencil: Fix unreported Vertex Opacity Overlay not working
    • Fix T Incorrect masking in Color Balance modifier
    • Fix T Cycles performance regression with CLI renders
    • Fix T Error reloading linked library
    • Fix missing hinting information in monospace font, rBd3cac2: Fix missing hinting information in default font
    • Fix T NVIDIA Quadro FX crash on startup
    • GPencil: Improve viewlayer masking check
    • Fix T Crash changing multiple values for sequencer strips
    • Fix T Dyntopo Sample detail size on hidden mesh causes crash
    • Fix T File Browser in macOS fullscreen crashes or makes windows unusable
    • Fix T Operator search gives wrong results
    • Fix T Disable clipping region selection in material/rendered mode
    • Fix T Incorrect gizmo orientation with inherit rotation disabled
    • Fix menu operator/search clipping the last character Fix Applied rBfe5cd9: Fix menu operator/search clipping the last character
    • Fix T OSL parser fails when script ends with comment without newline
    • Fix crash running “Edit Voxel Size” operator outside of a main 3D View region Fix Applied rB5fcfeaeab: Fix crash running “Edit Voxel Size” operator outside of a main 3D View region
    • GPencil: Fix unreported error in Dots Strokes material initialization
    • GPencil: Fix unreported Shift+F OPacity key not working
    • Calculate epsilon values for interp_weights_poly to improve accuracy Fix Applied rB9d5e5ecff: Calculate epsilon values for interp_weights_poly to improve accuracy
    • Fix T Glitches caused by glCopyImageSubData on windows + intel gpu Fix Applied rB7bc8c Fix T Glitches caused by glCopyImageSubData on windows + intel gpu
    • Fix T Gpencil can’t select geometry within transparent layers
    • Fix T GPencil viewlayer filter produce crash with masking layers
    • Fix T Blender’s snap package ignores command line options
    • Fix for T work around render artifacts with AMD Radeon RX 4xx and 5xx
    • Fix T scaling/rotation fails for 3 selected NURB points
    • Fix T GPencil view layer filter by layer not working
    • Fix T Broken vertex paint undo on high-poly objects
    • Fix T Camera Solver constraint can’t be converted to f-curve

    Changes for va - v

    • With over bugfixes, and further critical fixes due throughout the next two years as part of the Long Term Support program, Blender LTS provides the performance and stability needed for major projects. New features include VR support, OpenVDB import, OptiX viewport denoising and a powerful new physics-enabled Cloth Brush.

    Changes for v - va

    • Fix T Autocomplete bug with shopzoro.us_triangles. in Blender Python Console. (rB69c)
    • Fix T UDIM crash changing form tiled to single (rBdb5)
    • Fix T Fluid Sim file handle resource leak (rBcc)
    • Fix T Crash saving images from non-image spaces (rBfe1)
    • Fix T Bone envelope & bone size tool functionality swapped (rBdd2cdd)
    • Fix T camera border gizmo size (rB9cac5fa, rBa48)
    • Fix T Reset last_hit and last_location when reading the file (rB2dfed58fb)
    • Fix T crash when compiling renderpass shader on some AMD drivers (rB9cb1fde4 + rBe5f98c79b0ed)
    • Fix T Cloth + Internal springs crashes on a non-polygonal geometry (rBa)
    • Fix Fix (unreported) Separate bones creates empty armature (rBf7bd8)
    • Revert "Constraints: remove special meaning of Local Space for parentless Objects." (rBff81e)
    • Fix T modifying keyframes in nodes fails when there is an image sequence (rBf0a22f5)
    • Fix crash loading .blend file saved with Blender (rBed8aa15)
    • Fix potential crash with Eevee render of missing image textures (rBab18dbb)
    • Fix T Mantaflow adaptive domain cuts off (rB32fc22db)
    • Keymap: Add front/back Alt-MMB absolute view axis switching (rBa)
    • Fix T Crash switching to vertex paint (rB31aefdeec5)
    • Fix bone envelopes displaying wrong when armature is scaled (rBeefd)
    • Fix Vertex weight gradient tool show wrong weight/strength values in the UI (rBf38c54d56e)
    • Fix T Image (from sequence) cannot be loaded (rB9dbfc7ca8bf)
    • Fix T Tools cannot be registered into some contexts (e.g. PAINT_TEXTURE) (rBd95e9c7cf8)
    • Fix T corner pin & sun-beam nodes gizmos are too big (rBf)
    • Fix T Cannot texture paint an images sequence anymore (rBcaf)
    • Add-ons
    • glTF: Fix some strange reference error in blender api when exporting shapekeys / ApplyModifier (rBAca68)
    • glTF: Fix crash using compositor rendering for image generation (rBAaff5aee)

    Changes for va - v

    • The second update of the Blender milestone release is here!
    • With again over a thousand fixes and several important updates that were planned for the series. In this release you will find UDIM and USD support, MantaFlow fluids and smoke simulation, AI denoising, Grease Pencil improvements, and much more!
    • February 14,
    • Physics Reborn
    • Blender’s simulations got a major bump with a brand new physically-based liquid/gas simulation system using Mantaflow and improvements in cloth physics.
    • Light Your Fire
    • The new Mantaflow system allows you to create mind-blowing fire and smoke simulations.
    • Read more
    • FLIP Out
    • Create lifelike liquids with a new FLIP solver.
    • Read more
    • Improved Cloth Simulations
    • Internal Air Pressure
    • Internal Cloth Springs
    • Simulate balloons and cushions with ease.
    • UDIM
    • The popular tiled-based UV mapping system is now fully integrated in Blender’s pipeline.
    • Read more
    • Pixar USD Export
    • Blender now supports Pixar’s very own open source Universal Scene Description.
    • USD files can contain complex layering, overriding, and references to other files. Blender’s USD Exporter takes a much simpler approach.
    • Read more
    • Cycles Improvements Read more
    • Node Improvements
    • Random Per Island
    • Geometry node now has a Random Per Island option, to randomize textures or colors for different components within a mesh.
    • Math
    • Math node has new operations: trunc, snap, wrap, compare, pingpong, sign, radians, degrees, cosh, sinh, tanh, exp, smoothmin and inversesqrt.
    • Map Range
    • New interpolation modes: Linear, Stepped Linear, Smoothstep and Smootherstep.
    • Noise & Wave
    • Distortion was improved to distort uniformly in all directions, instead of only diagonally.
    • Custom Shader AOVs
    • A new AOV Output node can be put anywhere in your shader node tree and will be exposed as a custom render pass.
    • And even more:
    • Denoising
    • The Albedo pass was improved to work better with the OpenImageDenoise compositor node. Read more.
    • The Normal pass was changed to output in camera space to work better with the OptiX denoiser. Read more.
    • Faster Rendering on Windows
    • BVH build time on Windows has been significantly reduced by using a better memory allocator, making it similar to Linux and macOS performance. Read more.
    • AI Denoiser
    • Cycles now supports the AI-Accelerated Denoiser from OptiX, for NVIDIA RTX graphics cards.
    • Supports multiple GPUs.
    • Convincing results with low samples.
    • Built into Blender’s view layer system.
    • This AI-Accelerated Denoiser was contributed by NVIDIA.
    • Read more
    • EEVEE
    • Many improvements such as better group node sockets, normal mapping for non-mesh objects, performance and quality of render passes.
    • Read more
    • Preview Passes in the Viewport
    • Just like in Cycles, you can now pick which pass to see while in Rendered shading mode.
    • Combined
    • Ambient Occlusion
    • Normal
    • Mist
    • Ambient Occlusion, Normal, Mist, Subsurface Direct and Subsurface Color are supported, with more passes coming in Blender !
    • Volumetrics + Transparency
    • Transparent materials now blend properly with volumetrics.
    • Beyond Sculpting
    • After the ground-breaking sculpt updates, new features keep pouring in.
    • Read more
    • Pose Brush with Inverse Kinematics
    • Slide/Relax Brush
    • Multi-plane Scrape Brush
    • Brush Dash Ratio
    • IK segments property to control how many IK bones are going to be created for posing. Hold Ctrl to twist the deformation.
    • Even more:
    • Mask Slice operator: removes the masked vertices from the mesh, with options to fill the produced holes or creating a new mesh object with the removed vertices.
    • The symmetrize operator can now run with Dyntopo disabled.
    • The sample detail size operator now works with the voxel remesher. It sets the voxel size to a value that produces a mesh with an approximate detail resolution to the area that was sampled.
    • Plus more improvements that don’t even fit here, check them out.
    • Grease Pencil
    • Many changes in the user interface, dopesheet updates, new tools and modifiers.
    • Read more
    • Multiple Strokes Modifier
    • Automatically generate multiple strokes around the originals.
    • Polyline Tool
    • Draw polygon shapes with this new dedicated tool.
    • Dopesheet Improvements
    • Quick access to Opacity, Blend and Onion skinning in the channels.
    • New Eyedropper Tool
    • Easily create materials on the fly with this new tool.
    • User Interface
    • The user interface and user experience keeps getting polished in ; with improvements to the tool system and layout tweaks for consistency.
    • Read more
    • Fallback Tools
    • Now, when you have a tool active, you can still easily box, lasso or circle select when you click and drag outside the gizmo.
    • UV Gizmos
    • The UV Editor now supports gizmos for the transform tools, just like the 3D View.
    • Custom Face Orientation Colors
    • Brush Settings Overhaul
    • Text Editor UI Tweaks
    • Industry Compatible Keymap
    • Graph Editor Selection & Transform
    • Consistent Scrollbars
    • New Icons on File Browser
    • VFX Reference Platform
    • Blender is committed to adhere with the VFX Reference Platform. This helps pipelines that depends on different software to have a common set of libraries they are all compatible with.
    • Read more
    • Compatibility
    • Loading fluid simulations from previous versions is only partially possible. Read more .
    • Due to changes in the Noise and Wave shader nodes, their pattern can look slightly more.
    • EEVEE: A fix in how transparent materials react to volumetrics will make them look different (as in, properly lit), there is no workaround other than to tweak the affected materials. Read more.
    • But Wait! There's More

    Changes for v - v

    • The much anticipated update of the Blender milestone is here! With over a thousand fixes and several important updates that were planned for the series. Most notable are the sculpting tools overhaul, support for NVIDIA RTX ray tracing in Cycles, Intel Open Image denoising, a better outliner, a new file browser and much more.
    • Sculpting Rethought
    • A complete overhaul of the sculpting workflow.
    • Read more
    • New Cursor & Brush Settings
    • Auto Masking
    • Assigns a factor to each vertex before starting the stroke. Topology automasking affects only vertices connected to the active vertex.
    • World Spacing
    • Keep an even distance between stroke points in 3D space. Great for sculpting near the edges.
    • Grab Active Vertex
    • Snaps the maximum strength of the grab brush to the highlighted active vertex, making it easier to manipulate low poly models or meshes with subdivision surfaces.
    • Normal Radius
    • Control how sensitive the sculpt normal direction is to the underlying surface.
    • New Cursor
    • Dynamic Mesh Preview
    • The cursor now is aligned to the surface normal, displays symmetry and a preview curve fall-off.
    • Masking
    • Mask Filter
    • Modifies the whole paint mask. In includes multiple operations like smooth, grow or contrast accessible from a pie menu.
    • Dirty Mask Generator
    • Similar to Dirty Vertex Colors, but it generates a paint mask. It can be used to mask cavities in the sculpt.
    • Mask Expand
    • Creates a mask from the active vertex to the vertex under the cursor based on topology or mesh curvature.
    • Mask Extract
    • Extracts the paint mask to a new mesh object. It can extract the paint mask creating a boundary loop in the geometry, making it ready for adding a subdivision surface modifier.
    • Mask Expand by Curvature
    • Mask Extract
    • New Tools
    • Pose Brush
    • Pose a model simulating an armature-like deformation. The pivot point for rotation is calculated automatically based on the radius of the brush and the topology of the model.
    • Elastic Deform Brush
    • Based on Pixar's paper Regularized Kelvinlets:
    • Sculpting Brushes based on Fundamental Solutions of Elasticity, this tool lets you grab, biscale grab, triscale grab, scale and twist operations while preserving volume.
    • Translate, Rotate, Scale
    • Use the familiar transform tools now also during sculpt. Transforming around a pivot point and taking into account symmetry.
    • Draw Sharp Brush
    • Similar to the draw brush, but it deforms the mesh from the original coordinates. When used with the sharper curve presets it has a much more pleasant crease/cut behavior than any of the other brushes. It is useful for creating cloth wrinkles, stylized hair or hard surface edges.
    • Mesh Filter Tool
    • Applies a deformation to all vertices in the mesh at the same time. It includes multiple deformation modes and the option to lock the deformation axis.
    • Elastic Deform: Grab
    • Elastic Deform: Scale
    • Transform Tools in Sculpt Mode
    • Remeshing
    • Blender now ships with two new ways to remesh your models, a fast one based on volumes and another one preserving quads.
    • Read more
    • OpenVDB Voxel
    • Quickly create a new quad mesh based on the volume of the mesh. It is particularly useful for sculpting, to generate a good topology when blocking shapes, as an alternative to dynamic topology without the performance cost of continuous updates.
    • QuadriFlow
    • Creates a quad mesh with few poles and edge loops following the driver easy 5.6.4 license key - Crack Key For U of the surface. This method is relatively slow but generates higher quality for final topology.
    • NVIDIA RTX Support
    • Cycles now has experimental support for rendering with hardware-accelerated raytracing on NVIDIA RTX graphics cards. It’s On.
    • The OptiX backend was contributed by NVIDIA.
    • Intel® Open Image Denoise
    • A new Denoise node was added in the compositor, to denoise renders using OpenImageDenoise.
    • Compared to the existing denoiser, it works better with more complex materials like glass, and suffers less from splotchy artifacts. It also gives better results with very low numbers of samples, which can be used for quick previews.
    • Read more
    • Cycles
    • Not everything is EEVEE these days! Cycles got new and improved nodes, a new denoiser, adaptive subdivision stitching, custom HDRI picking from the viewport, NVIDIA RTX support and optimizations all over the board.
    • Read more
    • Preview Passes in the Viewport
    • Pick which pass to see while in Rendered shading mode.
    • Combined
    • Diffuse Indirect
    • Glossy Indirect
    • Ambient Occlusion
    • Normal
    • Massive improvements on Shader nodes for Cycles & EEVEE.
    • Volume Info
    • For convenient access to Color, Density, Flame, and Temperature attributes of smoke domains.
    • Vertex Color
    • For convenient access to Vertex Colors and their alpha channel.
    • Map Range
    • Linearly remap a value from one range to another.
    • White Noise
    • Produces a random number based on input values.
    • Clamp
    • Clamps a value between a maximum and a minimum values.
    • Math & Vector Math
    • New operations and dynamically show number of inputs depending on the operation.
    • Mapping
    • Location, rotation and scale are now node inputs that can be linked to other nodes.
    • Voronoi, Musgrave, Noise
    • Support for 1D, 2D, and 4D textures. Plus more feature types.
    • Reduced shadow terminator artifacts for bump mapping with diffuse BSDFs.
    • EEVEE
    • After making its debut in Blenderthe real-time render engine got major optimizations and new features in this release.
    • Soft Shadows have been completely rewritten to be easier to setup, look and match Cycles better.
    • Volumetrics are now faster to compute on modern GPUs.
    • Bump mapping gives more accurate results closer to Cycles.
    • Support for instanced lights and shadow casters.
    • Contact shadows now follow the light shape.
    • Sun lights now have their clip distances automatically computed.
    • Holdout is now supported with both opaque and semi transparent surfaces.
    • Transparency handling has been reworked and now supports the same BSDF combinations as Cycles.
    • Read more
    • Grease Pencil
    • New brushes, improved stroke quality, new tools and performance improvements.
    • Read more
    • New Brushes & Presets
    • Convert Curves to Grease Pencil
    • Self Overlap
    • A new option in materials to disable the stencil effect on strokes.
    • Isometric Guides
    • New isometric grid option for lines specified by angle.
    • Fade Objects: On
    • Fade Objects: Off
    • New File Browser
    • Opens as floating window with more standard layout.
    • Popovers for view and filter options.
    • Reworked display of date and file size text.
    • Options now display on the sidebar, opened or closed depending on the task.
    • Vertical list view with interactive column header.
    • Deleting files will now move them to the system trash.
    • New and updated icons.
    • Some settings of the dialog are saved in the preferences, so reopening it will have them remembered.
    • Preferences option allows using the File Browser in full-screen layout.
    • Read more
    • Vertical List
    • Thumbnail View
    • Sidebar
    • Outliner
    • The outliner got a long-overdue pass on usability.
    • Selection is now synced with the viewport
    • Range selection with Shift+Click, extend selection with Ctrl+Click, and range select without deselecting with Ctrl+Shift+Click.
    • Drag & Drop for parenting multiple objects.
    • Navigate with Up and Down keys, expand/collapse with Left/Right, hold shift to apply recursively
    • Box select with click and drag.
    • Expand arrow click and drag to expand or collapse multiple items.
    • Object selection with eyedropper now works in the outliner.
    • Filter option to show hidden objects.
    • F2 to rename active outliner element.
    • Read more
    • Transform & Snapping
    • Transform origins, new snapping, mirroring and auto merge options.
    • Read more
    • Transform Origin
    • It's now possible to move object origins directly. This is an alternative method of adjusting the origin, previously only possible placing the cursor and setting an objects origins to the cursor.
    • Snapping
    • Two new snap options have been added:
    • Edge Center, to snap to the middle of an edge.
    • Edge Perpendicular, to snap to the nearest point on an edge.
    • Transform Parent
    • You can now transform parents without affecting their children.
    • Mirror Any Axis, Anywhere.
    • For mesh editing and vertex/weight paint modes, mirroring now supports X, Y, Z and multiple axes simultaneously.
    • Poly Build Improvements
    • Blender brings the poly build tool to a whole new level for retopology tasks.
    • Automatic Quad Creation
    • Smart Pre-selection
    • Library Overrides
    • Library Overrides is the new system designed to replace and supersede Proxies.
    • Most types of linked data-blocks can be overridden, and the properties of those overrides can then be the library data change, unmodified properties of the override one will be updated accordingly.
    • Compared to proxies, library overrides support:
    • Multiple independent overrides of the same linked data (i.e. link a character once, instance it multiple times!).
    • Adding new modifiers and constraints, anywhere in the stack.
    • Recursively chaining overrides (i.e. link and override overrides from another library file, etc.).
    • Viewport
    • The viewport and workbench also got improvements in this release.
    • Read more
    • Local Collections
    • Each viewport can now have its own set of visible collections.
    • Specular Control on Matcaps
    • Workbench matcaps can now be OpenEXR images with separate diffuse and specular layers.
    • Mesh Analysis
    • Mesh analysis overlay now supports meshes with modifiers, instead of only the original mesh.
    • Image Objects
    • Image objects can now be set to display only in side views for a better workflow when used as reference.
    • HDRI Strength Control
    • HDRI studio light strength can now be controlled in the shading popover.
    • Rendered Shading
    • Improvements were made to rendered preview so it supports turning off all scene lights and custom world HDRI, for look development (now also for Cycles!)
    • Batch Rename
    • Where you could previously rename the active item with F2, you can now also batch

    Changes for vb - v RC1

    • Blender Release Countdown
    • A Release Candidate is the final step before the release. Blender has been built and packaged just like the official release, and is available for a short period of testing. Please download it and give it a good try. If things go as expected, the final release will be one week after.
    • A Fresh Start
    • Blender features a redesigned user interface that puts the focus on the artwork that you create. A new dark theme and modern icon set were introduced. Keyboard, mouse and tablet interaction got a refresh with left click select as the new default. Quick Favorites menus provide rapid access to often-used tools.
    • Read more
    • A Whole New Workspace
    • Templates and workspaces let you quickly get started with tasks like sculpting, texture painting or motion tracking. They can be customized to create your own efficient working environment.
    • Read more
    • Sculpt
    • Model
    • Animate
    • Edit & Grade
    • What You See Is What You Need
    • Thanks to the new modern 3D viewport you will be able to display a scene optimized for the task you are performing. A new Workbench render engine was designed for getting work done in the viewport, supporting tasks like scene layout, modeling and sculpting. The engine also feature overlays, providing fine control over which utilities are visible on top of the render.
    • Overlays also work on top of Eevee and Cycles render previews, so you can edit and paint the scene with full shading.
    • Read more
    • Random Colors
    • Colored Wireframes
    • Look Dev
    • Tools & Gizmos
    • The 3D viewport and UV editor have new interactive tools and gizmos, along with a new toolbar. These make it easier to for new users to start using Blender, and for existing users to discover and use tools that previously required obscure key combinations.
    • Besides gizmos for tools, various elements like lights, camera, and the compositing backdrop image now have handles to adjust their shape or other attributes.
    • Intuitive Widgets
    • A set of simple yet functional controls will make 3D interaction fun again.
    • Toolbars
    • The new contextual toolbars enable you to quickly access and discover the right tool for the job.
    • Real Time
    • Eevee is a new physically based real-time renderer. It works both as a renderer for final frames, and as the engine driving Blender’s realtime viewport for creating assets.
    • It has advanced features such as volumetrics, screen-space reflections and refractions, subsurface scattering, soft and contact shadows, depth of field, camera motion blur and bloom.
    • Read more
    • Eevee materials are created using the same shader nodes as Cycles, making it easy to render existing scenes. For Cycles users, this compatibility makes Eevee work great as a realtime preview. For game artists, the Principled BSDF is compatible with shading models used in many game engines.
    • 2D Animation
    • Grease Pencil is now a full 2D drawing and animation system. This unprecedented integration of 2D tools in a 3D environment will enable you to create next-level concept art, storyboards and animations.
    • Read more
    • Grease Pencil objects are a native part of Blender, integrating with existing object selection, editing, management, and linking tools. Strokes can be organized into layers, and shaded with materials and textures. Besides a draw mode for strokes, these objects can also be edited, sculpted and weight painted similarly to meshes.
    • Modifiers can be used to deform, generate and color strokes. Commonly used mesh modifiers such as array, subdivide and armature deform have equivalents for strokes. Rendering effects like blur, shadows or rim lighting are also available.
    • Cycles
    • Cycles now provides industry-standard functionality such as Cryptomatte, BSDF hair and volume shading and Random Walk Subsurface scattering. Many rendering optimizations were done including combined CPU and GPU rendering, much improved OpenCL start and render time, and CUDA support for scenes that don’t fit in GPU memory.
    • Read more
    • Principled Hair BSDF
    • Rendering physically based hair and fur is now easier and no longer requires setting up a complex shader network.
    • Cryptomatte
    • Cryptomatte is a standard to efficiently create mattes for compositing. Cycles outputs the required passes, which can be used in the Blender compositor or any compositor with Cryptomatte support.
    • Random Walk Subsurface Scattering
    • The new Random Walk subsurface scattering method provides more accurate results for thin and curved objects.
    • Subdivision and Displacement
    • New offscreen dicing scale helps to significantly reduce memory usage, by reducing the dicing rate for objects the further they are outside of the camera view.
    • Cycles has been used in high-profile short and feature films, and is receiving a growing amount of contributions from the industry. The full list of improvements is available on the wiki release notes. Here are some highlights.
    • Principled Volume Shader
    • Bevel Shader
    • Ambient Occlusion Shader
    • Performance Optimizations
    • GPU+CPU Rendering
    • IES Lights
    • Disk Area Lights
    • Vector Displacement
    • and more!

    Changes for v - va RC

    • This corrective release contains over bugfixes.

    Changes for vc - v

    • Denoise
    • Get rid of render noise while preserving visual detail as well as possible.
    • Same render time, buttery smooth.
    • 10 samples. No Denoise.
    • 10 samples. With Denoise.
    • The Dweebs -
    • Filmic Color Management
    • A new Filmic view transform has been added, for more photorealistic results and better handling of high dynamic range.
    • sRGB
    • Filmic
    • Andrew Price -
    • PBR Shader
    • Based on the Disney model, the principled BSDF is a new surface shader node. Combining multiple layers into a single easy to use node.
    • Faster OpenCL
    • Blender features much faster AMD OpenCL rendering and feature parity with NVIDIA CUDA. Including support for Subsurface Scattering, Volumetrics and optimized transparent shadows.
    • Shadow Catcher
    • Combine CGI elements with real-life footage easily with the new Shadow Catcher feature for Cycles.
    • Any object in the scene can be a shadow catcher. Controlled by the “Shadow Catcher” option in the object settings. This option will make the object to only receive shadows in a way that it could be composed onto another image.
    • More Cycles Improvements
    • Shaders compilation is now multithreaded, a new light sampling threshold feature was added, speedups up to 20% for CPUs that support AVX2, brick textures have now smoothing and a long-waited feature: texture coordinates for point, spot and area lamps!
    • Modeling & Modifiers
    • New Modifier! Surface Deform, transfers motion from another mesh.
    • Plus a whole bunch of updates. Some of them are:
    • Displace Modifier: Multi-threading support and new Global/Local space option for X/Y/Z/XYZ directions.
    • Mirror Modifier: add offset for mirrored UVs.
    • Mesh intersect has a new Cut separate mode, keeping each side of the intersection separate without splitting faces in half.
    • New tool to Set custom normals from selected faces.
    • Improved center of mass calculation for mesh centers.
    • Animation
    • Pose library reordering and keying for selected bones only.
    • Better undo for frame changes.
    • Various small new tools and options.
    • Grease Pencil
    • New tools for interpolating between grease pencil frames.
    • Per-layer onion skinning, add blank frame tool, and UI improvements.
    • Numpad keys now work when doing sculpt sessions.
    • Operator to add a blank frame
    • Reproject Strokes option to project strokes onto geometry
    • UI improvements
    • User Interface
    • Application templates to define a reusable configuration
    • Automatic scaling for high DPI displays on Windows and Linux
    • Image empties now support multi-view stereo
    • Reorganized sequencer and UV editor panels
    • Custom shortcuts for keyframing and drivers
    • More tooltips now show the reason why the button is disabled
    • Add-on duplicates warning now includes paths
    • Alembic
    • Alembic import and export has been greatly improved, both in compatibility and stability.
    • New supported features include export of linked dupli-groups, sub-frame sampling, face-varying vertex colors, child hairs and empties.
    • Python API
    • Custom properties pointing to data-blocks like objects or materials.
    • Render engine add-ons can now add custom render passes.
    • Inserting custom items in right click menus.
    • Add-ons
    • Blender packs a bunch of new add-ons that greatly expand Blender’s functionality, allowing you to create architectural environments using parametric windows and walls, to make beautiful skies, or even meta-rigs to animate cats and horses!
    • Full list of new add-ons: Dynamic Sky, Archipack, Magic UV, Mesh Edit Tools, Skinify, Display Tools, Brush Menus, Btrace, Is Key Free, Turnaround Camera, Auto Mirror, Camera Rigs, Snap Utils Line, Add Advanced Objects, Export Paper Model, Kinoraw Tools, Stored Views, Render Clay, Auto Tracker, Refine Tracking Solution, Materials Library VX, Mesh Tissue, Cell Fracture Crack It.
    • Several add-ons were updated as well, including Collada, POV-Ray, OBJ, Rigify, Ant Landscape, Add Curve Extra Objects, Viewport Pie Menus, Blender ID, Node Wrangler.
    • More Features
    • Video encoding settings have been simplified, along with the addition of a Constant Rate Factor (CRF) mode.
    • Viewport support for Object Info, Layer Weight and Fresnel shading nodes.
    • OpenSubdiv now supports multiple materials drawing in Cycles textured view
    • Duplicate Particle Systems
    • Rigid Body Physics: support for rotational springs with stiffness and damping
    • Collada improvements
    • Freestyle improvements
    • Compatibility Warning
    • When using add-ons in Blender that take advantage of the new data-block pointer properties, the resulting .blend files can’t be opened in earlier versions of Blender. Attempting to open such .blend files in Blender c and earlier may crash.
    • Some Interface Themes may need to be reloaded to work properly.
    • The text color contained in a is now defined in User Preferences » Themes » User Interface » Box section
    • When using the add-on Rigify, please note:
    • Compatibility is broken for this release. There’s no guarantee rigs created in previous Blender versions will work correctly.
    • Rigs created in Blender may not be compatible with
    • Rigs created in Blender may still work.
    • Save your work before attempting upgrading your rigs.
    • Bug Fixes
    • As for every Blender release, hundreds of bugs were fixed, thanks to the hardworking Blender developers.

    Changes for va - vb

    • Blender b is a performance update release which mainly includes speedups for Cycles rendering.
    • Cycles
    • Multithreaded shader compilation.
    • Various optimizations for emission meshes.
    • Corrected light sampling for Branched Path Tracing, reduces noise leading to faster convergency.
    • Improvements in constant folding algorithm, removing shading nodes which are not used for final evaluaiton.
    • Improvements to some procedural textures (brick)
    • Early light ray termination based on contribution of light to the result.
    • Fix for background MIS with textures having small bright spots, which was causing fireflies.
    • Different seed for subframes and different stereo views, allowing "slow-motion" effect and improves VR experience.
    • Distance culling for objects to remove objects which are too far away from the camera.
    • Fix for undesirable threads affinity change on Windows.
    • Avoid various numerical issues in the kernel, solving fireflies.
    • Fixes for deformation motion blur combined with autosplit.
    • Better remainedtime estimation.
    • Various optimizations for deformation motion blur.
    • Added time steps BVH option to speed up rendering of scenes with motion blur.
    • Cycles: GPU
    • Use XDG folder for cache on Linux and OSX, which avoids having per-Blender version folder with all the OpenCL/CUDA kernels built.
    • Ability to enable/disable individual GPUs as opposite to old behavior with pre-defined combinations only. Not only this helps to some artists, but also makes it possible to have flexible benchmark scripting.
    • Cycles: CPU
    • Use more global SSE optimizations for SSE+ kernels.
    • Multiple improvements for the latest AVX2 CPUS:
    • Optimized various math utilities (cross-products, dot-products, min-axis-selection and others).
    • Faster version of triangle intersection function.
    • Optimization of various steps in BVH traversal algorithm (including both construction and traversal).
    • Cycles: OpenCL
    • Added 3D textures support for OpenCL
    • Make it conditional to compile-in transparent shadows support. Depending on a scene and hardware gives really major render time improvements.
    • Dependency graph
    • Solve various race conditions (conflicts between threads which are working on the same data).
    • Optimization of dependency graph construction time.
    • Fix missing or wrong relation links, which were causing hard-to-reproduce bone flickering.
    • Fix various crashes related on linked data blocks.
    • Fixes for missing animation updates.
    • Other
    • Fixed regression crash when adding texture node to compositor.
    • Fixed crash of inverse kinematics on 32 bit Windows platforms
    • Improve multi-threaded usage of fluid simulation
    • Return correct alpha for environment map in GLSL

    Changes for v - va

    • For a many fixes for OpenGL display and simulation were made, as well as various fixes to rendering, sequencer and modeling. This bugfix release also solved some regressions in the particle system.

    Changes for vb - v

    • Cycles: Better Subsurface Scattering, GPU support for Smoke/Fire and Point Density.
    • Grease pencil stroke sculpting and improved workflow.
    • OpenVDB caching for smoke/volumetric simulations.
    • Reworked library handling to manage missing and deleted datablocks.
    • Redesigned progress bar.
    • Edit mode boolean tool, better decimate modifier.
    • Improved extruding and weight painting tools for sculpting/painting.
    • Support for Windows XP and the SCons build system was removed.
    • Blender now requires OpenGL minimum
    • And: s of bug fixes and other improvements!

    Changes for va - v

    • Initial support for Pixar's OpenSubdiv geometry subdivision technology.
    • A huge view-port performance boost.
    • Big file browser performance boost and arrow keys navigation support.
    • Node Auto-offset feature that helps organizing node layouts.
    • Absolute grid snapping in the 3D view.
    • Sculpting with tiled strokes.
    • Text effect strips for the sequencer, supporting subtitle export.
    • And: s of bug fixes and other improvements!
    • Cycles Rendering
    • shopzoro.usg
    • New Point Density texture.
    • Improvements for AMD GPUs (stability on Windows / Linux and compatibility with OSX El Capitan).
    • Camera zoom motion blur support.
    • Support for extended and clipped image texture extension.
    • User Interface
    • Nodes insert
    • View-port: The ongoing view-port project brought a big performance boost.
    • Node Editor: Auto-offset existing nodes when adding a new one.
    • File Browser:
    • Arrow-key navigation and selection.
    • Huge rework of internal code, now quicker & lighter.
    • It's now possible to display the correct (user edited) shortcuts of modal operations in the UI.
    • Modeling
    • edge offset png
    • Two new tools: Flatten Faces and Edge Offset.
    • Data Transfer supports transferring data between equal meshes better.
    • Absolute grid snapping for the 3D view was added.
    • Support custom normals for the Displace Modifier.
    • OpenSubdiv
    • Initial integration of the Pixar OpenSubdiv library.
    • Greatly improves view-port playback performance.
    • GPU tessellation support.
    • Improves edge sharpness.
    • Sequencer
    • Text seq relpng
    • New Text Effect for rendering text into sequencer output.
    • Exporting of text as subtitles.
    • Speed Effect can re-time scenes with subframe rendering.
    • Improved AltRMB selection behavior.
    • Freestyle NPR Rendering
    • Rl freestyle
    • Freestyle memory consumption was reduced.
    • New stroke modifiers were implemented.
    • Animation
    • SelectionSet releasepng
    • Clean Channels tool was introduced that helps organizing channels.
    • A new add-on to create bone selection sets is bundled.
    • Game Engine
    • Possibility of changing camera Lens Shift during game
    • Python API improvements.
    • Alpha Anti-Aliasing.
    • Improved Game Publishing Add-on.
    • Add-ons
    • FBX Importer/Exporter got a number of new options.
    • OBJ Importer/Exporter now fully supports MTL emission of materials.
    • New version of the UV Add-on with new features.
    • More Features
    • Tilled sculpt strokes.
    • Animation Player:
    • Sound support!
    • Pause and start playing using Space.
    • A time indicator was added.
    • More datablock previews.
    • Blender Internal Particle Info Node.
    • Feature Videos
    • Have a look at some of the above 4K Video to MP3 2.6.1 Free Download 2020 (Win+Mac) features WinToHDD Serial key the demo videos made by the Blender community.
    • Here you will also find the Developer Sneak Peak series - a video podcast series that showcases important milestones in the development of every Blender release.
    • Bug Fixes
    • As for every Blender release, hundreds of bugs were fixed, thanks to the hardworking Blender developers.

    Changes for va - v

    • Cycles got several precision, noise, speed, memory improvements, new Pointiness attribute.
    • Viewport has new cool compositing features, outliner now manages orphan datablocks better.
    • Modeling now allows custom normals, and transferring data layers between meshes!
    • Massive improvements to hair dynamics and editing tools: a big step forward with more to come…
    • A new tool “Cavity Mask” was added to sculpting/painting, along with other improvements.
    • Great memory consumption optimization in Freestyle NPR stroke rendering.
    • Grease pencil and Game engine improvements, and more…

    Changes for va - v

    • A major upgrade was given to the Grease Pencil tool, which inter alia brought the ability to edit and animate strokes. The first developments from the Gooseberry Project like a Sequencer Backdrop, Cycles viewport world background and others were added. Cycles got various improvements and speedups, as well as support for cameras inside volumes, the UI got a new 'minimalistic' fullscreenmode and Input Method Editor support for textbuttons (used for complex Chinese and Japanese character input), the Knife-tool was improved, Freestyle got a SVG exporter, and many more features which are worth checking out!
    • Cycles Rendering
    • Rl
    • Volume Rendering:
    • Rendering with cameras inside volume meshes is blender cell fracture crack it - Crack Key For U supported
    • Cubic voxels interpolation is a new option helping to avoid artifacts on low resolution smoke simulations
    • Faster rendering of homogeneous volumes
    • Support for GeForce 9xx GPUs
    • Improved rendering with area lights
    • Viewport specularity for the viewport is now also implemented for Cycles
    • And more!
    • User Interface
    • Rl cycles world
    • A new fullscreen mode without any buttons or other "annoying" elements to improve the UI
    • The 3D View got an option to display the world background right from the viewport
    • Pie Menus:
    • Confirm Threshold to confirm a pie menu without releasing the original key
    • Nested Pie Menus (a Pie Menu within a Pie Menu) are now supported
    • Complex
    • Chinese and Japanese complex character input:
    • General support for Input Method Editors (IMEs) has been added
    • Only supported for text buttons for now
    • Only supported on Windows and Linux for now
    • Supported is Sougou (Chinese), Bing (Chinese), QQ (Chinese) and Microsoft integrated (Japanese)
    • And now guess why we have a Chinese Splash! ;)
    • And more!
    • Modeling
    • Rl knife
    • Knife-tool:
    • Cuts can now be created using free-hand drawing
    • Cut-loops can now be closed by double click
    • Selection:
    • A new selection method "Select Similar Regions" was added
    • You can now skip adjacent faces while using the select more/less function
    • And more!
    • Sculpting/Painting
    • Rl
    • Texture Painting:
    • The Add Simple Uvs operator for texture painting now uses a simpler unwrap method for better quick UV layouts
    • Face-mask edges are now hidden to give proper visual feedback while working with masks
    • Brushes:
    • Changing brush size, detail size and strength can now be done using numeric keyboard input
    • Brush strength can now also be changed for Grab and Snake Hook brushes
    • Sequencer
    • Release notes
    • A Backdrop similar to Compositor is now implemented for the Sequencer as well
    • Strips:
    • Strips can now be snapped to other strip's start- and endpoints
    • A new slip Tool allows moving content within the strip itself
    • And more!
    • Freestyle NPR Rendering
    • Blender SysTools Exchange Recovery Licenses key
    • Freestyle got a new SVG exporter, implemented as an add-on
    • View maps can now be cached
    • More options for chain selection and chain sorting were added
    • Animation
    • Rl
    • Grease Pencil (which got a major upgrade):
    • It is now possible to edit and animate strokes (!!!)
    • New draw styles were added, e.g. filled stroke interiors, volumetric strokes,
    • The Grease Pencil's user interface (which is now completely defined via Python) has gotten a general overhaul
    • Two quick access pie menus were added
    • Graph Editor:
    • Revised the set of operators for showing/hiding curves from the keyframe area
    • Circle selection for Curves was added
    • And more!
    • Add-ons
    • Collada Importer:
    • Importing rigs previously caused problems with leaf bones (end bone of a bone chain) so a fix was created for that.
    • Added an blender cell fracture crack it - Crack Key For U bonechain Finder to predict the longest possible chains of connected bones.
    • The FBX Add-on now uses some advanced handling/tweaking options for importing and exporting armatures
    • The Copy and Paste Add-on is now using version
    • To Add-on developers: Some changes were made to the Python API, make sure to check them out and update your Add-ons if necessary!
    • More Features
    • There are a lot more features that are new in Blenderso make sure to check them out!
    • Feature Videos
    • Look at many of the above features in the Blender Developer Sneak Peeks - a video podcast series that showcases important milestones in the development of every Blender release.
    • Bug Fixes
    • As for every Blender release, hundreds of bugs were fixed, thanks to the hardworking Blender developers.

    Changes for va - v RC

    • Work in progress release notes for Blender You can download a test build with these improvements here:
    • List of missing notes:
    • Cycles Rendering
    • Blender cycles area
    • Quite a few smaller Cycles improvements are new in Blender E.g. support for cameras inside volumes and cubic voxels interpolations, faster rendering of volumes, improved rendering of area lights, viewport specularity, And we now also support GeForce 9xx GPUs!
    • User Interface
    • Rl cycles world
    • A new Fullscreen mode displays an environment without any buttons or other "annoying" user interface elements. A number of Input Method Editors (IMEs) are now supported for complex non-latin character input (widely used in east-Asia). Pie menu interaction has been improved by using a confirm threshold and they now can contain nested Pie Menus. The 3D View, which is also a part of the UI, now has the option to display the world background, right from the viewport. Besides from that, there were lots of smaller improvements made.
    • Modeling
    • Dev:Ref/Release_Notes//Modeling
    • The Knife-tool now allows freehand cuts drawing and closing of cut-loops via double clicking. Selection during modeling has been improved by adding the ability to select similar regions, plus the select more/less function has gotten the option to skip adjacent faces. A few other improvements were made, like for the Bevel Modifier, Shapekeys,

    Changes for v - v RC


    Changes for va - v


    Changes for va - v Testbuild 1


    Changes for v - v


    Changes for v - va

    • Bug fix update
    • 14 bugs fixed since release: (Changes from revision up to )
    • Fix # Crash deleting a sequence strip r
    • Fix # Viewport render with CMJ sampler and unlimited passes freezes r
    • Fix # BGE, Blender crashes on Game Engine start r
    • Fix # BGE, Shadow Only lamps only work with Specular enabled r
    • Fix # removing vertex colors crashes r
    • Fix # BGE, fix crash with Game actuator r
    • Fix BGE, incorrect exception for SCA_shopzoro.usngle access r
    • Fix # Dynamic Topology undo crash r
    • Fix # Cloth Simulation Doesn't Work on Rearranging Modifiers r
    • Fix # Painting Undo Enable Face paint Crash r
    • Fix # Crash using factor input on color mix node r
    • Fix # Ocean Modifier (Geometry in Displace) - Subdivision Surface crash r
    • Fix Ocean Modifier crash when size is zero r
    • Fix # BGE, illegal operator in Expression Controller r
    • Fix # OpenGL viewport rendering to a new window fails r

    Changes for vb - v

    • The Blender Foundation and online developer community is proud to present Blender
    • Many different mesh modelling tools were added and improved. Cycles render performance was improved on Windows and on GPU's. The motion tracker can now automate placement and choice of markers more with new tools. Smoke rendering quality has been improved to reduce blockiness.
    • Python scripts and drivers are now disabled by default when loading files. This is for improved security, without this feature malicious .blend files could cause problems. See the Python security documentation for details.
    • release: July 18th,
    • Modeling
    • Improved bridge tool to bridge multiple loops at once, subdivision, surface blending and bridging face regions. New grid-fill tool filling a grid from edge loops, X mirror and projected proportional editing, snap to symmetry, face split option for dissolve, vertex connect cut across faces.
    • Physics
    • Smoke has improved rendering quality avoid blockiness, and subframe simulation support to handle fast moving emitters. Particles can now be emitted from faces generated by modifiers that were not in the original mesh.
    • Usability
    • Improved weight painting tools, mask modifier for sequencer strips, 2D image paint more consistent with 3D painting, better key shortcuts display, quick enabling and disabling of multiple layers or visibility, auto indent for multi-line Python statements,
    • Addons
    • New addons are Texture Atlas to bake shadow and lightmaps for an entire scene, and Edit Linked Library, for quick editing of linked assets.
    • Cycles Render
    • Rendering performance has been improved on CPU and GPU and support for new GPUs was added. A new Mist render pass is available, Ray visibility is now supported for all light sources, and new Nodes have been added. Hair rendering on the GPU has been enabled as well.
    • Motion Tracker
    • Some new features and smaller improvements to existing ones were done for motion tracking. Main features are markers' position refining, which allows you to refine marker position after it was occluded by an object, and automatic keyframe selection, which tries to automatically find a best keyframe for the reconstruction.
    • Python Security
    • Auto-running Python scripts can now be controlled more securely.
    • Bug fixes
    • In addition to the new features, over bugs that existed in previous releases have been fixed.

    Changes for va - v

    • The Blender Foundation and online developer community is proud to present Blender New in this release is the Freestyle render engine for non-photorealistic rendering, which can generate 2D line drawings in various styles.
    • The paint and sculpt system is now much more consistent across different paint modes and has gained various new features. Motion tracking was made faster, and Cycles now has initial support for subsurface scattering.
    • The node system now support more flexible group editing. For developers of external render engine addons it is now possible to support node based materials.
    • For 3D printing an addon was added to analyze and export the meshes.
    • release: May 7th,
    • Freestyle
    • Freestyle is a new non-photorealistic (NPR) rendering engine integrated into Blender. Originally developed as a stand-alone program in an academic research project, Freestyle provides artists with a new tool set for generating 2D line drawing out of a given 3D scene prepared with Blender. Generated lines can be stylized by a variety of stylization options for tweaking line color, alpha transparency, line thickness, and line geometry.
    • Motion Tracker
    • Camera and object motion solver motion are much more accurate and faster because the Ceres library is used now for the bundle adjustment step. In addition the tripod solver is finally fixed and has become usable for longer footage. Smaller fixes were done as well.
    • 3D Printing
    • An addon to help with 3d printing is now bundled as well as a new ruler tool and mesh-analysis display attributes such as thickness, sharp-areas and distortion.
    • Cycles Render
    • A Subsurface Scattering shader is now available, to create materials such as Wax, Marble or Skin. Minimum pixel width was added to hair rendering and several performance improvements have been made, to render scenes without hair or motion blur faster. The OSL shading system received performance improvements as well.
    • Addons
    • New addons are the node efficiency tools and VRML2 export.
    • Bug fixes
    • In addition to the new features, over bugs that existed in previous releases have been fixed.
    • Paint System
    • The stroke system and brush texture access has been unified and as a result there are many more tools now shared across paint modes. Brush angle control, better brush overlays, separate texture control for alpha and a brand new stencil mapping mode with direct mouse control have been implemented. Many improvements and bug fixes have also been made.
    • Compositing
    • Added border for compositor viewer node, which restricts what is to be composited for faster previews. Also border rendering and cropping are finally working as expected. Some optimization was done as well.
    • Node Editor
    • Node Groups editing is less cluttered and more consistent with other nodes. Multiple node editor windows can be used independently. Nesting node groups is fully supported. Pinning is supported as well in the node editor to disable context switching.
    • Python Nodes
    • The API now supports custom node types. Nodes can be defined and registered in python scripts like other UI classes. This allows the creation of entire new node systems for addons, external render engines and the like.
    • Tools
    • New mesh modeling tools: Individual Face Inset, Poke Face and Knife Project. Faster image display in the image and movie clip editors. Better support for UTF-8 text in the text and console editors, and various improvements to other editors.

    Changes for v - va

    • Interface
    • Fix # Image editor scope and clip editor track preview did not resize properly with different DPI settings. (r)
    • Fix # Alt+MouseWheel changes frame as well as buttons (r)
    • Fix UI/DPI: user preferences window size now takes into account DPI, otherwise the buttons don't fit properly. (r)
    • Fix soft shadow at top edge incorrectly drawn (r)
    • Fix # Screencast could be started twice (r)
    • Fix # Panel color were not updated from old files properly (r)
    • Allow trackpad and magic mouse swipes to control brush size for circle select. (r)
    • Fix (regression) # Window position not saving correctly for next start-up (r)
    • Fix # quicktime video codec menu showing blank (r)
    • Viewport
    • Fix # GLSL materials using multiple UV layers fail in editmode (r)
    • Fix # View3D Mini-Axis drawing in error with overlay (r)
    • Fix # Manipulator handles drawn incorrectly by depth (r)
    • Fix glitch rotating the camera in camera mode drawing helper-line in random locations (r)
    • Animation
    • Fix zoom for graph-editor blender cell fracture crack it - Crack Key For U other editors) (r)
    • Sequencer
    • Fix # Strip modifier - Mask multiply failure (r)
    • Fix # Added RGBA

      Animation Software Comparison: Maxon Cinema 4D vs Blender

      These two famous 3D software packages entered the animation industry on opposite ends of the spectrum many years ago. Maxon’s Cinema 4D was an industry leader, and was used by big budget studios across all art industries. Then there was Blender, the open source free software that was noticeably lacking on all fronts when compared to the top program names in the animation industry.

      So much has changed, and while Cinema 4D is still an industry titan being used in countless Hollywood movies, Blender has been closing the gap year after year. Let’s take a look at the strengths of both animation programs.

      Maxon CinemaMaxon Cinema 4D Updates

      Cinema 4D is a 3D modeling, animation, motion graphic, and rendering application developed by Germany’s Maxon Computer GmbH. It has all the bells and whistles you could want, and in September it released Cinema 4D R20, and added a few more features as well.

      Procedural animation is possible with Cinema 4D using its node based XPresso editor, which has options for animations without keyframes, or by using Python programming. HUD (Heads Up Display) updates make usability easier, and the Powerslider, Animation Dot, Dope Sheet, and F-curve feature enhancements all offer quality of life updates to keyframing. Motion Clips also allow you to create libraries of animations and blend them together on your characters. Other advanced features are Quaternion tags, Cappuccino, and Auto Redraw for dynamic IK.

      Find a school

      Advanced character animation comes with Character Component, Character Object, CMotion walk cycles, Interaction Tag, and Pose Morph. The Cinema 4D MoGraph comes with Cloner, Shader Effector, Sound Effector, Splice Effector, Delay Effector, the highly popular Voronoi Fracturing, and MoDynamics for other physics libraries. The simulation features include all of the usual ones, as well as the cutting edge Thinking Particles that are advanced rule-based particle systems.

      As far as pricing goes, Maxon has about two dozen different customizations of Cinema 4D R20, including Prime, Broadcast, Visualize, Studio, and BodyPaint. Artists can either purchase them outright, or buy short term three and six month licenses, or discounted upgrades for those who have previous versions. All of these options range from as low as $ to as much as $3, A standard package is Cinema 4D Studio R20 3-Month Short-Term License for $, or a six month license for $1,

      BlenderBlender Updates

      Blender's animation features include the following: automated walk-cycles along paths, character animation pose editor, Non Linear Animation (NLA) for independent movements, IK forward/inverse kinematics for fast poses, and sound synchronization. Posing characters gets easier and easier each year in Blender. Its rigging tools include envelope, skeleton and automatic skinning, easy weight painting, mirror functionality, bone layers, colored groups for organization, and B-spline interpolated bones.

      Other improvements have come to Denoise for lighting and rendering, film color management, PBR Shader based on the Disney model, faster OpenCL and parity with Nvidia CUDA technology for faster renders, support for subsurface scattering, Shadow Catcher, surface deform modifier, improved Alembic import and export, more Python API add-ons.

      Speaking of add-ons, check out this huge list of new add-ons: Dynamic Sky, Archipack, Magic UV, Mesh Edit Tools, Skinify, Display Tools, Brush Menus, Btrace, Is Key Free, Turnaround Camera, Auto Mirror, Camera Rigs, Snap Utils Line, Add Advanced Objects, Export Paper Model, Kinoraw Tools, Stored Views, Render Clay, Auto Tracker, Refine Tracking Solution, Materials Library VX, Mesh Tissue, Cell Fracture Crack It. These add-ons were also updated: Collada, POV-Ray, OBJ, Rigify, Ant Landscape, Add Curve Extra Objects, Viewport Pie Menus, Blender ID, Node Wrangler.

      The Blender fans keep busy and it’s amazing how much progress has occurred in the past decade. Over one thousand bugs have been fixed since just the previous Blender version alone! It’s exciting to see Blender being used more often in the indie game development industry. The community continues to thrive, flourish, and improve.

      Animation Schools to Consider

      Academy of Art University

      Selected Campus Locations:
      • San Francisco & Online
      Animation Career Review Rankings: 
      • Top 50 Nationally for Animation (#14) -
      • Top 50 Nationally for Game Design (#37) -
      • Top 50 Nationally for Illustration (#24) -
      • Top 50 Nationally for Graphic Design (#38) -

      Full Sail University

      Selected Campus Locations:
      • Winter Park, FL & Online
      Animation Career Review Rankings: 
      • Top 50 Nationally for Animation (#11) -
      • Top 50 Nationally for Game Design (#10) -
      • Top 25 in the South for Graphic Design (#10) -

      Cellulose nanofibrils as filler for adhesives: effect on specific fracture energy of solid wood-adhesive bonds


      Cellulose nanofibrils were prepared by mechanical fibrillation of never-dried beech pulp and bacterial cellulose. To facilitate the separation of individual fibrils, one part of the wood pulp was surface-carboxylated by a catalytic oxidation using (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl)oxyl (TEMPO) as a catalyst. After fibrillation by a high pressure homogenizer, the obtained aqueous fibril dispersions were directly mixed with different urea–formaldehyde-(UF)-adhesives. To investigate the effect of added cellulose filler on the fracture mechanical properties of wood adhesive bonds, double cantilever beam specimens were prepared from spruce wood. While the highest fracture energy values were observed for UF-bonds filled with untreated nanofibrils prepared from wood pulp, bonds filled with TEMPO-oxidized fibrils showed less satisfying performance. It is proposed that UF-adhesive bonds can be significantly toughened by the addition of only small amounts of cellulose nanofibrils. Thereby, the optimum filler content is largely depending on the adhesive and type of cellulose filler used.


      Bonding of solid wood is a key issue in the manufacturing of numerous wood products. Driver Talent Pro Crack v8.0.2.10 + Activation Key Download (Latest) regarding applications in the structural field, mechanical performance of wood-adhesive bonds is of fundamental importance. Apart from other influencing factors like adherend material, geometric design of the bond line and its loading conditions, the adhesive properties significantly impact the strength of an adhesive bond (Habenicht ). In this regard, the addition of fibrous fillers to the liquid adhesive is one potential opportunity of increasing strength. Organic flours that are commonly applied as fillers for urea–formaldehyde-(UF)-adhesives primarily improve the processing characteristics of the adhesive mixture, although they may contribute to bonding strength by agglutination of starch during hot pressing (Dunky and Niemz ). If fibers are added to the adhesive, the cured adhesive bond line may be considered as a fiber-reinforced polymer. From composite science it is known, that the smaller the fiber diameter, the higher the attainable strength will be (Griffith ). Consequently, there were several attempts in the past to improve the mechanical performance of adhesive joints by reinforcing the adhesive with nanoparticles (Zhang et al. ; Ahmad et al. ; May et al. ; Khoee and Hassani ) or nanofibers (Hsiao et al. ; Ureña et al. ; Khalili et al.; Prolongo et al.; Yoon et al. ) from high-strength materials.

      Unlike in the past, where predominantly glass fibers, polymeric fibers and carbon fibers were used for adhesive reinforcement, nanofibrils from cellulose were used in this study. This abundant biopolymer offers outstanding mechanical properties especially when it is applied as a nano-scale material. The crystalline part of the cellulose has an estimated strength of up to 10 GPa (Zimmermann et al. ) and an elastic modulus in the range of  GPa (Sakurada et al. ; Nishino et al. ). Although the values determined for cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) are lower due to paracrystalline regions and material degradation during processing, fibrils based on cellulose can be considered as fairly competitive to synthetic fiber materials. This is especially true when the low density of cellulose is taken into consideration.

      Two recently published articles address for the first time the application of CNF for wood-adhesive reinforcement. In a study performed by López-Suevos et al. (), the suitability of CNF for the preparation of polyvinylacetate-(PVAc)-bond lines with improved temperature resistance was investigated. For this purpose, lap shear specimens according to EN with a cellulose content of up to 3 wt% were prepared and tested to failure. Although the cellulose-reinforced bond lines generally performed worse in dry and wet conditions, the bonds showed superior heat resistance.

      Richter et al. () tried to improve the rheological behavior and bonding properties of two different wood-adhesives (i.e. one component polyurethane-(1C-PUR)-adhesive and water-based polyvinyl acetate latex-(PVAc)-adhesive) by adding CNF. Among other things, lap-shear testing according to EN as well as block shear testing was performed. Cellulose content of the adhesive mixtures was increased up to 10 wt% for 1C-PUR and  wt% for the PVAc-adhesive. PVAc-adhesive films with cellulose reinforcement showed a direct correlation between the CNF-content of the adhesive formulation and the stiffness and strength properties of corresponding films. In spite of this, no significant and consistent improvement of bond line performance compared to non-reinforced reference products was achieved neither for PUR nor for PVAc. According to Richter et al. (), a quality controlled fibril morphology, a homogeneous dispersion into the adhesive as well as a comparable polarity of fibrils and adhesive polymers are critical parameters affecting the mechanical performance of the adhesive bond.

      In contrast to the studies mentioned above, two different UF-adhesives were used in the present study. These resins generally show a much more brittle material behavior than PVAc- and 1C-PUR-adhesives. Therefore, UF-adhesives tend to create micro-cracks that limit the mechanical performance of UF-bonds. Own investigations revealed that longitudinal shear strength of UF-bonds can be improved up to 30% by adding about 5 wt% of CNF to the liquid adhesive (Eichhorn et blender cell fracture crack it - Crack Key For U. ). Since apart from strength, also strain to failure was found to be considerably higher, it was concluded that the UF-adhesive was possibly toughened by the addition of CNF. Consequently it is the aim of the present study to evaluate a potential effect of a CNF-addition on the specific fracture energy of UF-adhesive bonds.

      Materials and methods

      Preparation and characterization of CNF

      For the preparation of CNF-dispersions, never dried dissolving grade beech pulp (Lenzing AG, Lenzing, Austria) with an initial solid content of about 50% was used as a starting material. One half of the pulp was directly used for high pressure homogenization, i.e. without further pretreatment (P1), while the other half was chemically modified by carboxylation (P2) with the aim of facilitating the separation of individual cellulose fibrils during the following homogenization process. The P2-dispersion was prepared by direct surface carboxylation using (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl)oxyl (TEMPO) as a catalyst and sodium chlorite as a primary oxidant under neutral conditions as described by Saito et al. (). Apart from wood pulp, also bacterial cellulose (BC) was used for CNF preparation. The celluloses (P1, P2 and BC) were suspended in distilled water and fibrillated by 20 passes through a high pressure laboratory homogenizer (APVAPV Manufacturing Sp. z o.o., Bydgoszcz, Poland) with a pressure of up to  bar. After homogenization, the dispersions were air dried at 60 °C to increase the cellulose content to about 4% by weight.

      To evaluate the degree of fibrillation, dried cellulose fibrils were sputter-coated with  nm of platinum and observed by a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM, Nova NanoSEMHillsboro, USA). In order to verify potential effects of TEMPO modification on the structure of cellulose fibrils, wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) was performed with dried cellulose films using a Nanostar (Bruker AXS) system connected to a rotating anode generator with Cu target. The system is equipped with crossed Göbel mirrors, a pinhole system for a primary collimation with a beam diameter of  μm and a two dimensional (2D) wire detector (Hi-Star). The 2D detector images were acquired and evaluated using Fit2D software.

      To investigate a potential effect of cellulose addition on the adhesive’s cure rate, the pH value and buffer capacity of the cellulose dispersions were determined using a microprocessor-pH-meter (CGSchott Geräte GmbH, Hofheim a. Ts., Germany) equipped with a pH/temperature combination electrode (N A). The buffer capacity was determined by titrating 10 mL of the cellulose dispersion (cellulose content 1% by weight) with  M sulphuric acid until a pH value of 2 was reached. Average buffer capacity values were calculated for the pH range from 2 to 7 by dividing the amount of acid consumed by the resulting change in pH.

      Preparation of double cantilever beam-(DCB)-specimens

      For fracture energy testing, the simplified flat double cantilever beam-(DCB)-specimen geometry as described by Gagliano and Frazier () was applied. The specimen consists of two wood adherends with a 3° longitudinal grain angle. Since the grain of both adherends converges to a V-shape at the bond line (Fig. 1), wood failure can be reduced to a minimum. Flawless spruce wood (Picea abies Karst.) with a density of  ± 18 kg/m³ was bonded with two UF-adhesives, namely a non-structural powder-adhesive for solid wood bonding (UF-1, W-Leim Spezial, Dynea Austria GmbH, Krems, Austria) and a low viscosity UF-adhesive used in particle board production (UF-2, Prefere 10F, Dynea Austria GmbH, Krems, Austria). According to the manufacturer’s instructions, UF-1 was mixed with water in a weight ratio of For the preparation of cellulose-filled adhesives, the powder was mixed with the fibrillated cellulose dispersions instead of water. To achieve proper dispersion of cellulose fibrils within the adhesive, mixing was performed with a hand blender for 3 min. It is worth mentioning that in case of P2, small cellulose particles could be visually observed even after mixing with the adhesive. Adhesive mixtures with a cellulose content of, and % per unit weight of cured UF were prepared with both adhesives. A spreading quantity of  g/m² of solid resin was used for all adhesive assemblies. The specimens bonded with UF-1 were cured at room temperature using a pressure of  MPa. As usual in the production of particle boards, ammonium sulphate (3% by unit weight of cured UF) was used as a hardener for UF To avoid a further decrease in solid content, the powdery hardener was dissolved in the respective cellulose dispersion which was thereafter added to the adhesive. The composition of the individual adhesive mixtures and the resulting solid contents are summarized in Table 1. In the case of UF-2, apart from cellulose, a large amount of water is added to the adhesive system. Since it was assumed that this results in a decelerated adhesive cure, the gel times of all UF-2 adhesive mixtures were determined. Therefore, about 2 mL of the liquid adhesive were poured into a test tube and immersed in a boiling water bath. The time span from immersion until complete gelation of the adhesive represents the gel time. Adhesive joints prepared with UF-2 were cured at a temperature of  °C with a pressure of  MPa. Pressing time was  min for UF-1 and 15 min for UF Under these conditions, complete curing can be assumed for both adhesive systems. The cured adhesive assemblies were cut to a final size of  × 20 × 20 mm³. For crack initiation, a 30 mm long ogival shaped kerf was cut at one end of each specimen. Two holes were drilled to attach the test grips. All specimens were stored at 20 °C and 65% relative humidity until equilibrium moisture content was reached.

      Geometry of flat double cantilever beam-(DCB)-specimens used for fracture energy determination of wood adhesive joints. All dimensions in mm

      Full size image

      Full size table

      Mechanical testing

      Fracture testing was performed on a Zwick/Roell Z universal testing machine equipped with a  kN load cell. The DCB-specimens were initially loaded with a speed of 1 mm/min. After a 50% drop in load, testing speed was increased steadily to a value of 10 mm/min. The specimens were tested until complete separation of the two parts and the load–displacement curve was recorded. Specific fracture energy (J/m²) was calculated by relating the total fracture energy obtained by integration of the load–displacement curve to the bonding surface area. All specimens with a wood failure greater than 10% were dropped out of the analysis. For the individual groups of specimens, mean values were calculated and compared by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, p ≤ ).

      Characterization of cured bond lines

      The cured bond lines were characterized using nanoindentation and optical microscopy. Small cubes with dimensions of 2 × 2 × 1 mm³ (width × thickness × length) containing the bond line in the center, were cut out of the DCB-specimens that had not been tested. The cubes were infiltrated with embedding medium (Agar Low Viscosity Resin R, Agar Scientific Ltd, Stansted, England) which was cured in an oven at 60 °C for 24 h. The cured resin blocks were cut to a size of 2 × 2 × 2 mm³ (width × thickness × length) and a smooth surface was prepared by an ultramicrotome (Leica Ultracut R, Leica Microsystems, Wetzlar, Germany). The specimens were used for incident light microscopy (Axioplan 2 imaging, Carl Zeiss Microimaging GmbH, Jena, Germany) and subsequently for nanoindentation.

      The nanoindentation measurements were performed on a Hysitron TI TriboIndenter equipped with a Berkovich tip. Four specimens were tested for each adhesive type (two specimens with pure adhesive bond lines and two bond lines filled with 2 wt% of P1). Indentation was performed in load-controlled mode using a pre-force of 2 μN. A 3-phase load profile was applied consisting of a loading phase where a load of  μN was applied within 1 s, a constant load phase with a duration of 20 s and an unloading phase lasting 1 s. For each indent, a load-depth curve was recorded and used to calculate the total work of indentation (Wtot) which can be further divided into an elastic (We) and plastic (Wp) part. The ratio of We/Wp may be used to estimate the brittleness of the adhesive bond line. Indentation hardness was calculated by dividing the peak load by the contact area at the end of the constant load phase. As described by Konnerth et al. (), the reduced elastic modulus (Er) was calculated from the initial slope of the unloading curve and indentation creep (CIT) was defined as the relative change of the indentation depth while the applied load is held constant.

      Results and discussion

      Characterization of cellulose nanofibrils

      After high-pressure homogenization, differences in the optical appearance of cellulose fibril suspensions were observed. Unlike the unmodified P1- and BC-dispersions, which were opaque, the TEMPO-treated P2-dispersion was optically transparent and showed a considerably higher viscosity at equal cellulose content. Since the viscosity further increased when water was removed from the suspension by drying, the P2-dispersion behaved almost like a solid when dried to a cellulose content of 4%. At this content, the P2-dispersion took up the form of a gelatinous granulate with particles of different size, whereas the P1 and BC suspensions, respectively, were still liquid, though highly viscous.

      FE-SEM microscopy confirmed differences in the structure of TEMPO-treated and untreated fibrils. As shown in Fig. 2, the untreated P1- and BC-nanofibrils form a loose fibril network after vacuum drying of the corresponding dispersions. In strong contrast, the TEMPO-treated P2-fibrils agglomerate to a very compact film when dried. This may be due to the fact that the introduction of carboxylate groups during the TEMPO-mediated oxidation causes significant changes in the surface properties of cellulose fibrils. Measurement of fibril diameters from the FE-SEM images revealed smaller fibrils for P2 compared to P1 and BC, respectively. The mean fibril diameters were 61 ± 21 nm (P2), 96 ± 48 nm (P1) and  ± 56 nm (BC) whereas 50–60 fibrils have been measured for each cellulose material. The fibril diameters obtained in this study seem rather high when compared to the results of previous studies (Saito et al.; Iwamoto et al. ). This is probably because the fibril dispersions were used directly after homogenization without separating larger aggregates by centrifugation. Also, an additional sonication MP3Studio YouTube Downloader Crack + Activation Key 2021 - Free Activators might have further decreased the fibril size.

      FE-SEM micrographs of cellulose nanofibrils prepared by high pressure homogenization of BC bacterial cellulose and P1 untreated beech pulp as well as P2 TEMPO-oxidized pulp

      Full size image

      Since TEMPO-treatment seemed to have affected the fibril structure as indicated by FE-SEM images (Fig. 2), WAXD measurements were performed in order to reveal possible changes in their crystalline structure. Contrary to a previous study (Saito et al. ) where quite similar X-ray diffraction patterns were found for both untreated kraft pulp and TEMPO-oxidized pulp, the WAXD-images of native (P1) and TEMPO-treated (P2) cellulose obtained in the present study differ considerably (Fig. 3). All celluloses investigated showed peak scattering intensities typical of cellulose I (Borysiak and Garbarczyk ). While both, P1 and BC are highly crystalline, TEMPO-treatment seems to have significantly reduced the crystallinity of P2. This is particularly obvious when a simple crystallinity index c is calculated from the scattering intensity Ic of the cellulose reflection at an angle of ° and the intensity Iref measured at an angle of 33°, where hardly any crystalline scattering was observed (Eq. 1).

      $$ c = \left( {I_{c} - I_{ref} } \right)/I_{c} .$$


      X-ray diffraction patterns of cellulose films prepared by air drying of cellulose fibril dispersions (P1 untreated pulp, P2 TEMPO-oxidized pulp, BC bacterial cellulose). Intensity peaks are less pronounced for P2, indicating that the TEMPO-mediated oxidation caused a reduction in the degree of cellulose crystallinity

      Full size image

      The crystallinity index c is highest for BC with and P1 with and significantly reduced for P2 with In addition, it seems that not only the overall crystallinity of the cellulose fibrils was affected by TEMPO-modification, but filemenu tools alternative the average crystallite width. An assessment of the width of the cellulose reflection peak at half the maximum intensity (full width at half maximum) for P1 and P2 shows a significant peak broadening in P2-cellulose. Since according to the Scherrer formula (Scherrer ) the peak width is inversely proportional to the crystallite size, this indicates a reduction of the width of cellulose crystallites after TEMPO-treatment.

      Regarding their acid/base properties the three cellulose dispersions did not differ significantly. The initial pH values determined for P1, P2 and BC wereandrespectively. The average buffer capacities were found to beand  mmol/L for the pH range from 2 to 7. Since the drop in pH caused by the addition of the acidic hardener by far compensates such low buffer capacities, the effect on adhesive’s cure can be neglected. The increase of gel times with increasing cellulose content (Table 1) is therefore predominantly attributed to the lower solid contents of CNF-filled UF-2 adhesive mixtures.

      Characterization of cured adhesive bond lines

      An analysis using incident light microscopy (Fig. 4) revealed that for UF-1, bond line thickness clearly increased due to the addition of P1. This effect is primarily attributed to the high viscosity of the filled adhesive. Although the increase in viscosity was not quantified, the markedly higher viscosity of UF-1 + P1 and BC was clearly visually recognizable. In contrast, UF-1 + P2 showed almost the same viscosity and bond line thickness than pure UF As mentioned earlier, visible particles of P2 remained after mixing. Due to the strong agglomeration tendency of P2 it was obviously not possible to achieve a uniform distribution of individual fibrils in the adhesive.

      Optical micrographs of urea–formaldehyde-(UF) bond lines. Two different adhesives were applied, once without any additional filler (UF-1 and UF-2) and once filled with 2 wt% fibrillated pulp (P1). Adhesive spread was  g/m² of solid resin in all cases

      Full size image

      In the case of UF-2, bond lines were generally thinner and bond line thickness did not increase substantially for the cellulose filled adhesives. The low thickness can be explained by the much lower viscosity of pure UF-2 compared to UF While for UF-1 the total solid content remains roughly the same after cellulose addition, this is not true for UF Since in case of the latter the solid content is reduced by the addition of extra water from the cellulose dispersion, viscosity increase is less pronounced than for UF Therefore a considerable amount of both pure and cellulose filled UF-2 was squeezed out during pressing. As evident from Fig. 4, the P1-filler markedly reduced penetration of UF-2 into the cellular wood cavities. Although only slightly higher than for the pure adhesive, the increased viscosity of UF-2 + P1 might be responsible for that. It can be assumed that this is also true for UF-2 filled with P2 and BC since the bond line morphology was quite similar. Same as for UF-1, large particles of P2 remained within the adhesive after mixing by means of a hand held blender (Fig. 5).

      Polarized light micrograph of liquid urea–formaldehyde-(UF-2)-adhesive filled with 2 wt% TEMPO-oxidized pulp (P2). Large particles of P2 remain after mixing with the adhesive. The small bright dots represent crystalline adhesive constituents

      Full size image

      Potential effects of CNF on the mechanical properties of the cured adhesive itself were studied by means of nanoindentation. The results of these experiments are summarized in Table 2. First of all, the two UF-resins used in the present study showed significantly different mechanical properties as UF-1 was clearly harder and stiffer than UF The addition of 2 wt% CNF resulted in a decrease in stiffness and hardness for UF-1, whereas a slight increase was observed for UF However, these changes were not significant in a statistical sense (T test, p ≤ ). In addition to hardness and stiffness, the total work of indentation, the ratio between the elastic and plastic component of the work of indentation, and a creep factor were evaluated (Table 2). Particularly the ratio between the elastic and plastic component of the work of indentation is a good measure for the ductility of the adhesive. UF-2 turns out to be clearly more ductile than UF-1 and just as with hardness and stiffness, the ductility of adhesives as inferred from nanoindentation is not significantly affected by the addition of CNF. Considering the small percentage of cellulose added and the comparably high stiffness of UF-systems, a significant change in nanoindentation properties due to CNF addition, as observed for comparably soft hydroxypropyl cellulose (Zimmermann et al. ), would have been surprising. Thus, at least these results confirm that adhesive cure was apparently not affected in a negative manner by the addition of CNF, which is an important prerequisite for the further evaluation of macroscopic fracture experiments performed in the present study.

      Full size table

      Results of fracture energy testing

      The results of mode I fracture energy testing of adhesive bonds are summarized in Fig. 6. The specific fracture energy determined for unmodified UF showed very clear differences. With a value of  ±  J/m² UF-1 yielded a result more than % the value of  ±  J/m² for UF The specific fracture energy of UF-1 is in a similar order as the specific fracture energy of a melamine-urea–formaldehyde adhesive used for constructive purposes characterized under identical conditions (Veigel et al. in press).

      Specific fracture energy (GIc) of adhesively bonded joints. Two urea–formaldehyde-(UF)-adhesives were applied without any additional filler (REF) and filled with cellulose nanofibrils from different sources (P1 untreated pulp, P2 TEMPO-oxidized pulp, BC bacterial cellulose). Boxplot symbols: broad line median, box 25–75%-percentile, whiskers minimum and maximum value. The number of specimens tested for each group is given by N

      Full size image

      The addition of CNF to UF exerted a number of significant effects on the specific fracture energy of adhesive bonds. Firstly, CNF-reinforced specimens showed higher variability than unmodified specimens on average, perhaps indicating sub-optimal dispersion of fibrils in several cases. Secondly, consistent improvements were only observed with UF-1, whereas significant increases of fracture energy were only sporadically found with UF-2, although a certain trend of improvement with CNF addition is apparent. As confirmed by visual observations during the preparation of the adhesive mixtures and microscopic investigations, large particles of P2 were present after mixing. For this type of cellulose the fibrils could definitely not be dispersed sufficiently well in order to achieve an optimum effect. Based on these observations it can be concluded that fibril dispersion was more efficiently done with UF-1, which comes as a powder, as compared to liquid UF

      A detailed analysis of results obtained for UF-1 reveals a clear trend of increasing toughness with increasing content of unmodified fibrils (P1). With a value of  ±  J/m², which corresponds to an average increase of 45%, UF-1 reinforced with 2% P1 showed the highest value of specific fracture energy for all tested groups of specimens. To statistically evaluate the effect of added filler, mean specific fracture energy values were compared by one-way ANOVA (p ≤ ). The analysis revealed that four groups of specimens (UF-1 + P1 at a filler content of and 2 wt% as well as UF-1 + BC at a content of and  wt%) showed significantly higher values than the unfilled UF-1 reference.

      Regarding the three types of filler used in the present study it can therefore be said that it is possible to improve the specific fracture energy of UF-wood adhesive bonds by adding unmodified cellulose nanofibrils (P1) or fibrillated bacterial cellulose (BC), whereas this is not the case for TEMPO-modified cellulose fibrils (P2).

      Having established the principal feasibility of improving UF-adhesive bond performance, the question of the cause for this improvement remains to be discussed. Since nanoindentation experiments did not reveal any significant effects of the addition of CNF on the bulk-polymer properties, it is proposed that the positive effect observed is caused by the role that CNF play in the process of crack formation during fracture. As outlined for carbon nanotube-toughened polymers (Mirjalili and Hubert ), a significant improvement of the fracture toughness of brittle polymers may be achieved due to fiber-bridging effects, given that the reinforcing fibers are of high tensile strength, above a certain critical length, and show sufficient interfacial adhesion to the polymer.


      The results of the present study demonstrate the feasibility of toughening urea–formaldehyde wood adhesive bonds by adding cellulose nanofibrils. The combination of powder urea–formaldehyde with untreated cellulose nanofibrils proved best suitable for this purpose. An increase of the toughening effect up to 45% was observed when adding up to 2% cellulose nanofibrils. The fact that cellulose addition strongly increases the viscosity of the adhesive is a limiting factor to the amount of fibrils that can be added.


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      The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) under grant P Many thanks go to T. Zimmerman (EMPA) for taking the FE-SEM pictures and C. Tippelreither for his assistance in specimen preparation and mechanical testing.

      Author information


      1. Department of Material Sciences and Process Engineering, Institute of Wood Science and Technology, BOKU–University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Konrad Lorenz Straße 24,Tulln a.d. Donau, Austria

        Stefan Veigel, Michael Obersriebnig & Wolfgang Gindl-Altmutter

      2. Wood K plus–Competence Centre for Wood Composites and Wood Chemistry, St.-Peter-Straße 25,Linz, Austria

        Ulrich Müller

      3. Erich Schmid Institute of Materials Science, Austrian Academy of Sciences and Institute of Metal Physics, University of Leoben, Jahnstraße 12,Leoben, Austria

        Jozef Keckes

      Corresponding author

      Correspondence to Stefan Veigel.

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      Veigel, S., Müller, U., Keckes, J. et al. Cellulose nanofibrils as filler for adhesives: effect on specific fracture energy of solid wood-adhesive bonds. Cellulose18, ().

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      • Cellulose
      • Nanofibrils
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      • Adhesive
      • Fracture energy

      Update Crackit addon for Blender
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      @Nobuyuki Hirakata (Gappy1), are there any changes I&#;ve missed that fix issues in x?

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      @Campbell Barton (campbellbarton), I found the bugs in fracture cell addon in RC1.
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      Strict minimum branch :

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      I listed bugs below.

      Boolean modifier is not applied:
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      The bug seems come from shopzoro.us_from_object(). They don&#;t apply modifier inat least the same way in
      If shopzoro.us_from_object() can apply modifier somehow, or if there is an alternative function, it should be used.
      But the simplest solution here is to add a process of applying boolean modifier: = obj_cell shopzoro.user_apply(apply_as=&#;DATA&#;, modifier="Boolean")

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      The bug is related with applying modifier problem above.
      As you know, to distinguish interior meshes from exterior meshes, this addon uses "hide" or not "hide" of meshes. To do that, all of meshes are hidden before boolean modifier is applied. And after the modifier is applied, new meshes made by boolean modifier are not hidden.

      To do this inI applied Boolean modifier before shopzoro.us_from_object(), to preserve data for "hide" or not "hide".
      If the order is reversed, all of the meshes are not hidden. So interior meshes are not distinguished. are changed to this:

      if use_interior_hide: obj_shopzoro.ush_set("hide", [True] * len(obj_shopzoro.usns)) mesh_old = # New meshes by boolean modifier are not hidden. = obj_cell shopzoro.user_apply(apply_as=&#;DATA&#;, modifier="Boolean") obj_cell_eval = obj_shopzoro.usted_get(depsgraph) mesh_new = shopzoro.us_from_object(obj_cell_eval) = mesh_new

      Collection doesn&#;t appear in outliner:
      Collection don&#;t appear in outliner tree, because the collection is not linked to master collection.
      After a new collection is linked on master collection, the new collection appears.
      Also, I unlinked cells from other collection to prevent duplication in outliner.

      Recursion with cursor error:
      It&#;s simple reference error. I added "context".

      c =


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