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de Havilland Comet

First commercial jet airliner

This article is about the jet airliner. For the 1930s racing aircraft, see de Havilland DH.88 Comet.

The de Havilland DH.106 Comet was the world's first commercial jet airliner. Developed and manufactured by de Havilland at its Hatfield Aerodrome in Hertfordshire, United Kingdom, the Comet 1 prototype first flew in 1949. It featured an aerodynamically clean design with four de Havilland Ghostturbojet engines buried in the wing roots, a pressurised cabin, and large square windows. For the era, it offered a relatively quiet, comfortable passenger cabin and was commercially promising at its debut in 1952.

Within a year of entering airline service, problems started to emerge, three Comets being lost within twelve months in highly publicised accidents, after suffering catastrophic in-flight break-ups. Two of these were found to be caused by structural failure resulting from metal fatigue in the airframe, a phenomenon not fully understood at the time; the other was due to overstressing of the airframe during flight through severe weather. The Comet was withdrawn from service and extensively tested. Design and construction flaws, including improper riveting and dangerous concentrations of stress around some of the square windows, were ultimately identified. As a result, the Comet was extensively redesigned, with oval windows, structural reinforcements and other changes. Rival manufacturers heeded the lessons learned from the Comet when developing their own aircraft.

Although sales never fully recovered, the improved Comet 2 and the prototype Comet 3 culminated in the redesigned Comet 4 series which debuted in 1958 and remained in commercial service until 1981. The Comet was also adapted for a variety of military roles such as VIP, medical and passenger transport, as well as surveillance; the last Comet 4, used as a research platform, made its final flight in 1997. The most extensive modification resulted in a specialised maritime patrol derivative, the Hawker Siddeley Nimrod, which remained in service with the Royal Air Force until 2011, over 60 years after the Comet's first flight.

Development[edit]

Origins[edit]

Design studies for the DH.106 Comet 1944–1947 (artist's impression)

On 11 March 1943, the Cabinet of the United Kingdom formed the Brabazon Committee, which was tasked with determining the UK's airliner needs after the conclusion of the Second World War.[4] One of its recommendations was for the development and production of a pressurised, transatlantic mailplane that could carry 1 long ton (2,200 lb; 1,000 kg) of payload at a cruising speed of 400 mph (640 km/h) non-stop.[5] Aviation company de Havilland was interested in this requirement, but chose to challenge the then widely held view that jet engines were too fuel-hungry and unreliable for such a role.[N 2] As a result, committee member Sir Geoffrey de Havilland, head of the de Havilland company, used his personal influence and his company's expertise to champion the development of a jet-propelled aircraft; proposing a specification for a pure turbojet-powered design.[4]

The committee accepted the proposal, calling it the "Type IV" (of five designs),[N 3] and in 1945 awarded a development and production contract to de Havilland under the designation Type 106. The type and design were to be so advanced that de Havilland had to undertake the design and development of both the airframe and the engines. This was because in 1945 no turbojet engine manufacturer in the world was drawing-up a design specification for an engine with the thrust and specific fuel consumption that could power an aircraft at the proposed cruising altitude (40,000 ft (12,000 m)), speed, and transatlantic range as was called for by the Type 106.[8] First-phase development of the DH.106 focused on short- and intermediate-range mailplanes with small passenger compartments and as few as six seats, before being redefined as a long-range airliner with a capacity of 24 seats.[5] Out of all the Brabazon designs, the DH.106 was seen as the riskiest: both in terms of introducing untried design elements and for the financial commitment involved.[4] Nevertheless, the British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) found the Type IV's specifications attractive, and initially proposed a purchase of 25 aircraft; in December 1945, when a firm contract was created, the order total was revised to 10.[9]

"During the next few years, the UK has an opportunity, which may not recur, of developing aircraft manufacture as one of our main export industries. On whether we grasp this opportunity and so establish firmly an industry of the utmost strategic and economic importance, our future as a great nation may depend."

Duncan Sandys, Minister of Supply, 1952.[10]

A design team was formed in 1946 under the leadership of chief designer Ronald Bishop, who had been responsible for the Mosquito fighter-bomber.[9] Several unorthodox configurations were considered, ranging from canard to tailless designs;[N 4] All were rejected. The Ministry of Supply was interested in the most radical of the proposed designs, and ordered two experimental tailless DH 108s[N 5] to serve as proof of concept aircraft for testing swept-wing configurations in both low-speed and high-speed flight.[5][11] During flight tests, the DH 108 gained a reputation for being accident-prone and unstable, leading de Havilland and BOAC to gravitate to conventional configurations and, necessarily, designs with less technical risk.[12] The DH 108s were later modified to test the DH.106's power controls.[13]

In September 1946, before completion of the DH 108s, BOAC requests necessitated a redesign of the DH.106 from its previous 24-seat configuration to a larger 36-seat version.[5][N 6] With no time to develop the technology necessary for a proposed tailless configuration, Bishop opted for a more conventional 20-degree swept-wing design[N 7] with unswept tail surfaces, married to an enlarged fuselage accommodating 36 passengers in a four-abreast arrangement with a central aisle.[15] Replacing previously specified Halford H.1 Goblin engines, four new, more-powerful Rolls-Royce Avons were to be incorporated in pairs buried in the wing roots; Halford H.2 Ghost engines were eventually applied as an interim solution while the Avons cleared certification. The redesigned aircraft was named the DH.106 Comet in December 1947.[N 8] Revised first orders from BOAC and British South American Airways[N 9] totalled 14 aircraft, with delivery projected for 1952.[14]

Testing and prototypes[edit]

As the Comet represented a new category of passenger aircraft, more rigorous testing was a development priority.[17] From 1947 to 1948, de Havilland conducted an extensive research and development phase, including the use of several stress test rigs at Hatfield Aerodrome for small components and large assemblies alike. Sections of pressurised fuselage were subjected to high-altitude flight conditions via a large decompression chamber on-site [N 10] and tested to failure.[18] Tracing fuselage failure points proved difficult with this method,[18] and de Havilland ultimately switched to conducting structural tests with a water tank that could be safely configured to increase pressures gradually.[13][18][19] The entire forward fuselage section was tested for metal fatigue by repeatedly pressurising to 2.75 pounds per square inch (19.0 kPa) overpressure and depressurising through more than 16,000 cycles, equivalent to about 40,000 hours of airline service.[20] The windows were also tested under a pressure of 12 psi (83 kPa), 4.75 psi (32.8 kPa) above expected pressures at the normal service ceiling of 36,000 ft (11,000 m).[20] One window frame survived 100 psi (690 kPa),[21] about 1,250 percent over the maximum pressure it was expected to encounter in service.[20]

The first prototype DH.106 Comet (carrying Class B markings G-5-1) was completed in 1949 and was initially used to conduct ground tests and brief early flights.[18] The prototype's maiden flight, out of Hatfield Aerodrome, took place on 27 July 1949 and lasted 31 minutes.[22][23] At the controls was de Havilland chief test pilot John "Cats Eyes" Cunningham, a famous night-fighter pilot of the Second World War, along with co-pilot Harold "Tubby" Waters, engineers John Wilson (electrics) and Frank Reynolds (hydraulics), and flight test observer Tony Fairbrother.[24]

The prototype was registered G-ALVG just before it was publicly displayed at the 1949 Farnborough Airshow before the start of flight trials. A year later, the second prototype G-5-2 made its maiden flight. The second prototype was registered G-ALZK in July 1950 and it was used by the BOAC Comet Unit at Hurn from April 1951 to carry out 500 flying hours of crew training and route-proving.[25] Australian airline Qantas also sent its own technical experts to observe the performance of the prototypes, seeking to quell internal uncertainty about its prospective Comet purchase.[26] Both prototypes could be externally distinguished from later Comets by the large single-wheeled main landing gear, which was replaced on production models starting with G-ALYP by four-wheeled bogies.[27]

Design[edit]

Overview[edit]

The Comet was an all-metal low-wing cantilever monoplane powered by four jet engines; it had a four-place cockpit occupied by two pilots, a flight engineer, and a navigator.[28] The clean, low-drag design of the aircraft featured many design elements that were fairly uncommon at the time, including a swept-wing leading edge, integral wing fuel tanks, and four-wheel bogie main undercarriage units designed by de Havilland.[28] Two pairs of turbojet engines (on the Comet 1s, Halford H.2 Ghosts, subsequently known as de Havilland Ghost 50 Mk1s) were buried into the wings.[29]

The original Comet was the approximate length of, but not as wide as, the later Boeing 737-100, and carried fewer people in a significantly more-spacious environment. BOAC installed 36 reclining "slumberseats" with 45 in (1,100 mm) centres on its first Comets, allowing for greater leg room in front and behind;[30]Air France had 11 rows of seats with four seats to a row installed on its Comets.[31] Large picture window views and table seating accommodations for a row of passengers afforded a feeling of comfort and luxury unusual for transportation of the period.[32] Amenities included a galley that could serve hot and cold food and drinks, a bar, and separate men's and women's toilets.[33] Provisions for emergency situations included several life rafts stored in the wings near the engines, and individual life vests were stowed under each seat.[28]

One of the most striking aspects of Comet travel was the quiet, "vibration-free flying" as touted by BOAC.[34][N 11] For passengers used to propeller-driven airliners, smooth and quiet jet flight was a novel experience.[36]

Avionics and systems[edit]

For ease of training and fleet conversion, de Havilland designed the Comet's flight deck layout with a degree of similarity to the Lockheed Constellation, an aircraft that was popular at the time with key customers such as BOAC.[18] The cockpit included full dual-controls for the captain and first officer, and a flight engineer controlled several key systems, including fuel, air conditioning and electrical systems.[37] The navigator occupied a dedicated station, with a table across from the flight engineer.[38]

The flight deck of a Comet 4

Several of the Comet's avionics systems were new to civil aviation. One such feature was irreversible, powered flight controls, which increased the pilot's ease of control and the safety of the aircraft by preventing aerodynamic forces from changing the directed positions and placement of the aircraft's control surfaces.[39] Many of the control surfaces, such as the elevators, were equipped with a complex gearing system as a safeguard against accidentally over-stressing the surfaces or airframe at higher speed ranges.[40]

The Comet had a total of four hydraulic systems: two primaries, one secondary, and a final emergency system for basic functions such as lowering the undercarriage.[41] The undercarriage could also be lowered by a combination of gravity and a hand-pump.[42] Power was syphoned from all four engines for the hydraulics, cabin air conditioning, and the de-icing system; these systems had operational redundancy in that they could keep working even if only a single engine was active.[17] The majority of hydraulic components were centred in a single avionics bay.[43] A pressurised refuelling system, developed by Flight Refuelling Ltd, allowed the Comet's fuel tanks to be refuelled at a far greater rate than by other methods.[44]

The Comet 4 navigator's station

The cockpit was significantly altered for the Comet 4's introduction, on which an improved layout focusing on the onboard navigational suite was introduced.[45] An EKCO E160 radar unit was installed in the Comet 4's nose cone, providing search functions as well as ground and cloud-mapping capabilities,[38] and a radar interface was built into the Comet 4 cockpit along with redesigned instruments.[45]

Sud-Est's design bureau, while working on the Sud Aviation Caravelle in 1953, licensed several design features from de Havilland, building on previous collaborations on earlier licensed designs, including the DH 100 Vampire;[N 12] the nose and cockpit layout of the Comet 1 was grafted onto the Caravelle.[47] In 1969, when the Comet 4's design was modified by Hawker Siddeley to become the basis for the Nimrod, the cockpit layout was completely redesigned and bore little resemblance to its predecessors except for the control yoke.[48]

Fuselage[edit]

Diverse geographic destinations and cabin pressurisation alike on the Comet demanded the use of a high proportion of alloys, plastics, and other materials new to civil aviation across the aircraft to meet certification requirements.[49] The Comet's high cabin pressure and fast operating speeds were unprecedented in commercial aviation, making its fuselage design an experimental process.[49] At its introduction, Comet airframes would be subjected to an intense, high-speed operating schedule which included simultaneous extreme heat from desert airfields and frosty cold from the kerosene-filled fuel tanks, still cold from cruising at high altitude.[49]

The Comet's thin metal skin was composed of advanced new alloys[N 13] and was both riveted and chemically bonded, which saved weight and reduced the risk of fatigue cracks spreading from the rivets.[50] The chemical bonding process was accomplished using a new adhesive, Redux, which was liberally used in the construction of the wings and the fuselage of the Comet; it also had the advantage of simplifying the manufacturing process.[51]

When several of the fuselage alloys were discovered to be vulnerable to weakening via metal fatigue, a detailed routine inspection process was introduced. As well as thorough visual inspections of the outer skin, mandatory structural sampling was routinely conducted by both civil and military Comet operators. The need to inspect areas not easily viewable by the naked eye led to the introduction of widespread radiography examination in aviation; this also had the advantage of detecting cracks and flaws too small to be seen otherwise.[52]

Operationally, the design of the cargo holds led to considerable difficulty for the ground crew, especially baggage handlers at the airports. The cargo hold had its doors located directly underneath the aircraft, so each item of baggage or cargo had to be loaded vertically upwards from the top of the baggage truck, then slid along the hold floor to be stacked inside. The individual pieces of luggage and cargo also had to be retrieved in a similarly slow manner at the arriving airport.[53][54]

Propulsion[edit]

The Comet was powered by two pairs of turbojet engines buried in the wings close to the fuselage. Chief designer Bishop chose the Comet's embedded-engine configuration because it avoided the drag of podded engines and allowed for a smaller fin and rudder since the hazards of asymmetric thrust were reduced.[55] The engines were outfitted with baffles to reduce noise emissions, and extensive soundproofing was also implemented to improve passenger conditions.[56]

Placing the engines within the wings had the advantage of a reduction in the risk of foreign object damage, which could seriously damage jet engines. The low-mounted engines and good placement of service panels also made aircraft maintenance easier to perform.[57] The Comet's buried-engine configuration increased its structural weight and complexity. Armour had to be placed around the engine cells to contain debris from any serious engine failures; also, placing the engines inside the wing required a more complicated wing structure.[58]

The Comet 1 featured 5,050 lbf (22.5 kN) de Havilland Ghost 50 Mk1 turbojet engines.[29][59] Two hydrogen peroxide-powered de Havilland Sprite booster rockets were originally intended to be installed to boosttakeoff under hot and high altitude conditions from airports such as Khartoum and Nairobi.[31][60] These were tested on 30 flights, but the Ghosts alone were considered powerful enough and some airlines concluded that rocket motors were impractical.[13] Sprite fittings were retained on production aircraft.[61] Comet 1s subsequently received more powerful 5,700 lbf (25 kN) Ghost DGT3 series engines.[62]

From the Comet 2 onwards, the Ghost engines were replaced by the newer and more powerful 7,000 lbf (31 kN) Rolls-Royce Avon AJ.65 engines. To achieve optimum efficiency with the new powerplants, the air intakes were enlarged to increase mass air flow.[63] Upgraded Avon engines were introduced on the Comet 3,[63] and the Avon-powered Comet 4 was highly praised for its takeoff performance from high-altitude locations such as Mexico City.[64]

Operational history[edit]

Introduction[edit]

The earliest production aircraft, registered G-ALYP ("Yoke Peter"), first flew on 9 January 1951 and was subsequently lent to BOAC for development flying by its Comet Unit.[65] On 22 January 1952, the fifth production aircraft, registered G-ALYS, received the first Certificate of Airworthiness awarded to a Comet, six months ahead of schedule.[66] On 2 May 1952, as part of BOAC's route-proving trials, G-ALYP took off on the world's first jetliner[N 14] flight with fare-paying passengers and inaugurated scheduled service from London to Johannesburg.[68][69][70] The final Comet from BOAC's initial order, registered G-ALYZ, began flying in September 1952 and carried cargo along South American routes while simulating passenger schedules.[71]

Prince Philip returned from the Helsinki Olympic Games with G-ALYS on 4 August 1952. Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother and Princess Margaret were guests on a special flight of the Comet on 30 June 1953 hosted by Sir Geoffrey and Lady de Havilland.[72] Flights on the Comet were about 50 percent faster than on advanced piston-engined aircraft such as the Douglas DC-6 (490 mph (790 km/h) for the Comet compared to the DC-6's 315 mph (507 km/h)), and a faster rate of climb further cut flight times. In August 1953 BOAC scheduled the nine-stop London to Tokyo flights by Comet for 36 hours, compared to 86 hours and 35 minutes on its Argonaut piston airliner. (Pan Am's DC-6B was scheduled for 46 hours 45 minutes.) The five-stop flight from London to Johannesburg was scheduled for 21 hr 20 min.[73]

In their first year, Comets carried 30,000 passengers. As the aircraft could be profitable with a load factor as low as 43 percent, commercial success was expected.[27] The Ghost engines allowed the Comet to fly above weather that competitors had to fly through. They ran smoothly and were less noisy than piston engines, had low maintenance costs and were fuel-efficient above 30,000 ft (9,100 m).[N 15] In summer 1953, eight BOAC Comets left London each week: three to Johannesburg, two to Tokyo, two to Singapore and one to Colombo.[74]

In 1953, the Comet appeared to have achieved success for de Havilland.[75]Popular Mechanics wrote that Britain had a lead of three to five years on the rest of the world in jetliners.[70] As well as the sales to BOAC, two French airlines, Union Aéromaritime de Transport and Air France, each acquired three Comet 1As, an upgraded variant with greater fuel capacity, for flights to West Africa and the Middle East.[76][77] A slightly longer version of the Comet 1 with more powerful engines, the Comet 2, was being developed,[78] and orders were placed by Air India,[79]British Commonwealth Pacific Airlines,[80]Japan Air Lines,[81]Linea Aeropostal Venezolana,[81] and Panair do Brasil.[81] American carriers Capital Airlines, National Airlines, and Pan Am placed orders for the planned Comet 3, an even-larger, longer-range version for transatlantic operations.[82][83] Qantas was interested in the Comet 1 but concluded that a version with more range and better takeoff performance was needed for the London to Canberra route.[84]

Early hull losses[edit]

On 26 October 1952, the Comet suffered its first hull loss when a BOAC flight departing Rome's Ciampino airport failed to become airborne and ran into rough ground at the end of the runway. Two passengers sustained minor injuries, but the aircraft, G-ALYZ, was a write-off. On 3 March 1953, a new Canadian Pacific Airlines Comet 1A, registered CF-CUN and named Empress of Hawaii, failed to become airborne while attempting a night takeoff from Karachi, Pakistan, on a delivery flight to Australia. The aircraft plunged into a dry drainage canal and collided with an embankment, killing all five crew and six passengers on board.[85][86] The accident was the first fatal jetliner crash.[81] In response, Canadian Pacific cancelled its remaining order for a second Comet 1A and never operated the type in commercial service.[81]

Both early accidents were originally attributed to pilot error, as over-rotation had led to a loss of lift from the leading edge of the aircraft's wings. It was later determined that the Comet's wing profile experienced a loss of lift at a high angle of attack, and its engine inlets also suffered a lack of pressure recovery in the same conditions. As a result, de Havilland re-profiled the wings' leading edge with a pronounced "droop",[87] and wing fences were added to control spanwise flow.[88] A fictionalised investigation into the Comet's takeoff accidents was the subject of the novel Cone of Silence (1959) by Arthur David Beaty, a former BOAC captain. Cone of Silence was made into a film in 1960, and Beaty also recounted the story of the Comet's takeoff accidents in a chapter of his non-fiction work, Strange Encounters: Mysteries of the Air (1984).[89]

The Comet's second fatal accident occurred on 2 May 1953, when BOAC Flight 783, a Comet 1, registered G-ALYV, crashed in a severe thundersquall six minutes after taking off from Calcutta-Dum Dum (now Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport), India,[90] killing all 43 on board. Witnesses observed the wingless Comet on fire plunging into the village of Jagalgori,[91] leading investigators to suspect structural failure.[92]

India Court of Inquiry[edit]

After the loss of G-ALYV, the Government of India convened a court of inquiry[91] to examine the cause of the accident.[N 16] Professor Natesan Srinivasan joined the inquiry as the main technical expert. A large portion of the aircraft was recovered and reassembled at Farnborough,[92] during which the break-up was found to have begun with a left elevator spar failure in the horizontal stabilizer. The inquiry concluded that the aircraft had encountered extreme negative G forces during takeoff; severe turbulence generated by adverse weather was determined to have induced down-loading, leading to the loss of the wings. Examination of the cockpit controls suggested that the pilot may have inadvertently over-stressed the aircraft when pulling out of a steep dive by over-manipulation of the fully powered flight controls. Investigators did not consider metal fatigue as a contributory cause.[93]

The inquiry's recommendations revolved around the enforcement of stricter speed limits during turbulence, and two significant design changes also resulted: all Comets were equipped with weather radar and the "Q feel" system was introduced, which ensured that control column forces (invariably called stick forces) would be proportional to control loads. This artificial feel was the first of its kind to be introduced in any aircraft.[92] The Comet 1 and 1A had been criticised for a lack of "feel" in their controls,[94] and investigators suggested that this might have contributed to the pilot's alleged over-stressing of the aircraft;[95] Comet chief test pilot John Cunningham contended that the jetliner flew smoothly and was highly responsive in a manner consistent with other de Havilland aircraft.[96][N 17]

Comet disasters of 1954[edit]

Main articles: BOAC Flight 781 and South African Airways Flight 201

Just over a year later, Rome's Ciampino airport, the site of the first Comet hull loss, was the origin of a more-disastrous Comet flight. On 10 January 1954, 20 minutes after taking off from Ciampino, the first production Comet, G-ALYP, broke up in mid-air while operating BOAC Flight 781 and crashed into the Mediterranean off the Italian island of Elba with the loss of all 35 on board.[97][98] With no witnesses to the disaster and only partial radio transmissions as incomplete evidence, no obvious reason for the crash could be deduced. Engineers at de Havilland immediately recommended 60 modifications aimed at any possible design flaw, while the Abell Committee met to determine potential causes of the crash.[99][N 18] BOAC also voluntarily grounded its Comet fleet pending investigation into the causes of the accident.[101]

Abell Committee Court of Inquiry[edit]

Media attention centred on potential sabotage;[87] other speculation ranged from clear-air turbulence to an explosion of vapour in an empty fuel tank. The Abell Committee focused on six potential aerodynamic and mechanical causes: control flutter (which had led to the loss of DH 108 prototypes), structural failure due to high loads or metal fatigue of the wing structure, failure of the powered flight controls, failure of the window panels leading to explosive decompression, or fire and other engine problems. The committee concluded that fire was the most likely cause of the problem, and changes were made to the aircraft to protect the engines and wings from damage that might lead to another fire.[102]

During the investigation, the Royal Navy conducted recovery operations.[104] The first pieces of wreckage were discovered on 12 February 1954[105] and the search continued until September 1954, by which time 70 percent by weight of the main structure, 80 percent of the power section, and 50 percent of the aircraft's systems and equipment had been recovered.[106][107] The forensic reconstruction effort had just begun when the Abell Committee reported its findings. No apparent fault in the aircraft was found, [N 19] and the British government decided against opening a further public inquiry into the accident.[101] The prestigious nature of the Comet project, particularly for the British aerospace industry, and the financial impact of the aircraft's grounding on BOAC's operations both served to pressure the inquiry to end without further investigation.[101] Comet flights resumed on 23 March 1954.[108]

On 8 April 1954, Comet G-ALYY ("Yoke Yoke"), on charter to South African Airways, was on a leg from Rome to Cairo (of a longer route, SA Flight 201 from London to Johannesburg), when it crashed in the Mediterranean near Naples with the loss of all 21 passengers and crew on board.[97] The Comet fleet was immediately grounded once again and a large investigation board was formed under the direction of the Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE).[97] Prime Minister Winston Churchill tasked the Royal Navy with helping to locate and retrieve the wreckage so that the cause of the accident could be determined.[109] The Comet's Certificate of Airworthiness was revoked, and Comet 1 line production was suspended at the Hatfield factory while the BOAC fleet was permanently grounded, cocooned and stored.[87]

Cohen Committee Court of Inquiry[edit]

BOAC Comet 1 cocooned and stored in the maintenance area at London Heathrow Airport in September 1954

On 19 October 1954, the Cohen Committee was established to examine the causes of the Comet crashes.[110] Chaired by Lord Cohen, the committee tasked an investigation team led by Sir Arnold Hall, Director of the RAE at Farnborough, to perform a more-detailed investigation. Hall's team began considering fatigue as the most likely cause of both accidents and initiated further research into measurable strain on the aircraft's skin.[97] With the recovery of large sections of G-ALYP from the Elba crash and BOAC's donation of an identical airframe, G-ALYU, for further examination, an extensive "water torture" test eventually provided conclusive results. This time, the entire fuselage was tested in a dedicated water tank that was built specifically at Farnborough to accommodate its full length.[101] Stress around the window corners was found to be much higher than expected and stresses on the skin were generally more than previously expected or tested.[111] The windows' square shape caused stress concentration by generating levels of stress two or three times greater than across the rest of the fuselage.[112] In 2012 a finite element analysis was carried out to find the stress values in a digital model of the Comet's cabin window loaded to a pressure differential of 8.25 psi. In this model, the maximum stress level at the margin of one of the outer row of rivet holes near the corner of the window was almost five times greater than in the areas of skin remote from the windows.[113]

In water-tank testing, engineers subjected G-ALYU to repeated repressurisation and over-pressurisation, and on 24 June 1954, after 3,057 flight cycles (1,221 actual and 1,836 simulated),[114] G-ALYU burst open. Hall, Geoffrey de Havilland and Bishop were immediately called to the scene, where the water tank was drained to reveal that the fuselage had ripped open at a bolt hole, forward of the forward left escape hatch cutout. The failure then occurred longitudinally along a fuselage stringer at the widest point of the fuselage (accident report Fig 7).[115] The fuselage frames did not have sufficient strength to prevent the crack from propagating. Although the fuselage failed after a number of cycles that represented three times the life of G-ALYP at the time of the accident, it was still much earlier than expected.[116] A further test reproduced the same results.[117] Based on these findings, Comet 1 structural failures could be expected at anywhere from 1,000 to 9,000 cycles. Before the Elba accident, G-ALYP had made 1,290 pressurised flights, while G-ALYY had made 900 pressurised flights before crashing. Dr P. B. Walker, Head of the Structures Department at the RAE, said he was not surprised by this, noting that the difference was about three to one, and previous experience with metal fatigue suggested a total range of nine to one between experiment and outcome in the field could result in failure.[114]

The RAE also reconstructed about two-thirds of G-ALYP at Farnborough and found fatigue crack growth from a rivet hole at the low-drag fibreglass forward aperture around the Automatic Direction Finder, which had caused a catastrophic break-up of the aircraft in high-altitude flight.[118] The punch-rivet construction technique employed in the Comet's design had exacerbated its structural fatigue problems;[97] the aircraft's windows had been engineered to be glued and riveted, but had been punch-riveted only. Unlike drill riveting, the imperfect nature of the hole created by punch-riveting could cause fatigue cracks to start developing around the rivet. Principal investigator Hall accepted the RAE's conclusion of design and construction flaws as the likely explanation for G-ALYU's structural failure after 3,060 pressurisation cycles.[N 20]

Response[edit]

In responding to the report de Havilland stated: "Now that the danger of high level fatigue in pressure cabins has been generally appreciated, de Havillands will take adequate measures to deal with this problem. To this end we propose to use thicker gauge materials in the pressure cabin area and to strengthen and redesign windows and cut outs and so lower the general stress to a level at which local stress concentrations either at rivets and bolt holes or as such may occur by reason of cracks caused accidentally during manufacture or subsequently, will not constitute a danger."[120]

The Cohen inquiry closed on 24 November 1954, having "found that the basic design of the Comet was sound",[110] and made no observations or recommendations regarding the shape of the windows. De Havilland nonetheless began a refit programme to strengthen the fuselage and wing structure, employing thicker-gauge skin and replacing the square windows and panels with rounded versions.[109] The fuselage escape hatch cut-outs retained their rectangular shape.[121]

Following the Comet enquiry, aircraft were designed to "Fail safe" or "Safe Life" standards,[122] though several subsequent catastrophic fatigue failures, such as Aloha Airlines Flight 243 of April 28, 1988 have occurred.[123]

In June 1956, some more wreckage from G-ALYP was accidentally trawled up from an area about 15 miles south of where the original wreckage had been found. This wreckage was from the starboard side of the cabin just above the three front windows. Subsequent examination at Farnborough suggested that the primary failure was probably near to this area rather than at the rear automatic direction finding window on the roof of the cabin, as had been previously thought. These findings were kept secret until the details were published in 2015.[124]

Resumption of service[edit]

With the discovery of the structural problems of the early series, all remaining Comets were withdrawn from service, while de Havilland launched a major effort to build a new version that would be both larger and stronger. All outstanding orders for the Comet 2 were cancelled by airline customers.[63] The square windows of the Comet 1 were replaced by the oval versions used on the Comet 2, which first flew in 1953, and the skin thickness was increased slightly.[125] Remaining Comet 1s and 1As were either scrapped or modified with oval windows and rip-stop doublers.

All production Comet 2s were also modified to alleviate the fatigue problems (most of these served with the RAF as the Comet C2); a programme to produce a Comet 2 with more powerful Avons was delayed. The prototype Comet 3 first flew in July 1954 and was tested in an unpressurised state pending completion of the Cohen inquiry.[63] Comet commercial flights would not resume until 1958.[126]

Development flying and route proving with the Comet 3 allowed accelerated certification of what was destined to be the most successful variant of the type, the Comet 4. All airline customers for the Comet 3 subsequently cancelled their orders and switched to the Comet 4,[63] which was based on the Comet 3 but with improved fuel capacity. BOAC ordered 19 Comet 4s in March 1955, and American operator Capital Airlines ordered 14 Comets in July 1956.[127] Capital's order included 10 Comet 4As, a variant modified for short-range operations with a stretched fuselage and short wings, lacking the pinion (outboard wing) fuel tanks of the Comet 4.[82] Financial problems and a takeover by United Airlines meant that Capital would never operate the Comet.[citation needed]

The Comet 4 first flew on 27 April 1958 and received its Certificate of Airworthiness on 24 September 1958; the first was delivered to BOAC the next day.[125][128] The base price of a new Comet 4 was roughly £1.14 million (£24.81 million in 2019).[129] The Comet 4 enabled BOAC to inaugurate the first regular jet-powered transatlantic services on 4 October 1958 between London and New York (albeit still requiring a fuel stop at Gander International Airport, Newfoundland, on westward North Atlantic crossings).[68] While BOAC gained publicity as the first to provide transatlantic jet service, by the end of the month rival Pan American World Airways was flying the Boeing 707 on the New York-Paris route, with a fuel stop at Gander in both directions,[130] and in 1960 began flying Douglas DC-8's on its transatlantic routes as well. The American jets were larger, faster, longer-ranged and more cost-effective than the Comet.[131] After analysing route structures for the Comet, BOAC reluctantly cast-about for a successor, and in 1956 entered into an agreement with Boeing to purchase the 707.[132]

Comet 4 of East African Airways at London Heathrow in 1964

The Comet 4 was ordered by two other airlines: Aerolíneas Argentinas took delivery of six Comet 4s from 1959 to 1960, using them between Buenos Aires and Santiago, New York and Europe, and East African Airways received three new Comet 4s from 1960 to 1962 and operated them to the United Kingdom and to Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda.[133] The Comet 4A ordered by Capital Airlines was instead built for BEA as the Comet 4B, with a further fuselage stretch of 38 in (970 mm) and seating for 99 passengers. The first Comet 4B flew on 27 June 1959 and BEA began Tel Aviv to London-Heathrow services on 1 April 1960.[134]Olympic Airways was the only other customer to order the type.[135] The last Comet 4 variant, the Comet 4C, first flew on 31 October 1959 and entered service with Mexicana in 1960.[136] The Comet 4C had the Comet 4B's longer fuselage and the longer wings and extra fuel tanks of the original Comet 4, which gave it a longer range than the 4B. Ordered by Kuwait Airways, Middle East Airlines, Misrair (later United Arab Airlines), and Sudan Airways, it was the most popular Comet variant.[81][137]

Later service[edit]

In 1959 BOAC began shifting its Comets from transatlantic routes[N 21] and released the Comet to associate companies, making the Comet 4's ascendancy as a premier airliner brief. Besides the 707 and DC-8, the introduction of the Vickers VC10 allowed competing aircraft to assume the high-speed, long-range passenger service role pioneered by the Comet.[138] In 1960, as part of a government-backed consolidation of the British aerospace industry, de Havilland itself was acquired by Hawker Siddeley, within which it became a wholly owned division.[139]

In the 1960s, orders declined, a total of 76 Comet 4s being delivered from 1958 to 1964. In November 1965, BOAC retired its Comet 4s from revenue service; other operators continued commercial passenger flights with the Comet until 1981. Dan-Air played a significant role in the fleet's later history and, at one time, owned all 49 remaining airworthy civil Comets.[140] On 14 March 1997 a Comet 4C serialXS235 and named Canopus,[141] which had been acquired by the British Ministry of Technology and used for radio, radar and avionics trials, made the last documented production Comet flight.[1]

Legacy[edit]

Dan-Air Comet 4C, G-BDIW exhibited at the Flugausstellung Hermeskeilin Germany

The Comet is widely regarded as both an adventurous step forward and a supreme tragedy; the aircraft's legacy includes advances in aircraft design and in accident investigations. The inquiries into the accidents that plagued the Comet 1 were perhaps some of the most extensive and revolutionary that have ever taken place, establishing precedents in accident investigation; many of the deep-sea salvage and aircraft reconstruction techniques employed have remained in use within the aviation industry.[142] In spite of the Comet being subjected to what was then the most rigorous testing of any contemporary airliner, pressurisation and the dynamic stresses involved were not thoroughly understood at the time of the aircraft's development, nor was the concept of metal fatigue. Though these lessons could be implemented on the drawing board for future aircraft, corrections could only be retroactively applied to the Comet.[143]

According to de Havilland's chief test pilot John Cunningham, who had flown the prototype's first flight, representatives from American manufacturers such as Boeing and Douglas privately disclosed that if de Havilland had not experienced the Comet's pressurisation problems first, it would have happened to them.[144] Cunningham likened the Comet to the later Concorde and added that he had assumed that the aircraft would change aviation, which it subsequently did.[96] Aviation author Bill Withuhn concluded that the Comet had pushed "'the state-of-the-art' beyond its limits."[57]

Aeronautical-engineering firms were quick to respond to the Comet's commercial advantages and technical flaws alike; other aircraft manufacturers learned from, and profited by, the hard-earned lessons embodied by de Havilland's Comet.[10][147] The Comet's buried engines were used on some other early jet airliners, such as the Tupolev Tu-104,[148] but later aircraft, such as the Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8, differed by employing podded engines held on pylons beneath the wings.[149] Boeing stated that podded engines were selected for their passenger airliners because buried engines carried a higher risk of catastrophic wing failure in the event of engine fire.[150] In response to the Comet tragedies, manufacturers also developed ways of pressurisation testing, often going so far as to explore rapid depressurisation; subsequent fuselage skins were of a greater thickness than the skin of the Comet.[151]

Variants[edit]

Comet 1[edit]

The square-windowed Comet 1 was the first model produced, a total of 12 aircraft in service and test. Following closely the design features of the two prototypes, the only noticeable change was the adoption of four-wheel bogie main undercarriage units, replacing the single main wheels. Four Ghost 50 Mk 1 engines were fitted (later replaced by more powerful Ghost DGT3 series engines). The span was 115 ft (35 m), and overall length 93 ft (28 m); the maximum takeoff weight was over 105,000 lb (48,000 kg) and over 40 passengers could be carried.[62]

  • An updated Comet 1A was offered with higher-allowed weight, greater fuel capacity,[76] and water-methanol injection; 10 were produced. In the wake of the 1954 disasters, all Comet 1s and 1As were brought back to Hatfield, placed in a protective cocoon and retained for testing.[152] All were substantially damaged in stress testing or were scrapped entirely.[153]
  • Comet 1X: Two RCAF Comet 1As were rebuilt with heavier-gauge skins to a Comet 2 standard for the fuselage, and renamed Comet 1X.[110]
  • Comet 1XB: Four Comet 1As were upgraded to a 1XB standard with a reinforced fuselage structure and oval windows. Both 1X series were limited in number of pressurisation cycles.[153]
  • The DH 111 Comet Bomber, a nuclear bomb-carrying variant developed to Air Ministry specification B35/46, was submitted to the Air Ministry on 27 May 1948. It had been originally proposed in 1948 as the "PR Comet", a high-altitude photo reconnaissance adaptation of the Comet 1. The Ghost DGT3-powered airframe featured a narrowed fuselage, a bulbous nose with H2S Mk IX radar, and a four-crewmember pressurised cockpit under a large bubble canopy. Fuel tanks carrying 2,400 imperial gallons (11,000 L) were added to attain a range of 3,350 miles (5,390 km). The proposed DH 111 received a negative evaluation from the Royal Aircraft Establishment over serious concerns regarding weapons storage; this, along with the redundant capability offered by the RAF's proposed V bomber trio, led de Havilland to abandon the project on 22 October 1948.[154]

Comet 2[edit]

Comet C2, XK671 Aquilaat RAF Waterbeach, fitted with revised round windows

The Comet 2 had a slightly larger wing, higher fuel capacity and more-powerful Rolls-Royce Avon engines, which all improved the aircraft's range and performance;[155] its fuselage was 3 ft 1 in (0.94 m) longer than the Comet 1's.[156] Design changes had been made to make the aircraft more suitable for transatlantic operations.[155] Following the Comet 1 disasters, these models were rebuilt with heavier-gauge skin and rounded windows, and the Avon engines featuring larger air intakes and outward-curving jet tailpipes.[N 22][157] A total of 12 of the 44-seat Comet 2s were ordered by BOAC for the South Atlantic route.[158] The first production aircraft (G-AMXA) flew on 27 August 1953.[159] Although these aircraft performed well on test flights on the South Atlantic, their range was still not suitable for the North Atlantic. All but four Comet 2s were allocated to the RAF, deliveries beginning in 1955. Modifications to the interiors allowed the Comet 2s to be used in several roles. For VIP transport, the seating and accommodations were altered and provisions for carrying medical equipment including iron lungs were incorporated. Specialised signals intelligence and electronic surveillance capability was later added to some airframes.[160]

  • Comet 2X: Limited to a single Comet Mk 1 powered by four Rolls-Royce Avon 502 turbojet engines and used as a development aircraft for the Comet 2.[155]
  • Comet 2E: Two Comet 2 airliners were fitted with Avon 504s in the inner nacelles and Avon 524s in the outer ones. These aircraft were used by BOAC for proving flights during 1957–1958.[155]
  • Comet T2: The first two of 10 Comet 2s for the RAF were fitted out as crew trainers, the first aircraft (XK669) flying initially on 9 December 1955.[160]
  • Comet C2: Eight Comet 2s originally destined for the civil market were completed for the RAF and assigned to No. 216 Squadron.[160]
  • Comet 2R: Three Comet 2s were modified for use in radar and electronic systems development, initially assigned to No. 90 Group (later Signals Command) for the RAF.[160] In service with No. 192 and No. 51 Squadrons, the 2R series was equipped to monitor Warsaw Pact signal traffic and operated in this role from 1958.[161][N 23]

Comet 3[edit]

The Comet 3, which flew for the first time on 19 July 1954, was a Comet 2 lengthened by 15 ft 5 in (4.70 m) and powered by Avon M502 engines developing 10,000 lbf (44 kN).[162] The variant added wing pinion tanks, and offered greater capacity and range.[163] The Comet 3 was destined to remain a development series since it did not incorporate the fuselage-strengthening modifications of the later series aircraft, and was not able to be fully pressurised.[164] Only two Comet 3s began construction; G-ANLO, the only airworthy Comet 3, was demonstrated at the Farnborough SBAC Show in September 1954. The other Comet 3 airframe was not completed to production standard and was used primarily for ground-based structural and technology testing during development of the similarly sized Comet 4. Another nine Comet 3 airframes were not completed and their construction was abandoned at Hatfield.[165] In BOAC colours, G-ANLO was flown by John Cunningham in a marathon round-the-world promotional tour in December 1955.[163] As a flying testbed, it was later modified with Avon RA29 engines fitted, as well as replacing the original long-span wings with reduced span wings as the Comet 3B and demonstrated in British European Airways (BEA) livery at the Farnborough Airshow in September 1958.[164] Assigned in 1961 to the Blind Landing Experimental Unit (BLEU) at RAE Bedford, the final testbed role played by G–ANLO was in automatic landing system experiments. When retired in 1973, the airframe was used for foam-arrester trials before the fuselage was salvaged at BAE Woodford, to serve as the mock-up for the Nimrod.[166]

Comet 4[edit]

The Comet 4 was a further improvement on the stretched Comet 3 with even greater fuel capacity. The design had progressed significantly from the original Comet 1, growing by 18 ft 6 in (5.64 m) and typically seating 74 to 81 passengers compared to the Comet 1's 36 to 44 (119 passengers could be accommodated in a special charter seating package in the later 4C series).[15] The Comet 4 was considered the definitive series, having a longer range, higher cruising speed and higher maximum takeoff weight. These improvements were possible largely because of Avon engines, with twice the thrust of the Comet 1's Ghosts.[134] Deliveries to BOAC began on 30 September 1958 with two 48-seat aircraft, which were used to initiate the first scheduled transatlantic services.

  • Comet 4B: Originally developed for Capital Airlines as the 4A, the 4B featured greater capacity through a 2m longer fuselage, and a shorter wingspan; 18 were produced.
  • Comet 4C: This variant featured the Comet 4's wings and the 4B's longer fuselage; 23 were produced.

The last two Comet 4C fuselages were used to build prototypes of the Hawker Siddeley Nimrod maritime patrol aircraft.[167] A Comet 4C (SA-R-7) was ordered by Saudi Arabian Airlines with an eventual disposition to the Saudi Royal Flight for the exclusive use of King Saud bin Abdul Aziz. Extensively modified at the factory, the aircraft included a VIP front cabin, a bed, special toilets with gold fittings and was distinguished by a green, gold and white colour scheme with polished wings and lower fuselage that was commissioned from aviation artist John Stroud. Following its first flight, the special order Comet 4C was described as "the world's first executive jet."[168]

Comet 5 proposal[edit]

The Comet 5 was proposed as an improvement over previous models, including a wider fuselage with five-abreast seating, a wing with greater sweep and podded Rolls-Royce Conway engines. Without support from the Ministry of Transport, the proposal languished as a hypothetical aircraft and was never realised.[169][N 24]

Hawker Siddeley Nimrod[edit]

Main article: Hawker Siddeley Nimrod

The last two Comet 4C aircraft produced were modified as prototypes (XV148 & XV147) to meet a British requirement for a maritime patrol aircraft for the Royal Air Force; initially named "Maritime Comet", the design was designated Type HS 801.[167] This variant became the Hawker Siddeley Nimrod and production aircraft were built at the Hawker Siddeley factory at Woodford Aerodrome. Entering service in 1969, five Nimrod variants were produced.[170] The final Nimrod aircraft were retired in June 2011.[171]

Operators[edit]

Main article: List of de Havilland Comet operators

The original operators of the early Comet 1 and the Comet 1A were BOAC, Union Aéromaritime de Transport and Air France. All early Comets were withdrawn from service for accident inquiries, during which orders from British Commonwealth Pacific Airlines, Japan Air Lines, Linea Aeropostal Venezolana, National Airlines, Pan American World Airways and Panair do Brasil were cancelled.[80][81] When the redesigned Comet 4 entered service, it was flown by customers BOAC, Aerolíneas Argentinas, and East African Airways,[172] while the Comet 4B variant was operated by customers BEA and Olympic Airways [172] and the Comet 4C model was flown by customers Kuwait Airways, Mexicana, Middle East Airlines, Misrair Airlines and Sudan Airways.[81]

Other operators used the Comet either through leasing arrangements or through second-hand acquisitions. BOAC's Comet 4s were leased out to Air Ceylon, Air India, AREA Ecuador, Central African Airways[173] and Qantas Empire Airways;[80][174] after 1965 they were sold to AREA Ecuador, Dan-Air, Mexicana, Malaysian Airways, and the Ministry of Defence.[81][172][175] BEA's Comet 4Bs were chartered by Cyprus Airways, Malta Airways and Transportes Aéreos Portugueses.[176]Channel Airways obtained five Comet 4Bs from BEA in 1970 for inclusive tour charters.[177] Dan-Air bought all of the surviving flyable Comet 4s from the late 1960s into the 1970s; some were for spares reclamation, but most were operated on the carrier's inclusive-tour charters; a total of 48 Comets of all marks were acquired by the airline.[178]

In military service, the United Kingdom's Royal Air Force was the largest operator, with 51 Squadron (1958–1975; Comet C2, 2R), 192 Squadron (1957–1958; Comet C2, 2R), 216 Squadron (1956–1975; Comet C2 and C4), and the Royal Aircraft Establishment using the aircraft.[110][179] The Royal Canadian Air Force also operated Comet 1As (later retrofitted to 1XB) through its 412 Squadron from 1953 to 1963.[153]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

The Comet was involved in 26 hull-loss accidents, including 13 fatal crashes which resulted in 426 fatalities.[180] Pilot error was blamed for the type's first fatal accident, which occurred during takeoff at Karachi, Pakistan, on 3 March 1953 and involved a Canadian Pacific Airlines Comet 1A.[81] Three fatal Comet 1 crashes due to structural problems, specifically BOAC Flight 783 on 2 May 1953, BOAC Flight 781 on 10 January 1954 and South African Airways Flight 201 on 8 April 1954, led to the grounding of the entire Comet fleet. After design modifications were implemented, Comet services resumed on October 4, 1958 with Comet 4's.[81][181]

Comet 4 G-APDN crashedin the Spanish Montseny range in July 1970 during a Dan-Air flight.[180]

Pilot error resulting in controlled flight into terrain was blamed for five fatal Comet 4 accidents: an Aerolíneas Argentinas crash near Asunción, Paraguay, on 27 August 1959, Aerolíneas Argentinas Flight 322 at Campinas near São Paulo, Brazil, on 23 November 1961, United Arab Airlines Flight 869 in Thailand's Khao Yai mountains on 19 July 1962, a Saudi Arabian Government crash in the Italian Alps on 20 March 1963, and United Arab Airlines Flight 844 in Tripoli, Libya, on 2 January 1971.[81] The Dan-Air de Havilland Comet crash in Spain's Montseny range on 3 July 1970 was attributed to navigational errors by air traffic control and pilots.[182] Other fatal Comet 4 accidents included a British European Airways crash in Ankara, Turkey, following instrument failure on 21 December 1961, a United Arab Airlines Flight 869 crash during inclement weather near Bombay, India, on 28 July 1963, and the terrorist bombing of Cyprus Airways Flight 284 off the Turkish coast on 12 October 1967.[81]

Nine Comets, including Comet 1s operated by BOAC and Union Aeromaritime de Transport and Comet 4s flown by Aerolíneas Argentinas, Dan-Air, Malaysian Airlines and United Arab Airlines, were irreparably damaged during takeoff or landing accidents that were survived by all on board.[81][180] A hangar fire damaged a No. 192 Squadron RAF Comet 2R beyond repair on 13 September 1957, and three Middle East Airlines Comet 4Cs were destroyed by Israeli troops at Beirut, Lebanon, on 28 December 1968.[81]

Aircraft on display[edit]

Since retirement, three early-generation Comet airframes have survived in museum collections. The only complete remaining Comet 1, a Comet 1XB with the registration G-APAS, the very last Comet 1 built, is displayed at the RAF Museum Cosford.[183] Though painted in BOAC colours, it never flew for the airline, having been first delivered to Air France and then to the Ministry of Supply after conversion to 1XB standard;[183] this aircraft also served with the RAF as XM823. The sole surviving Comet fuselage with the original square-shaped windows, part of a Comet 1A registered F-BGNX, has undergone restoration and is on display at the de Havilland Aircraft Museum in Hertfordshire, England.[184] A Comet C2 Sagittarius with serialXK699, later maintenance serial 7971M, was formerly on display at the gate of RAF Lyneham in Wiltshire, England since 1987.[185][186] In 2012, with the planned closure of RAF Lyneham, the aircraft was slated to be dismantled and shipped to the RAF Museum Cosford where it was to be re-assembled for display. The move was cancelled due to the level of corrosion and the majority of the airframe was scrapped in 2013, the cockpit section going to the Boscombe Down Aviation Collection at Old Sarum Airfield[187]

Six complete Comet 4s are housed in museum collections. The Imperial War Museum Duxford has a Comet 4 (G-APDB), originally in Dan-Air colours as part of its Flight Line Display, and later in BOAC livery at its AirSpace building.[188] A Comet 4B (G-APYD) is stored in a facility at the Science Museum at Wroughton in Wiltshire, England.[189] Comet 4Cs are exhibited at the Flugausstellung Peter Junior at Hermeskeil, Germany (G-BDIW),[190] the Museum of Flight Restoration Center near Everett, Washington (N888WA),[175] and the National Museum of Flight near Edinburgh, Scotland (G-BDIX).[191]

The last Comet to fly, Comet 4C Canopus (XS235),[1] is kept in running condition at Bruntingthorpe Aerodrome, where fast taxi-runs are regularly conducted.[192] Since the 2000s, several parties have proposed restoring Canopus, which is maintained by a staff of volunteers,[193] to airworthy, fully flight-capable condition.[141] The Bruntingthorpe Aerodrome also displays a related Hawker Siddeley Nimrod MR2 aircraft.[193]

Specifications[edit]

Variant[194]Comet 1Comet 2Comet 3Comet 4
Cockpit crew 4 (2 pilots, flight engineer and radio operator/navigator)[195]
Passengers36–44[15][158]58–76[162]56–81[196]
Length 93 ft (28 m)[156]96 ft 1 in (29.29 m)[156]111 ft 6 in (33.99 m)[162][197]
Tail height 29 ft 6 in (8.99 m)[197]
Wingspan115 ft (35 m)[197][198]
Wing area2,015 sq ft (187.2 m2)[156]2,121 sq ft (197.0 m2)[197]
Aspect ratio6.566.24
Airfoil NACA 63A116 mod root, NACA 63A112 mod tip[199]
MTOW110,000 lb (50,000 kg)[156]120,000 lb (54,000 kg)[156]150,000 lb (68,000 kg)[156]156,000 lb (71,000 kg)[197]
Turbojets (x 4) Halford H.2 Ghost 50 R-R Avon Mk 503/504 R-R Avon Mk 502/521 R-R Avon Mk 524
Unit thrust 5,000 lbf (22 kN)[156]7,000 lbf (31 kN)[156]10,000 lbf (44 kN)[162]10,500 lbf (47 kN)[200]
Range1,300 nmi; 2,400 km[69]2,300 nmi; 4,200 km[198]2,300 nmi; 4,300 km[201]2,802 nmi; 5,190 km[195]
Cruisingspeed400 kn (740 km/h)[156]430 kn (790 km/h)[198]450 kn (840 km/h)[198][200]
Cruise altitude42,000 ft (13,000 m)[156][198]45,000 ft (14,000 m)[198]42,000 ft (13,000 m)[195]

In popular culture[edit]

Main article: De Havilland Comet in fiction

See also[edit]

Comet 4B 3-view schematic (front, side, and dorsal views)

Comet 1 3-view in silhouette (note differences in Comet 4 insert, reproduced in same scale)

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era

Related lists

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^Total of Comets in production: 114,[2] or 136 (when including refitting of original airframes and conversions).[3]
  2. ^ During the same era, both Lockheed with their Lockheed L-188 Electra and Vickers with the ground-breaking Vickers Viscount discounted the advantages of "pure" jet power to develop turboprop-powered airliners.[6]
  3. ^The "Type IV" Specifications issued on 3 February 1943 provided for a "high-speed mail-carrying airliner, gas-turbine powered."[7]
  4. ^From 1944 to 1946, the design group prepared submissions on a three-engined twin-boom design, a three-engined canard design with engines mounted in the rear, and a tailless design that featured a swept wing and four "podded" engines.[9]
  5. ^The Ministry of Supply's order for DH 108s was listed as Operational Requirement OR207 to Specification E.18/45.[11]
  6. ^BOAC's requested capacity increase was known as Specification 22/46.[5]
  7. ^The wing was drastically redesigned from a 40˚ sweep.[14]
  8. ^The name "Comet", previously used by the de Havilland DH.88 racing aircraft, was revived.[16]
  9. ^British South American Airways merged with BOAC in 1949.[5]
  10. ^The fuselage sections and nose simulated a flight up to 70,000 ft (21,000 m) at a temperature of −70 °C (−94 °F), with 2,000 lb (910 kg) pressure applications at 9 psi (62 kPa).[13]
  11. ^BOAC flight crew revelled in standing a pen on end and pointing that out to passengers; invariably, the pen remained upright throughout the entire flight.[35]
  12. ^The Sud-Est SE 530/532/535 Mistral (FB 53) was a single-seat fighter-bomber version of the de Havilland Vampire jet fighter, used by L'Armée de l'Air.[46]
  13. ^Fuselage alloys detailed in Directorate of Technical Development 564/L.73 and DTD 746C/L90.
  14. ^The Avro Canada C102 Jetliner, for which it was coined, first used the term; "jetliner" later became a generic term for all jet airliners.[67]
  15. ^Depending on weight and temperature, cruise fuel consumption was 6 to 10 kg (13 to 22 lb) per per nautical mile (1.2 miles; 1.9 km), the higher figure being at the lower altitude needed at high weight.[citation needed]
  16. ^The court acted under the provisions of Rule 75 of the Indian Aircraft Rules 1937.[92]
  17. ^Cunningham: "[the Comet] flew extremely smoothly and responded to the controls in the best way de Havilland aircraft usually did."[96]
  18. ^The Abell Committee, named after chairman C. Abell, Deputy Operations Director (Engineering) of BOAC, consisted of representatives of the Allegation Review Board (A.R.B.), BOAC, and de Havilland.[100]
  19. ^On 4 April, Lord Brabazon wrote to the Minister of Transport, "Although no definite reason for the accident has been established, modifications are being embodied to cover every possibility that imagination has suggested as a likely cause of the disaster. When these modifications are completed and have been satisfactorily flight-tested, the Board sees no reason why passenger services should not be resumed."[101]
  20. ^Hall: "In the light of known properties of the aluminium alloy D.T.D. 546 or 746 of which the skin was made and in accordance with the advice I received from my Assessors, I accept the conclusion of RAE that this is a sufficient explanation of the failure of the cabin skin of Yoke Uncle by fatigue after a small number, namely, 3,060 cycles of pressurisation."[119]
  21. ^The Feb 1959 OAG shows eight transatlantic Comets a week out of London, plus 10 BOAC Britannias and 11 DC-7Cs. In April 1960, 13 Comets, 19 Britannias and 6 DC-7Cs. Comets quit flying the North Atlantic in October 1960 (but reportedly made a few flights in summer 1964).[citation needed]
  22. ^Avon-powered Comets were distinguished by larger air intakes and curved tailpipes that reduced the thermal effect on the rear fuselage.[157]
  23. ^The 2R ELINT series was operational until 1974, when replaced by the Nimrod R1, the last Comet derivative in RAF service.[161]
  24. ^The MoT subsequently backed BOAC's order of Conway-powered Boeing 707s.[169]
Citations
  1. ^ abcWalker 2000, p. 169.
  2. ^ abLo Bao 1996, pp. 36–47.
  3. ^Walker 2000, pp. 185–190.
  4. ^ abcTrischler and Helmuth 2003, p. 88.
  5. ^ abcdefBirtles 1970, p. 124.
  6. ^Kodera et al. 2010, p. 16.
  7. ^Jones 2010, p. 60.
  8. ^Jackson 1988, p. 453.
  9. ^ abcJones 2010, p. 62.
  10. ^ abTrischler and Helmuth 2003, p. 90.
  11. ^ abWatkins 1996, p. 39.
  12. ^Darling 2001, p. 11.
  13. ^ abcdBirtles 1970, p. 125.
  14. ^ abJones 2010, pp. 62–63.
  15. ^ abcWinchester 2004, p. 109.
  16. ^Jackson 1988, p. 356.
  17. ^ abDarling 2001, p. 17.
  18. ^ abcdeDarling 2001, p. 18.
  19. ^"Tank Test Mk 2.", Flight, Iliffe, pp. 958–959, 30 December 1955, archived from the original on 31 January 2019, retrieved 26 April 2012
  20. ^ abcDavies and Birtles 1999, p. 30.
  21. ^"Comet Engineering", Flight, Iliffe, p. 552, 1 May 1953, archived from the original on 2 February 2017, retrieved 23 March 2019 – via FlightGlobal Archive
  22. ^Dick and Patterson 2010, pp. 134–137.
  23. ^Green and Swanborough April 1977, p. 174.
  24. ^Prins 1998, p. 43.
  25. ^Swanborough 1962, p. 45.
  26. ^Gunn 1987, p. 268.
  27. ^ abWalker 2000, p. 25.
  28. ^ abcFrancis 1950, p. 99.
  29. ^ abFrancis 1950, pp. 100–101.
  30. ^Hill 2002, p. 27.
  31. ^ abCookman, Aubery O. Jr. "Commute by Jet."Popular Mechanics, 93(4), April 1950, pp. 149–152.
  32. ^Smith 2010. 30(4), pp. 489, 506.
  33. ^Francis 1950, p. 98.
  34. ^Walker 2000, p. 69.
  35. ^Windsor-Liscombe, Rhodri. "Usual Culture: The Jet."Topia: Canadian Journal of Cultural Studies (Toronto: York University), Number 11, Spring 2004. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
  36. ^Francis 1950, p. 100.
  37. ^Darling 2001, pp. 35–36.
  38. ^ abDarling 2001, p. 36.
  39. ^Abzug and Larrabee 2002, pp. 80–81.
  40. ^Darling 2001, p. 2.
  41. ^Darling 2001, pp. 16–17.
  42. ^Darling 2001, p. 40.
  43. ^Darling 2001, p. 45.
  44. ^"F.R. equipment speeds refuelling."Flight, 11 May 1951. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
  45. ^ abDarling 2001, pp. 40–41.
  46. ^Watkins 1996, pp. 181–182.
  47. ^Motem 1990, p. 143.
  48. ^Darling 2001, p. 96.
  49. ^ abc"Comet Engineering: The Performance of Airframe, Engines, and Equipment in Operational Service."Flight International, 1 May 1953, p. 551. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
  50. ^"Comet Enters Service."Archived 22 September 2009 at the Wayback MachineRoyal Air Force Museum Cosford. Retrieved 1 November 2010.
  51. ^Moss, C. J. "Metal to Metal Bonding – For Aircraft Structures: Claims of the Redux Process."Flight International, 8 February 1951, p. 169. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
  52. ^Jefford 2001, pp. 123–125.
  53. ^Birtles 1970, p. 132.
  54. ^Jones 2010, p. 67.
  55. ^Francis 1950, pp. 101–102.
  56. ^Darling 2001, pp. 35, 46.
  57. ^ abWithuhn 1976, p. 88.
  58. ^Francis 1950, p. 103.
  59. ^"Ghost engine."Archived 4 February 2010 at the Wayback MachineRoyal Air Force Museum Cosford. Retrieved 1 November 2010.
  60. ^Francis 1950, pp. 98–102.
  61. ^Gunn 1987, p. 269.
  62. ^ abWalker 2000, p. 190.
  63. ^ abcdeDarling 2001, p. 33.
  64. ^"Comet Gets Stronger Engines."Popular Science, 160(6), June 1952, p. 142.
  65. ^Davies and Birtles 1999, p. 31.
  66. ^Davies and Birtles 1999, p. 34.
  67. ^Floyd 1986, p. 88.
  68. ^ abMcNeil 2002, p. 39.
  69. ^ ab"On This Day: Comet inaugurates the jet age."BBC News, 2 May 1952. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
  70. ^ abCookman, Aubrey O. Jr. "I Rode The First Jet Airliner."Popular Mechanics, July 1952, pp. 90–94. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
  71. ^Jackson 1988, pp. 173–174.
  72. ^Lane 1979, p. 205.
  73. ^"Jet Air-Routes", Flight, p. 547, 1 May 1953, archived from the original on 5 March 2016
  74. ^Davies and Birtles 1999, p. 22 (Route map illustration).
  75. ^Schnaars 2002, p. 71.
  76. ^ abSchnaars 2002, p. 70.
  77. ^"Preludes and Overtures: de Havilland Comet 1".Flight, 4 September 1953. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
  78. ^Darling 2001, p. 20.
  79. ^Cacutt 1989, p. 146.
  80. ^ abcDarling 2005, p. 119.
  81. ^ abcdefghijklmnoRoach and Eastwood 1992, pp. 331–335.
  82. ^ abDarling 2005, p. 128.
  83. ^Proctor et al. 2010, p. 23.
  84. ^Gunn 1987, pp. 268–270.
  85. ^"Comet Accident Record."Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved: 22 September 2010.
  86. ^"CF-CUN"Ed Coates' Civil Aircraft Photograph Collection. Retrieved: 18 February 2011.
  87. ^ abcWithuhn 1976, p. 85.
  88. ^Birtles 1970, p. 127.
  89. ^Beaty 1984, pp. 113–114.
  90. ^Darling 2005, p. 36.
  91. ^ abLokur, N. S. "Report of the court investigation on the accident to COMET G-ALYV"(PDF). Lessons Learned. Federal Aviation Administration. Archived from the original(PDF) on 15 April 2015. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
  92. ^ abcdWalker 2000, p. 37.
  93. ^Lo Bao 1996, p. 7.
  94. ^Job 1996, p. 14.
  95. ^Darling 2001, p. 26.
  96. ^ abcFaith 1996, pp. 63–64.
  97. ^ abcdeWithey, P.A (1997), "Fatigue Failure of the de Havilland Comet I",
Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/De_Havilland_Comet

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Extract, transform, load (ETL) is the most critical component of data warehousing because it turbocharges data transfer between systems. The best ETL tools in 2021 single-handedly define data warehouse workflows. But which ETL tool should you choose? 

From JavaScript and Java to Apache Hadoop and Go, many ETL solutions fit your needs. But Python dominates the ETL space. It's a high-level and general-purpose programming language used by many of the world’s biggest brands.

There are well over a hundred Python tools in 2021 that act as frameworks, libraries, or software for ETL. You'll find the best six below. But remember, you’ll still need to know Python for all of these tools. (It takes 8 weeks, on average, to learn the basics of this programming language.)

Before you learn the best six Python ETL tools in 2021, there's a simpler alternative you need to hear about. Xplenty is a no-code cloud-based solution used by Fortune 500 companies to extract, transform, and load data for business intelligence and analytics. Because it requires no code, you don’t need to learn Python. We’ll tell you more about Xplenty later.

Table of Contents

  1. Why Use Python for ETL Pipelines in 2021?
  2. Apache Airflow
  3. Luigi
  4. pandas
  5. petl
  6. Bonobo
  7. Bubbles
  8. Other ETL Tools, Libraries & Frameworks
  9. The Better ETL Solution

Why Use Python for ETL Pipelines in 2021?

First up, let's talk about why you would set up ETL pipelines with Python in 2021. Why not use an ETL tool? Developers who live and breathe ETL create and use these tools, right?

Right. ETL tools prove useful for dealing with complex schemas and massive amounts of big data, making them, hands down, the better choice for data-driven organizations like yours. Sure, you can use something like SQLAlchemy to execute ETL in Python. But, this process is time-consuming, labor-intensive, and overwhelming.

There are only three situations where Python makes sense:

  • You feel comfortable with Python and want to build an ETL tool.
  • You have extremely simple ETL requirements.
  • You have a unique, hyper-specific need you can only meet by custom coding an ETL solution through Python.

If you fit into one of these categories, you have lots of options.

The tools below are the top six Python tools available for ETL in 2021. We selected these Python tools based on usability, popularity, and diversity. As we mentioned before, you’ll still need to know Python to use these tools. However, the platforms below make it easier to execute ETL pipelines with this programming language. If you don’t know Python or don’t want to code pipelines from scratch, we recommend looking at Xplenty’s features. 

Recommended Reading: Other ETL Tools, Libraries, and Frameworks

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1. Apache Airflow for Python-Based Workflows

Apache Airflow is an open-source Python-based workflow automation tool for setting up and maintaining powerful data pipelines. Airflow isn't an ETL tool per se. But it manages, structures, and organizes ETL pipelines using something called Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs). 

DAGs form relationships and dependencies without defining tasks, running a single branch multiple times and skipping branches from sequences when necessary. 

For example, you can make A run after B and make C run every 2 minutes. Or make A and B run every 2 minutes and make C run after B.

Typical Airflows look like this:

Metadata database > Scheduler > Executor > Workers

And here's how it works:

  • The metadata database stores workflows/tasks (DAGs).
  • The scheduler (typically run as a service) uses DAG definitions to select tasks.
  • The executor determines which worker executes tasks. 

Workers are the processes that execute the logic of workflows/tasks.

Apache Airflow makes a fabulous addition to your ETL toolbox because it's so valuable for management and organization. Plus, Airflow has Google Cloud and AWS hooks and operators, making it incredibly useful for cloud warehousing environments. 

When Does Apache Airflow Make Sense?

If performing long ETL jobs or when ETL has multiple steps. (Airflow lets you restart from any point in the ETL process.) That said, Apache Airflow is not a library, so you have to deploy it, and this makes little sense for small ETL jobs.

Facts About Apache Airflow

  • Maxime Beauchemin from Airbnb started the Apache Airflow project. 
  • Airflow won InfoWorld's Best of Open Source Software Award in 2020.
  • The majority of Airflow users leverage Celery to simplify execution management.
  • You can schedule automated DAG workflows via the Airflow WebUI. 
  • Airflow uses a command-line interface, extremely useful for isolating execution tasks outside of scheduler workflows.
  • Prefect is a solid Airflow alternative with advanced features. You can migrate DAGs straight over.
  • Apache Airflow currently has an average user rating of 4.1/5 on G2.com, based on 24 reviews. Users describe it as "stable," "fantastic," but sometimes "frustrating."

As you can see, executing Apache Airflow can still be complicated. Xplenty provides a no-code alternative to Python, automating complicated data pipelines. 

2. Luigi for Complex Python Pipelines

Luigi is an open-source Python-based tool that builds complex pipelines. Developed by Spotify to automate its insane workloads (think terabytes of data every day), Luigi serves data-driven corporations like Stripe and Red Hat.

There are three benefits to Luigi:

  • Dependency management with stellar visualization.
  • Failure recovery via checkpoints.
  • Command-line interface integration.

The primary difference between Luigi and Airflow is the way these Python tools execute tasks and dependencies. On Luigi, you'll find "tasks" and "targets," and tasks consume targets. (A task will plop out a target; another task will eat that target and plop out another target.) This target-based approach is perfect for simple Python-based ETL, but Luigi struggles with hyper-complex tasks.

When Does Luigi Make Sense?  

When you need to automate simple ETL processes like logs. (Luigi handles logs quickly and with little setup.) Luigi's strict pipeline-like structure, however, limits complex tasks. Plus, even simple ETL processes require Python coding skills.

Facts About Luigi:

  • You can't interact with processes once Luigi runs tasks.
  • Unlike Airflow, Luigi doesn't automatically schedule, alert, monitor, or sync tasks to workers.
  • Luigi's UI (or lack thereof) is a pain point.
  • Towards Data Science says Luigi uses a "target-based approach," but its UI is "minimal," with no user interaction for running processes. Plus, it doesn't support distributed execution or triggering. 

Recommended Reading: Building an ETL Pipeline in Python

3. pandas for Data Structures and Analysis Tools

If you've been working with Python for a while, you might know about pandas, a library that provides data structures and analysis tools for Python. pandas adds R-style data frames that make ETL processes like data cleansing easier.

In an ETL context, pandas executes many tasks successfully if you're willing to put in the time. Plus, it's relatively easy to run: Set up simple scripts to load data from a Postgre table, transform and clean that data, and write the data to another Postgre table.

But it's not all fun and games: pandas performs relatively poorly on in-memory and scalability. Sure, you can scale the tool using parallel chunks, but the process isn't as simple as using something like Airflow. 

When Does pandas Make Sense? 

When you need to extract data, clean it, transform it, and write it to Excel, a CSV file, or an SQL database. Once you work with large data sets, it makes sense to adopt a more scalable approach.

Facts About pandas

  • NumFocus sponsors pandas.
  • Many Python users choose pandas for ETL batch processing.
  • pandas launched in 2008.
  • pandas boasts a rating of 4.5/5 on G2.com. (That's higher than Airflow.) Users say it's "powerful," "very practical," but there is "a learning curve."

4. petl as a Python ETL Solution

For ETL, petl is probably the most straightforward solution. The tool builds tables in Python, extracts data from multiple sources, and facilitates all kinds of ETL tasks. It's like pandas in functionality, but it doesn't offer the same level of analysis. 

The petl tool handles hyper-complex datasets relatively well, makes good use of system memory, and has reliable scale. But, it lacks in the speed department. Still, it's much easier to leverage petl than building ETL using SQLAlchemy or other custom-coded solutions.

When Does petl Make Sense? 

If you need the basics of ETL without the analytics and when you're not bothered about speed.

Facts About petl

  • petl isn't known for its speed or ability to handle large datasets.
  • petl stands for "Python ETL."
  • Towards Data Science calls petl "basic" and "trivial" but commends it for supporting standard transformations like sorting, joining, aggregation, and row operation.

5. Bonobo as a Lightweight Python ETL Framework

Bonobo is a lightweight Python ETL tool that's relatively easy to use for rapidly deploying pipelines and executing them in parallel. Bonobo extracts data from multiple sources — CSV, JSON, XML, XLS, SQL, etc. — and follows atomic UNIX principles. The best thing about Bonobos is that users don't have to learn a new API. So if you know Python, working in Bonobo is a breeze. You can build graphs with business requirements in mind, create libraries, and perform (simple) ETL batch automation.

Bonobo is a decent choice for Python users. It's open-source, scalable, and handles semi-complex schemas. 

When Does Bonobo Make Sense? 

When completing simple, lightweight ETL jobs. And when you don't have the time to learn a new API. You’ll still need knowledge of Python, though, so no-code Xplenty might provide a better option. 

Facts About Bonobo

  • An official Bonobo Docker extension lets you run jobs within Docker containers.
  • Bonobo has CLI execution.
  • Bonobo has Graphviz for ETL job visualization.
  • There's an official SQLAlchemy extension (in alpha).
  • A reporter for Python Pandemonium found writing his first-ever ETL in Python with Bonobo a relatively simple process. 

6. Bubbles as a Python Framework for ETL

Bubbles is another Python framework that runs ETL. Unlike some other frameworks, Bubbles uses metadata to describe pipelines. Use it for data integration, data cleansing, data auditing, data monitoring, and more. Although written for Python, Bubbles' author says his tool isn't Python-exclusive. 

Another benefit of Bubbles is that it's "technologically agnostic," which means you don't have to worry about working with or accessing data — just the transformation.

When Does Bubbles Make Sense? 

When you need a rapid ETL setup that's technologically agnostic. And when you want the freedom to focus solely on ETL processes.

Facts About Bubbles

  • Bubbles is abstract, with a focus on ETL rather than learning Python. Open Knowledge Labs says: "Why should someone who just wants to achieve his goal of extracting, transforming, and presenting the data care about the underlying technology and query language?"

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Other ETL Tools, Libraries & Frameworks

There are simply too many Python (and other) tools that handle ETL to include in this post. We tried to keep our list simple by including popular ETL options that have different use cases. But there are plenty of other tools that we could mention.

In this section, we're going to list other popular ETL platforms by language.

Python

  • BeautifulSoup: This Python tool pulls data out of webpages (XML, HTML). It integrates with tons of ETL tools like petl.
  • PyQuery: Also extracts data from webpages but with a jquery-like syntax.
  • Blaze: This is an interface that queries data. Part of the "Blaze Ecosystem," a framework for ETL that uses Blaze, Dask, Datashape, DyND, and Odo.
  • Dask: Use Dask for Parallel computing via task scheduling. It also processes continuous data streams. Also part of the "Blaze Ecosystem."
  • Datashape: A simple data-description language similar to NumPly. It describes in-situ structured data with no canonical transformation.
  • DyND: The Python exposure for DyND — a C++ library for dynamic, multidimensional arrays.
  • Odo: Move data between multiple containers. Odo uses the native CSV loading capabilities of SQL databases, making it faster than loading with Python.
  • Joblib: More tools that use Python functions for pipelines, but Joblib has a few unique perks that make it suitable for certain jobs such as NumPy arrays.
  • lxml: Processes HTML and XML in Python.
  • Retrying: Lets you add retry behavior to executions.
  • riko: A Yahoo! Pipes replacement that's useful for stream data. Not a full-blown ETL solution, but it's pure Python, and it makes extracting data streams much easier.

Cloud-Based

  • Xplenty: Do you want to set up automated pipelines across a massive variety of sources using best-of-breed visualization and rapid integrations? You need Xplenty! Point-and-click, 200+ out-of-the-box integrations, Salesforce-to-Salesforce integration, and more. No code required whatsoever. The only solution for ETL.
  • AWS Data Pipeline: Amazon's data pipeline solution. Set up pipelines between AWS instances and legacy servers.
  • AWS Glue: Amazon's fully managed ETL solution. Manage it directly through the AWS Management Console.
  • AWS Batch: Used for batch computing jobs on AWS resources. It has good scalability that suits engineers on large compute jobs.
  • Google Dataflow: Google's ETL solution for batch jobs and streams.
  • Azure Data Factory: Microsoft's ETL solution.

Miscellaneous

  • Toil: This USCS project handles ETL almost identically to Luigi. (Use Luigi to wrap Toil pipelines for additional check pointing.)
  • Pachyderm: Another alternative to tools like Airflow. Here's a great GitHub writeup about some of the simple differences between Airflow and Pachyderm. (Pro tip: Paychyderm has an open-source edition on its website.)
  • Mara: Yep, another ETL framework that uses Python's capabilities. It sits somewhere between pure Python and Apache Airflow, and it's fast and simple to set up.
  • Pinball: Pinterest's workflow manager with auto-retries, priorities, overrun policies, and horizontal scalability.
  • Azkaban: Created by LinkedIn, Azkaban is a Java-based tool for Hadoop batches. But if you're trying to run hyper-complex Hadoop batches, think about Oozie instead.
  • Dray.it: A Docker workflow engine that helps with resource management.
  • Spark: Set up your entire batch streaming ETL.

Other Languages

We won't dive too deep into the tools below. But here's a list of ETL platforms outside of the Python space.

Java

GO

JavaScript (Node.js)

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The six Python frameworks, libraries, and tools on this list prove useful for less-complex jobs. But most growing enterprises need a speedier, scalable solution that leverages multiple tool layers for comprehensive ETL.  

Xplenty is a no-code, cloud-based solution that builds robust pipelines in minutes, with 200+ integrations that make ETL a piece of cake. It requires no data engineering experience. 

Xplenty has limitless features. Most ETL tools move data from Salesforce to a warehouse, but Xplenty moves it back again. Then there's the super-simple workflow creation for defining dependencies between tasks. The easy data transformations. A reliable REST API. Enhanced data security and compliance. And free customer support for all users. It's the only ETL solution you'll ever need. 

Forget about Python-based tools in 2021. You need a no-code ETL solution that lets you extract, transform, and load data without having to start from scratch. Xplenty is pain-free but sturdy enough to handle even the most demanding of workloads. 

Xplenty is the future of ETL. No code. No messing around. It's data transformation on your terms. Just the way you like it. Click here to schedule an intro call with our support team to see if Xplenty is the right fit for you.

Источник: https://www.xplenty.com/blog/comparison-of-the-top-python-etl-tools/

Why Does My Jaguar Say “Restricted Performance”?

You purchased your Jaguar due to its sleek design and reputation as a high-performance import. So it’s likely worrisome when any performance light comes on your dash. Your mind starts questioning. Is it serious? If you’re driving, is it serious enough to stop the car? Is it serious enough to take to my mechanic or the dealership? Is it just a little of nothing? Is it a fluke? Will it go away on its own? All these questions and more fly through your brain in rapid succession.illustrated Jaguar Restricted Performance blog

If you see the amber or red light for “Restricted Performance” you may certainly be asking these questions. If you are driving when the light comes on, you have the additional worry of whether you are going to get stranded. Murphy’s Law will more than likely come into play, leaving you on the side of the road while enjoying a long and, what was formerly, a pleasurable drive! Right?

You may be used to lights coming on and repairs being made, especially if you have any older model British automobile. But, the dreaded “Restricted Performance” indicator can be a pesky one as it is difficult to diagnose. Here are some possible causes and solutions if your Jaguar dash indicators display this message. Hopefully, this information can help you narrow down the root of the issue and give you some direction in finding a solution before it becomes a major problem. If this light comes on in your Jaguar, make it simple on yourself, and contact Triangle Imports to help properly diagnose the cause.

What is the Jaguar Restricted Performance error?

With the Restricted Performance error message, the car is indicating that the engine management system has gone into a “limp” mode to protect certain systems and components. This changes depending on the system or components being protected.

For example, if a coil pack (or packs) is failing, unburnt fuel would be getting into the exhaust system, which would damage the catalytic converters. So to protect the catalytic converters, fueling on the affected cylinder(s) is switched off. This is why the car appears to run very badly if this is happening.

Our research found that it occurs more in S-Type and XJ-Series Jaguars.

What are the symptoms of Restricted Performance?

Generally, the Restricted Performance light either comes on before and during a cold start or while driving. If the error message illuminates while driving, you can experience limited acceleration of 1800 – 2000 RPM. Many times, the message displays when going heavy (around three-quarters down) on the accelerator. The car is trying to protect itself when this happens.

What are the possible causes?

First and foremost, always use an OBD scanner to run diagnostics when you get the Restricted Performance message. If you’re a “do-it-yourselfer” but don’t own a scanner, you can go to any local auto parts supply store and use theirs. If you prefer to take the car into a Jaguar specialized mechanic, they have a diagnostic scanner. Using a scanner is very important in pointing you toward a smaller list of the source that is causing the problem. A Jaguar mechanic will have the certification and experience to diagnose accurately the performance issue, and repair to OEM specifications.

Common Restricted Performance Message Problems

The Restricted Performance message generally indicates issues with these systems in your car:

  • air intake and/or throttle body
  • fuel system

Possible causes for the Restricted Performance error can be from leaks in airflow, mass airflow (MAF) issues, fuel, intercooler hoses, throttle body housing, and gaps in hose closures.

More specifically, these are some of the most common causes of the error (including diagnostic codes where possible):

  • Gearbox fault – Can cause hard shifts in S-Types (2002 – 2008)
  • Breather hose connected to the throttle body
  • EGR valve not working – diagnostics read “air mass and turbo”
  • Turbo Turbine Inlet Valve Stuck Open (P22D2)
  • Turbo Turbine Inlet Valve Control Circuit – Open (P22CF)
  • Faulty turbo actuator
  • Split intercooler
  • Inlet air leak or leaking hose

Check for these issues when diagnosing your Jaguar

If you are working on the car yourself, run through this checklist:

  1. Check the obvious things like the air intake box (air filter housing) for cracks or to make sure all of the clasps are fastened/not missing.
  2. Check the breather hose from the engine that intersects the intake pipe to make sure it isn’t cracked and that both ends are completely fastened.
  3. Check the mass airflow (MAF) sensor right after the air intake box to make sure the wiring harness is completely fastened and remove it and apply a small amount of cleaner if dirty.
  4. Check the air intake pipe for cracks and where it connects with the throttle body and make sure that seal is tight.
  5. Check the o-ring seals around the dipstick and the breather hoses between the engine and the firewall and the plastic air intake manifold seals.
  6. If your car won’t start, it’s possible you have a clog in the fuel lines or a fuel pump problem.
  7. Check (because we found other folks with the error also had experienced) faulty dipstick o-ring, faulty mass airflow sensor, a cracked breather hose, and a cracked plastic nozzle that extends from the valve cover.

Possible Solutions to “Check Engine” or Performance Restrictions

If you are driving when you get the code, you may be able to clear the message by following these steps. Please note, however, that if you can’t clear the message, it is advisable that you do not drive any more than is necessary before diagnosing the problem(s).

  1. Pull the car over and switch the ignition off.
  2. Wait one minute.
  3. Switch on the ignition, but wait until all the lights on the dash have gone off except for the four that stay on until the engine is started.
  4. Start the car.

If you are seeing the Restricted Performance error persistently, as related to the above list of possible causes for the error, these are places to check (perform in the order presented) in order to solve the issue:

  1. Fix any cracks in the air intake box (air filter housing)
  2. Make sure that there are no clasps missing and that all clasps are fastened.
  3. Make sure that the breather hose from the engine that intersects the intake pipe isn’t cracked and that both ends are completely fastened.
  4. Be sure the wiring harness for the mass airflow (MAF) sensor is completely fastened; if dirty, remove it and apply a small amount of cleaner.
  5. Make sure the seal for the connection of the air intake pipe and the throttle body is tight.
  6. Make sure the o-ring seals around the dipstick and the breather hoses between the engine and the firewall and the plastic air intake manifold seals are all tight.
  7. Replace a faulty dipstick o-ring, faulty mass airflow sensor, a cracked breather hose, and a cracked plastic nozzle that extends from the valve cover.

Contact our Jaguar Repair Team in Raleigh

Again, the Restricted Performance error message can be a bit tough to diagnose because there are several possible causes. If you experience this error, it’s best to take your Jaguar to a licensed Jaguar technician who can efficiently and correctly diagnose your problem.

Schedule your Jaguar repair today or if you need roadside assistance, request towing to our shop.

Источник: https://triangleimports.com/blog/why-does-my-jaguar-say-restricted-performance

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Cisco 3900 Series and Cisco 2900 Series Hardware Installation Guide

Overview of the Routers

Cisco Integrated Services Routers Generation 2 (ISR G2) offer data functionality through Gigabit Ethernet ports and security functionality with a virtual private network (VPN) accelerator on the motherboard. Additional security features are available with add-on hardware and software.

Cisco 2900 series and Cisco 3900 series routers also provide voice IP telephony with digital signal processor (DSP) capability; and voice gateway, DSP farm, IP-to-IP gateway, Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express (CUCME) via Cisco IOS. Cisco Unity Express (CUE) is provided through the use of add-on hardware.

This series of ISRs have new slots that support next generation Enhanced High-Speed WAN Interface Cards (EHWICs), Internal Services Modules (ISMs), Packet Voice Data Modules (PVDM3s), Service Modules (SMs), and Services Performance Engines (SPEs).

Access to the Cisco Multi-Gigabit Fabric (MGF) facilitates connection between switch ports on the ISR without utilizing all of the external ports. A logical GE interface on the ISR connects external and internal modules through the MGF for improved LAN and WAN switching.

Table 1-1 ISR G2 Models

Series Routers

Cisco 2900

  • 2901
  • 2911
  • 2911-T
  • 2921
  • 2951

Cisco 3900

 

The following sections are provided in this chapter:

Chassis Views

This section contains views of the front and back panels of the Cisco 2900 series and Cisco 3900 series routers, showing locations of the power and signal interfaces, module slots, status indicators, and chassis identification labels.


Note Routers support the following slot types: Service Modules (SMs), Enhanced High-Speed Interface Card (EHWICs), high-speed WAN interface cards (HWICs), voice WAN interface cards (VWICs), WAN interface cards (WICs), Internal Services Modules (ISMs), and packet voice DSP modules (PVDM3s). However, some router models do not support all of these media types. See the router model descriptions for more information.


Cisco 2900 Series ISRs

Cisco 3900 Series ISRs

Cisco 2901 Chassis

Figure 1-1— Front panel

Figure 1-2— Back panel

Figure 1-3— Back panel LEDs

 

Figure 1-1 Front Panel of the Cisco 2901 Router

 

1

SYS1

2

ACT2

3

POE3

4

AC OK4 (only on AC PS, not AC-POE PS)

5

On/off switch

6

AC power connector

Figure 1-2 Back Panel Slots and Connectors of the Cisco 2901 Router

 

 

1

EHWIC slots 5 0, 1, 2, and 3 (0, Far right)

2

USB6 serial port

3

Aux port

4

RJ-45 serial console port

5

10/100/1000 Ethernet ports (GE0/1)

6

10/100/1000 Ethernet port (GE0/0)

7

Ground

8

USB0 and USB1 (1, Top)

9

CompactFlash7 0 and 1

 

 

Figure 1-3 Back Panel LEDs of Cisco 2901 Router

1

CompactFlash 0 and 1 (0, Right)

2

ISM8

3

PVDM3 0 and 1 (0, Right)

4

EN (Enable USB console)

5

EN (Enable RJ-45 console)

6

S (Speed)

7

L (Link)

 

 

Cisco 2911 Chassis

Figure 1-4— Front panel

Figure 1-5— Back panel

Figure 1-6 — Back panel LEDs

Figure 1-4 Front Panel of the Cisco 2911 Router

 

1

AC OK9

2

On/off switch

3

AC power connector

4

SYS

5

ACT

6

POE

7

RPS10

8

PS11

9

Optional RPS adapter (blank panel shown)

 

 

Figure 1-5 Back Panel of the Cisco 2911 Router

1

EHWIC slots12 0, 1, 2, and 3 (0, Far right)

2

USB serial port

3

AUX

4

RJ-45 serial console port

5

10/100/1000 Ethernet port (GE0/0)

6

10/100/1000 Ethernet port (GE0/1)

7

10/100/1000 Ethernet port (GE0/2)

8

USB 0

9

USB 1

10

Ground

11

AC, DC, AC-POE, or DC-POE Power Module

12

CompactFlash13 0 and 1 (0, Right)

13

Service module14 slot 1

 

 

Figure 1-6 Back Panel LEDs of the Cisco 2911 Router

1

CompactFlash 0 and 1 (0, Far right)

2

ISM15

3

PVDM3

PVDM 0, 1, (0, Far right LED)

4

EN (Enable USB console)

5

EN (Enable RJ-45 console)

6

S (Speed)

7

L (Link)

 

 

Cisco 2921 and Cisco 2951 Chassis

Figure 1-7— Front panel

Figure 1-8— Back panel

Figure 1-9— Back panel LEDs

Figure 1-7 Front Panel of the Cisco 2921 and 2951 Routers

 

1

AC OK16

2

Power On/off switch

3

AC power connector

4

Optional RPS adapter (Blank panel shown)

5

SYS

6

ACT

7

POE

8

RPS

9

PS17

 

 

Figure 1-8 Back Panel Slots and Connectors on the Cisco 2921 and 2951 Routers

 

1

EHWIC slots18 0,1,2, and 3 (0, Far right)

2

USB serial console port

3

AUX port

4

RJ-45 serial console port

5

SFP

6

10/100/1000 Ethernet ports (GE 0/1 and GE 0/2
(GE 0/2, Top)

7

10/100/1000 Ethernet port GE 0/0

8

Ground

9

USB0 and USB1 (1, Top)

10

Service module slots19 SM1 and SM2 (1, Right on 2951), (1, left on 2921)

11

CompactFlash20 0 and 1 (0, Right)

 

 

Figure 1-9 Back Panel LEDS of the Cisco 2921 and 2951 Routers

1

CompactFlash 0 and 1 (0, Right)

2

ISM21

3

PVDM3 0,1, and 2 (0, Right)

4

EN (Enable USB console)

5

EN (Enable RJ-45 console)

6

SFP22 EN

7

SFP S

8

S (Speed)

9

L (Link)

 

 

Cisco 3900 Series Chassis

Cisco 3900 series ISRs are shipped with Services Performance Engines (SPEs) pre-installed in the router. See the “Services Performance Engine” section for models and support information.

 

Router Services Performance Engine

Cisco 3925

Services Performance Engine 100

Cisco 3945

Services Performance Engine 150

Cisco 3925E

Services Performance Engine 200

Cisco 3945E

Services Performance Engine 250

Figure 1-10 shows the Cisco 3925 and Cisco 3945 front panels.

Cisco 3925 and Cisco 3945 (SPE 100 and SPE 150)

 

Cisco 3925E and Cisco 3945E (SPE 200 or SPE 250)

 

Figure 1-10 Front Panel of the Cisco 3900 Series ISRs

 

1

AC OK23

2

On/off switch

3

Power connector

4

SYS status LED

5

ACT status LED

6

POE

7

Boost

8

PS1 (Right), PS2 (Left)

Figure 1-11 Back Panel Slots and Connectors for Cisco 3925 and 3945 (SPE 100 and SPE 150)

1

EHWIC slots24 0, 1, 2 and 3 (0, Far right)

2

USB serial console port

3

AUX port

4

RJ-45 serial console port

5

SFP1 and SFP2 (2, Top)

6

10/100/1000 Ethernet ports GE 0/1 and GE 0/2
(GE 0/2,Top)

7

10/100/1000 Ethernet port GE0/0

8

USB0 and USB1 (1, Top)

9

Ground

10

Cisco 3945 Service module slots25, 1 (Lower right), 2 (Lower left), 3 (Top right), and 4 (Top left)

Cisco 3925 Service module slots26, 1 (Lower left)27, 2 (Top left)

11

CompactFlash28 0 and 1 (0, Far right)

 

 

Figure 1-12 Back Panel LEDS on Services Performance Engine 100 and SPE 150

 

1

CompactFlash 0 and 1 (0, Far right)

2

ISM29

3

PVDM3 0,1, 2, and 3 (0, Far right LED)

4

EN (Enable USB console)

5

EN (Enable RJ-45 console)

6

SFP S

7

SFP EN

8

S (Speed)

9

L (Link)

 

 

Figure 1-13 Back Panel Slots/Connectors for Cisco 3925E and 3945E (SPE 200 or SPE 250)

1

EHWIC slots30 0,1, and 2 (0, Far right)

2

USB serial console port

3

AUX port

4

RJ-45 serial console port

5

10/100/1000 Ethernet ports (GE 0/3, Top; GE 0/2, Bottom)

6

10/100/1000 Ethernet ports (GE 0/1, Top; GE 0/0, Bottom)

7

SFP 1 and SFP 2 (1, Top)

8

USB 0 and USB 1 (1, Left)

9

Ground

10

Cisco 3945 Service module slots31, 1 (Lower right), 2 (Lower left), 3 (Top right), and 4 (Top left)

Cisco 3925 Service module slots32, 1 (Lower left)33, 2 (Top left)

11

CompactFlash34 1 and 0 (0, Far right)

 

 

Figure 1-14 Back Panel LEDS on Services Performance Engine 200 and 250

1

CompactFlash 0 and 1 (0, Far right)

2

PVDM3 0,1, and 2 (0, Far right LED)

3

EN (Enable USB console)

4

EN (Enable RJ-45 console)

5

SFP S

6

SFP EN

7

S (Speed)

8

L (Link)

Locating the Serial Number, PID, VID and CLEI

Software License

To obtain a software license, you need a product authorization key (PAK) and the unique device identifier (UDI) of the device where the license will be installed.

The serial number (SN), product ID (PID), version ID (VID), and Common Language Equipment Identifier (CLEI) are printed on a label on the back of the router or on a label tray located on the router chassis or motherboard. The UDI can be viewed using the show license udi command in privileged Exec mode in Cisco Internet Operating System (IOS) software. For additional information on the UDI or how to obtain a PAK, see the Cisco Software Activation on Integrated Services Routers document at Cisco.com.

The UDI has two main components:

  • Product ID (PID)
  • Serial number (SN)

 

Refer to these sections to locate labels on Cisco 2900 series and 3900 series ISRG2 routers:

Cisco 2900 Series

Cisco 3900 Series

Labels on Cisco 2901

Figure 1-15 shows the location of the labels on the Cisco 2901 router.

Figure 1-15 Labels Location on the Cisco 2901 Router

 

Label Description

1

Product ID

2

Serial Number

3

Product ID/Version ID

4

Common Language Equipment Identifier

Labels on Cisco 2911

Figure 1-16 shows the location of the labels on the Cisco 2911 router.

Figure 1-16 Labels Location on the Cisco 2911 Router

 

Label Description

1

Product ID

2

Serial Number

3

PID/VID

4

CLEI

Labels on Cisco 2921 and Cisco 2951

Figure 1-17 shows the location of the labels on the Cisco 2921 and Cisco 2951 routers.

Figure 1-17 Label Location on the Cisco 2921 and Cisco 2951 Routers

 

 

Label Description

1

Product ID

2

Serial Number

3

PID/VID

4

CLEI

Labels on Cisco 3925 and Cisco 3945

Figure 1-18 shows the two locations where labels are located on Cisco 3900 ISRs. There are labels on the router chassis and on the Services Performance Engine (SPE).


Note Use the serial number on the SPE label to obtain a PAK.


Figure 1-18 Labels Location(s) on Cisco 3900 ISRs

 

Table 1-3 Labels on Cisco 3900 Routers and SPE

Label Description
1

SPE PID

2

SPE Serial Number

3

SPE PID/VID

4

SPE CLEI

5

Chassis CLEI

6

Chassis Serial Number

7

Chassis PID/VID

For Additional Help Locating Labels on the Router

Use the Cisco Product Identification (CPI) tool to find labels on the router. It provides detailed illustrations and descriptions of where the labels are located on Cisco products. It includes the following features:

  • A search option that allows browsing for models by using a tree-structured product hierarchy
  • A search field on the final results page that makes it easier to look up multiple products
  • End-of-sale products clearly identified in results lists

The tool streamlines the process of locating serial number labels and identifying products. Serial number information expedites the entitlement process and is important for access to support services.

The Cisco Product Identification tool can be accessed at the following URL:

http://tools.cisco.com/Support/CPI/index.do

Hardware Features

This section describes the hardware features in Cisco 2900 series and Cisco 3900 series routers.

Built-in Interface Ports

Table 1-4 summarizes the interface ports built into the router chassis.

 

Data Ports Management Ports
Router Model 10/100/1000
GE RJ-45
10/100/1000 SFP USB Type A Console Serial, RJ-45 Console Serial, Mini-USB (Type B) Auxiliary, RJ-45

Cisco 2901

2

2

1

1

1

Cisco 2911

3

2

1

1

1

Cisco 2921

3

1

2

1

1

1

Cisco 2951

3

1

2

1

1

1

Cisco 3925 with SPE 100

335

2

2

1

1

1

Cisco 3945 with SPE 150

336

2

2

1

1

1

Cisco 3925E with SPE 200

437

2

2

1

1

1

Cisco 3945E with SPE 250

438

2

2

1

1

1

Gigabit Ethernet Ports

There are two different types of Gigabit Ethernet (GE) ports available on Cisco 2900 series and Cisco 3900 series ISRs.

GE Ports

The GE RJ-45 copper interface ports support 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX, and 1000BASE-T.

SFP Ports

The small-form-factor pluggable (SFP) ports support 1000BASE-LX/LH, 1000BASE-SX, 1000BASE-ZX, and Coarse Wavelength-Division Multiplexing (CWDM-8) modules, as well as 100Mbs SFP modules.

The SFP port shares the same physical port as an RJ-45 GE port. Table 1-4 shows the models that support SFP installation. The SFP port supports auto-media-detection, auto-failover and remote fault indication (RFI), as described in the IEEE 802.3ah specification.

Use the media-type {rj45{auto-failover}}

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Cisco 3900 Series and Cisco 2900 Series Hardware Installation Guide

Overview of the Routers

Cisco Integrated Services Routers Generation 2 (ISR G2) offer data functionality through Gigabit Ethernet ports and security functionality with a virtual private network (VPN) accelerator on the motherboard. Additional security features are available with add-on hardware and software.

Cisco 2900 series and Cisco 3900 series routers also provide voice IP telephony with digital signal processor (DSP) capability; and voice gateway, DSP farm, IP-to-IP gateway, Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express (CUCME) via Cisco IOS. Cisco Unity Express (CUE) is provided through the use of add-on hardware.

This series of ISRs have new slots that support next generation Enhanced High-Speed WAN Interface Cards (EHWICs), Internal Services Modules (ISMs), Packet Voice Data Modules (PVDM3s), Service Modules (SMs), and Services Performance Engines (SPEs).

Access to the Cisco Multi-Gigabit Fabric (MGF) facilitates connection between switch ports on the ISR without utilizing all of the external ports. A logical GE interface on the ISR connects external and internal modules through the MGF for improved LAN and WAN switching.

Table 1-1 ISR G2 Models

Series Routers

Cisco 2900

  • 2901
  • 2911
  • 2911-T
  • 2921
  • 2951

Cisco 3900

 

The following sections are provided in this chapter:

Chassis Views

This section contains views of the front and back panels of the Cisco 2900 series and Cisco 3900 series routers, showing locations of the power and signal interfaces, module slots, status indicators, and chassis identification labels.


Note Routers support the following slot types: Service Modules (SMs), Enhanced High-Speed Interface Card (EHWICs), high-speed WAN interface cards (HWICs), voice WAN interface cards (VWICs), WAN interface cards (WICs), Internal Services Modules (ISMs), and packet voice DSP modules (PVDM3s). However, some router models do not support all of these media types. See the router model descriptions for more information.


Cisco 2900 Series ISRs

Cisco 3900 Series ISRs

Cisco 2901 Chassis

Figure 1-1— Front panel

Figure 1-2— Back panel

Figure 1-3— Back panel LEDs

 

Figure 1-1 Front Panel of the Cisco 2901 Router

 

1

SYS1

2

ACT2

3

POE3

4

AC OK4 (only on AC PS, not AC-POE PS)

5

On/off switch

6

AC power connector

Figure 1-2 Back Panel Slots and Connectors of the Cisco 2901 Router

 

 

1

EHWIC slots 5 0, 1, 2, and 3 (0, Far right)

2

USB6 serial port

3

Aux port

4

RJ-45 serial console port

5

10/100/1000 Ethernet ports (GE0/1)

6

10/100/1000 Ethernet port (GE0/0)

7

Ground

8

USB0 and USB1 (1, Top)

9

CompactFlash7 0 and 1

 

 

Figure 1-3 Back Panel LEDs of Cisco 2901 Router

1

CompactFlash 0 and 1 (0, Right)

2

ISM8

3

PVDM3 0 and 1 (0, Right)

4

EN (Enable USB console)

5

EN (Enable RJ-45 console)

6

S (Speed)

7

L (Link)

 

 

Cisco 2911 Chassis

Figure 1-4— Front panel

Figure 1-5— Back panel

Figure 1-6 — Back panel LEDs

Figure 1-4 Front Panel of the Cisco 2911 Router

 

1

AC OK9

2

On/off switch

3

AC power connector

4

SYS

5

ACT

6

POE

7

RPS10

8

PS11

9

Optional RPS adapter (blank panel shown)

 

 

Figure 1-5 Back Panel of the Cisco 2911 Router

1

EHWIC slots12 0, 1, 2, and 3 (0, Far right)

2

USB serial port

3

AUX

4

RJ-45 serial console port

5

10/100/1000 Ethernet port (GE0/0)

6

10/100/1000 Ethernet port (GE0/1)

7

10/100/1000 Ethernet port (GE0/2)

8

USB 0

9

USB 1

10

Ground

11

AC, DC, AC-POE, or DC-POE Power Module

12

CompactFlash13 0 and 1 (0, Right)

13

Service module14 slot 1

 

 

Figure 1-6 Back Panel LEDs of the Cisco 2911 Router

1

CompactFlash 0 and 1 (0, Far right)

2

ISM15

3

PVDM3

PVDM 0, 1, (0, Far right LED)

4

EN (Enable USB console)

5

EN (Enable RJ-45 console)

6

S (Speed)

7

L (Link)

 

 

Cisco 2921 and Cisco 2951 Chassis

Figure 1-7— Front panel

Figure 1-8— Back panel

Figure 1-9— Back panel LEDs

Figure 1-7 Front Panel of the Cisco 2921 and 2951 Routers

 

1

AC OK16

2

Power On/off switch

3

AC power connector

4

Optional RPS adapter (Blank panel shown)

5

SYS

6

ACT

7

POE

8

RPS

9

PS17

 

 

Figure 1-8 Back Panel Slots and Connectors on the Cisco 2921 and 2951 Routers

 

1

EHWIC slots18 0,1,2, and 3 (0, Far right)

2

USB serial console port

3

AUX port

4

RJ-45 serial console port

5

SFP

6

10/100/1000 Ethernet ports (GE 0/1 and GE 0/2
(GE 0/2, Top)

7

10/100/1000 Ethernet port GE 0/0

8

Ground

9

USB0 and USB1 (1, Top)

10

Service module slots19 SM1 and SM2 (1, Right on 2951), (1, left on 2921)

11

CompactFlash20 0 and 1 (0, Right)

 

 

Figure 1-9 Back Panel LEDS of the Cisco 2921 and 2951 Routers

1

CompactFlash 0 and 1 (0, Right)

2

ISM21

3

PVDM3 0,1, and 2 (0, Right)

4

EN (Enable USB console)

5

EN (Enable RJ-45 console)

6

SFP22 EN

7

SFP S

8

S (Speed)

9

L (Link)

 

 

Cisco 3900 Series Chassis

Cisco 3900 series ISRs are shipped with Services Performance Engines (SPEs) pre-installed in the router. See the “Services Performance Engine” section for models and support information.

 

Router Services Performance Engine

Cisco 3925

Services Performance Engine 100

Cisco 3945

Services Performance Engine 150

Cisco 3925E

Services Performance Engine 200

Cisco 3945E

Services Performance Engine 250

Figure 1-10 shows the Cisco 3925 and Cisco 3945 front panels.

Cisco 3925 and Cisco 3945 (SPE 100 and SPE 150)

 

Cisco 3925E and Cisco 3945E (SPE 200 or SPE 250)

 

Figure 1-10 Front Panel of the Cisco 3900 Series ISRs

 

1

AC OK23

2

On/off switch

3

Power connector

4

SYS status LED

5

ACT status LED

6

POE

7

Boost

8

PS1 (Right), PS2 (Left)

Figure 1-11 Back Panel Slots and Connectors for Cisco 3925 and 3945 (SPE 100 and SPE 150)

1

EHWIC slots24 0, 1, 2 and 3 (0, Far right)

2

USB serial console port

3

AUX port

4

RJ-45 serial console port

5

SFP1 and SFP2 (2, Top)

6

10/100/1000 Ethernet ports GE 0/1 and GE 0/2
(GE 0/2,Top)

7

10/100/1000 Ethernet port GE0/0

8

USB0 and USB1 (1, Top)

9

Ground

10

Cisco 3945 Service module slots25, 1 (Lower right), 2 (Lower left), 3 (Top right), and 4 (Top left)

Cisco 3925 Service module slots26, 1 (Lower left)27, 2 (Top left)

11

CompactFlash28 0 and 1 (0, Far right)

 

 

Figure 1-12 Back Panel LEDS on Services Performance Engine 100 and SPE 150

 

1

CompactFlash 0 and 1 (0, Far right)

2

ISM29

3

PVDM3 0,1, 2, and 3 (0, Far right LED)

4

EN (Enable USB console)

5

EN (Enable RJ-45 console)

6

SFP S

7

SFP EN

8

S (Speed)

9

L (Link)

 

 

Figure 1-13 Back Panel Slots/Connectors for Cisco 3925E and 3945E (SPE 200 or SPE 250)

1

EHWIC slots30 0,1, and 2 (0, Far right)

2

USB serial console port

3

AUX port

4

RJ-45 serial console port

5

10/100/1000 Ethernet ports (GE 0/3, Top; GE 0/2, Bottom)

6

10/100/1000 Ethernet ports (GE 0/1, Top; GE 0/0, Bottom)

7

SFP 1 and SFP 2 (1, Top)

8

USB 0 and USB 1 (1, Left)

9

Ground

10

Cisco 3945 Service module slots31, 1 (Lower right), 2 (Lower left), 3 (Top right), and 4 (Top left)

Cisco 3925 Service module slots32, 1 (Lower left)33, 2 (Top left)

11

CompactFlash34 1 and 0 (0, Far right)

 

 

Figure 1-14 Back Panel LEDS on Services Performance Engine 200 and 250

1

CompactFlash 0 and 1 (0, Far right)

2

PVDM3 0,1, and 2 (0, Far right LED)

3

EN (Enable USB console)

4

EN (Enable RJ-45 console)

5

SFP S

6

SFP EN

7

S (Speed)

8

L (Link)

Locating the Serial Number, PID, VID and CLEI

Software License

To obtain a software license, you need a product authorization key (PAK) and the unique device identifier (UDI) of the device where the license will be installed.

The serial number (SN), product ID (PID), version ID (VID), and Common Language Equipment Identifier (CLEI) are printed on a label on the back of the router or on a label tray located on the router chassis or motherboard. The UDI can be viewed using the show license udi command in privileged Exec mode in Cisco Internet Operating System (IOS) software. For additional information on the UDI or how to obtain a PAK, see the Cisco Software Activation on Integrated Services Routers document at Cisco.com.

The UDI has two main components:

  • Product ID (PID)
  • Serial number (SN)

 

Refer to these sections to locate labels on Cisco 2900 series and 3900 series ISRG2 routers:

Cisco 2900 Series

Cisco 3900 Series

Labels on Cisco 2901

Figure 1-15 shows the location of the labels on the Cisco 2901 router.

Figure 1-15 Labels Location on the Cisco 2901 Router

 

Label Description

1

Product ID

2

Serial Number

3

Product ID/Version ID

4

Common Language Equipment Identifier

Labels on Cisco 2911

Figure 1-16 shows the location of the labels on the Cisco 2911 router.

Figure 1-16 Labels Location on the Cisco 2911 Router

 

Label Description

1

Product ID

2

Serial Number

3

PID/VID

4

CLEI

Labels on Cisco 2921 and Cisco 2951

Figure 1-17 shows the location of the labels on the Cisco 2921 and Cisco 2951 routers.

Figure 1-17 Label Location on the Cisco 2921 and Cisco 2951 Routers

 

 

Label Description

1

Product ID

2

Serial Number

3

PID/VID

4

CLEI

Labels on Cisco 3925 and Cisco 3945

Figure 1-18 shows the two locations where labels are located on Cisco 3900 ISRs. There are labels on the router chassis and on the Services Performance Engine (SPE).


Note Use the serial number on the SPE label to obtain a PAK.


Figure 1-18 Labels Location(s) on Cisco 3900 ISRs

 

Table 1-3 Labels on Cisco 3900 Routers and SPE

Label Description
1

SPE PID

2

SPE Serial Number

3

SPE PID/VID

4

SPE CLEI

5

Chassis CLEI

6

Chassis Serial Number

7

Chassis PID/VID

For Additional Help Locating Labels on the Router

Use the Cisco Product Identification (CPI) tool to find labels on the router. It provides detailed illustrations and descriptions of where the labels are located on Cisco products. It includes the following features:

  • A search option that allows browsing for models by using a tree-structured product hierarchy
  • A search field on the final results page that makes it easier to look up multiple products
  • End-of-sale products clearly identified in results lists

The tool streamlines the process of locating serial number labels and identifying products. Serial number information expedites the entitlement process and is important for access to support services.

The Cisco Product Identification tool can be accessed at the following URL:

http://tools.cisco.com/Support/CPI/index.do

Hardware Features

This section describes the hardware features in Cisco 2900 series and Cisco 3900 series routers.

Built-in Interface Ports

Table 1-4 summarizes the interface ports built into the router chassis.

 

Data Ports Management Ports
Router Model 10/100/1000
GE RJ-45
10/100/1000 SFP USB Type A Console Serial, RJ-45 Console Serial, Mini-USB (Type B) Auxiliary, RJ-45

Cisco 2901

2

2

1

1

1

Cisco 2911

3

2

1

1

1

Cisco 2921

3

1

2

1

1

1

Cisco 2951

3

1

2

1

1

1

Cisco 3925 with SPE 100

335

2

2

1

1

1

Cisco 3945 with SPE 150

336

2

2

1

1

1

Cisco 3925E with SPE 200

437

2

2

1

1

1

Cisco 3945E with SPE 250

438

2

2

1

1

1

Gigabit Ethernet Ports

There are two different types of Gigabit Ethernet (GE) ports available on Cisco 2900 series and Cisco 3900 series ISRs.

GE Ports

The GE RJ-45 copper interface ports support 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX, and 1000BASE-T.

SFP Ports

The small-form-factor pluggable (SFP) ports support 1000BASE-LX/LH, 1000BASE-SX, 1000BASE-ZX, and Coarse Wavelength-Division Multiplexing (CWDM-8) modules, as well as 100Mbs SFP modules.

The SFP port shares the same physical port as an RJ-45 GE port. Table 1-4 shows the models that support SFP installation. The SFP port supports auto-media-detection, auto-failover and remote fault indication (RFI), as described in the IEEE 802.3ah specification.

Use the media-type {rj45{auto-failover}}

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Search for: Search. You May Also Like. About the Author: Bhondi. Leave a Reply Cancel reply.Version: 1. Home License. For the purposes of this LicenseDerivative Works shall not include works that remain separable fromor merely link or bind by name to the interfaces ofthe Work and Derivative Works thereof. For the purposes of this definition"submitted" means any form of electronicverbalor written communication sent to the Licensor or its representativesincluding but not limited to communication on electronic mailing listssource code control systemsand issue tracking systems that are managed byor on behalf ofthe Licensor for the purpose of discussing and improving the Workbut excluding communication that is conspicuously marked or otherwise designated in writing by the copyright owner as "Not a Contribution.

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Why Does My Jaguar Say “Restricted Performance”?

You purchased your Jaguar due to its sleek design and reputation as a high-performance import. So it’s likely worrisome when any performance light comes on your dash. Your mind starts questioning. Is it serious? If you’re driving, is it serious enough to stop the car? Is it serious enough to take to my mechanic or the dealership? Is it just a little of nothing? Is it a fluke? Will it go away on its own? All these questions and more fly through your brain in rapid succession.illustrated Jaguar Restricted Performance blog

If you see the amber or red light for “Restricted Performance” you may certainly be asking these questions. If you are driving when the light comes on, you have the additional worry of whether you are going to get stranded. Murphy’s Law will more than likely come into play, leaving you on the side of the road while enjoying a long and, what was formerly, a pleasurable drive! Right?

You may be used to lights coming on and repairs being made, especially if you have any older model British automobile. But, the dreaded “Restricted Performance” indicator can be a pesky one as it is difficult to diagnose. Here are some possible causes and solutions if your Jaguar dash indicators display this message. Hopefully, this information can help you narrow down the root of the issue and give you some direction in finding a solution before it becomes a major problem. If this light comes on in your Jaguar, make it simple on yourself, and contact Triangle Imports to help properly diagnose the cause.

What is the Jaguar Restricted Performance error?

With the Restricted Performance error message, the car is indicating that the engine management system has gone into a “limp” mode to protect certain systems and components. This changes depending on the system or components being protected.

For example, if a coil pack (or packs) is failing, unburnt fuel would be getting into the exhaust system, which would damage the catalytic converters. So to protect the catalytic converters, fueling on the affected cylinder(s) is switched off. This is why the car appears to run very badly if this is happening.

Our research found that it occurs more in S-Type and XJ-Series Jaguars.

What are the symptoms of Restricted Performance?

Generally, the Restricted Performance light either comes on before and during a cold start or while driving. If the error message illuminates while driving, you can experience limited acceleration of 1800 – 2000 RPM. Many times, the message displays when going heavy (around three-quarters down) on the accelerator. The car is trying to protect itself when this happens.

What are the possible causes?

First and foremost, always use an OBD scanner to run diagnostics when you get the Restricted Performance message. If you’re a “do-it-yourselfer” but don’t own a scanner, you can go to any local auto parts supply store and use theirs. If you prefer to take the car into a Jaguar specialized mechanic, they have a diagnostic scanner. Using a scanner is very important in pointing you toward a smaller list of the source that is causing the problem. A Jaguar mechanic will have the certification and experience to diagnose accurately the performance issue, and repair to OEM specifications.

Common Restricted Performance Message Problems

The Restricted Performance message generally indicates issues with these systems in your car:

  • air intake and/or throttle body
  • fuel system

Possible causes for the Restricted Performance error can be from leaks in airflow, mass airflow (MAF) issues, fuel, intercooler hoses, throttle body housing, and gaps in hose closures.

More specifically, these are some of the most common causes of the error (including diagnostic codes where possible):

  • Gearbox fault – Can cause hard shifts in S-Types (2002 – 2008)
  • Breather hose connected to the throttle body
  • EGR valve not working – diagnostics read “air mass and turbo”
  • Turbo Turbine Inlet Valve Stuck Open (P22D2)
  • Turbo Turbine Inlet Valve Control Circuit – Open (P22CF)
  • Faulty turbo actuator
  • Split intercooler
  • Inlet air leak or leaking hose

Check for these issues when diagnosing your Jaguar

If you are working on the car yourself, run through this checklist:

  1. Check the obvious things like the air intake box (air filter housing) for cracks or to make sure all of the clasps are fastened/not missing.
  2. Check the breather hose from the engine that intersects the intake pipe to make sure it isn’t cracked and that both ends are completely fastened.
  3. Check the mass airflow (MAF) sensor right after the air intake box to make sure the wiring harness is completely fastened and remove it and apply a small amount of cleaner if dirty.
  4. Check the air intake pipe for cracks and where it connects with the throttle body and make sure that seal is tight.
  5. Check the o-ring seals around the dipstick and the breather hoses between the engine and the firewall and the plastic air intake manifold seals.
  6. If your car won’t start, it’s possible you have a clog in the fuel lines or a fuel pump problem.
  7. Check (because we found other folks with the error also had experienced) faulty dipstick o-ring, faulty mass airflow sensor, a cracked breather hose, and a cracked plastic nozzle that extends from the valve cover.

Possible Solutions to “Check Engine” or Performance Restrictions

If you are driving when you get the code, you may be able to clear the message by following these steps. Please note, however, that if you can’t clear the message, it is advisable that you do not drive any more than is necessary before diagnosing the problem(s).

  1. Pull the car over and switch the ignition off.
  2. Wait one minute.
  3. Switch on the ignition, but wait until all the lights on the dash have gone off except for the four that stay on until the engine is started.
  4. Start the car.

If you are seeing the Restricted Performance error persistently, as related to the above list of possible causes for the error, these are places to check (perform in the order presented) in order to solve the issue:

  1. Fix any cracks in the air intake box (air filter housing)
  2. Make sure that there are no clasps missing and that all clasps are fastened.
  3. Make sure that the breather hose from the engine that intersects the intake pipe isn’t cracked and that both ends are completely fastened.
  4. Be sure the wiring harness for the mass airflow (MAF) sensor is completely fastened; if dirty, remove it and apply a small amount of cleaner.
  5. Make sure the seal for the connection of the air intake pipe and the throttle body is tight.
  6. Make sure the o-ring seals around the dipstick and the breather hoses between the engine and the firewall and the plastic air intake manifold seals are all tight.
  7. Replace a faulty dipstick o-ring, faulty mass airflow sensor, a cracked breather hose, and a cracked plastic nozzle that extends from the valve cover.

Contact our Jaguar Repair Team in Raleigh

Again, the Restricted Performance error message can be a bit tough to diagnose because there are several possible causes. If you experience this error, it’s best to take your Jaguar to a licensed Jaguar technician who can efficiently and correctly diagnose your problem.

Schedule your Jaguar repair today or if you need roadside assistance, request towing to our shop.

Источник: https://triangleimports.com/blog/why-does-my-jaguar-say-restricted-performance

Extract, transform, load (ETL) is the most critical component of data warehousing because it turbocharges data transfer between systems. The best ETL tools in 2021 single-handedly define data warehouse workflows. But which ETL tool should you choose? 

From JavaScript and Java to Apache Hadoop and Go, many ETL solutions fit your needs. But Python dominates the ETL space. It's a high-level and general-purpose programming language used by many of the world’s biggest brands.

There are well over a hundred Python tools in 2021 that act as frameworks, libraries, or software for ETL. You'll find the best six below. But remember, you’ll still need to know Python for all of these tools. (It takes 8 weeks, on average, to learn the basics of this programming language.)

Before you learn the best six Python ETL tools in 2021, there's a simpler alternative you need to hear about. Xplenty is a no-code cloud-based solution used by Fortune 500 companies to extract, transform, and load data for business intelligence and analytics. Because it requires no code, you don’t need to learn Python. We’ll tell you more about Xplenty later.

Table of Contents

  1. Why Use Python for ETL Pipelines in 2021?
  2. Apache Airflow
  3. Luigi
  4. pandas
  5. petl
  6. Bonobo
  7. Bubbles
  8. Other ETL Tools, Libraries & Frameworks
  9. The Better ETL Solution

Why Use Python for ETL Pipelines in 2021?

First up, let's talk about why you would set up ETL pipelines with Python in 2021. Why not use an ETL tool? Developers who live and breathe ETL create and use these tools, right?

Right. ETL tools prove useful for dealing with complex schemas and massive amounts of big data, making them, hands down, the better choice for data-driven organizations like yours. Sure, you can use something like SQLAlchemy to execute ETL in Python. But, this process is time-consuming, labor-intensive, and overwhelming.

There are only three situations where Python makes sense:

  • You feel comfortable with Python and want to build an ETL tool.
  • You have extremely simple ETL requirements.
  • You have a unique, hyper-specific need you can only meet by custom coding an ETL solution through Python.

If you fit into one of these categories, you have lots of options.

The tools below are the top six Python tools available for ETL in 2021. We selected these Python tools based on usability, popularity, and diversity. As we mentioned before, you’ll still need to know Python to use these tools. However, the platforms below make it easier to execute ETL pipelines with this programming language. If you don’t know Python or don’t want to code pipelines from scratch, we recommend looking at Xplenty’s features. 

Recommended Reading: Other ETL Tools, Libraries, and Frameworks

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1. Apache Airflow for Python-Based Workflows

Apache Airflow is an open-source Python-based workflow automation tool for setting up and maintaining powerful data pipelines. Airflow isn't an ETL tool per se. But it manages, structures, and organizes ETL pipelines using something called Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs). 

DAGs form relationships and dependencies without defining tasks, running a single branch multiple times and skipping branches from sequences when necessary. 

For example, you can make A run after B and make C run every 2 minutes. Or make A and B run every 2 minutes and make C run after B.

Typical Airflows look like this:

Metadata database > Scheduler > Executor > Workers

And here's how it works:

  • The metadata database stores workflows/tasks (DAGs).
  • The scheduler (typically run as a service) uses DAG definitions to select tasks.
  • The executor determines which worker executes tasks. 

Workers are the processes that execute the logic of workflows/tasks.

Apache Airflow makes a fabulous addition to your ETL toolbox because it's so valuable for management and organization. Plus, Airflow has Google Cloud and AWS hooks and operators, making it incredibly useful for cloud warehousing environments. 

When Does Apache Airflow Make Sense?

If performing long ETL jobs or when ETL has multiple steps. (Airflow lets you restart from any point in the ETL process.) That said, Apache Airflow is not a library, so you have to deploy it, and this makes little sense for small ETL jobs.

Facts About Apache Airflow

  • Maxime Beauchemin from Airbnb started the Apache Airflow project. 
  • Airflow won InfoWorld's Best of Open Source Software Award in 2020.
  • The majority of Airflow users leverage Celery to simplify execution management.
  • You can schedule automated DAG workflows via the Airflow WebUI. 
  • Airflow uses a command-line interface, extremely useful for isolating execution tasks outside of scheduler workflows.
  • Prefect is a solid Airflow alternative with advanced features. You can migrate DAGs straight over.
  • Apache Airflow currently has an average user rating of 4.1/5 on G2.com, based on 24 reviews. Users describe it as "stable," "fantastic," but sometimes "frustrating."

As you can see, executing Apache Airflow can still be complicated. Xplenty provides a no-code alternative to Python, automating complicated data pipelines. 

2. Luigi for Complex Python Pipelines

Luigi is an open-source Python-based tool that builds complex pipelines. Developed by Spotify to automate its insane workloads (think terabytes of data every day), Luigi serves data-driven corporations like Stripe and Red Hat.

There are three benefits to Luigi:

  • Dependency management with stellar visualization.
  • Failure recovery via checkpoints.
  • Command-line interface integration.

The primary difference between Luigi and Airflow is the way these Python tools execute tasks and dependencies. On Luigi, you'll find "tasks" and "targets," and tasks consume targets. (A task will plop out a target; another task will eat that target and plop out another target.) This target-based approach is perfect for simple Python-based ETL, but Luigi struggles with hyper-complex tasks.

When Does Luigi Make Sense?  

When you need to automate simple ETL processes like logs. (Luigi handles logs quickly and with little setup.) Luigi's strict pipeline-like structure, however, limits complex tasks. Plus, even simple ETL processes require Python coding skills.

Facts About Luigi:

  • You can't interact with processes once Luigi runs tasks.
  • Unlike Airflow, Luigi doesn't automatically schedule, alert, monitor, or sync tasks to workers.
  • Luigi's UI (or lack thereof) is a pain point.
  • Towards Data Science says Luigi uses a "target-based approach," but its UI is "minimal," with no user interaction for running processes. Plus, it doesn't support distributed execution or triggering. 

Recommended Reading: Building an ETL Pipeline in Python

3. pandas for Data Structures and Analysis Tools

If you've been working with Python for a while, you might know about pandas, a library that provides data structures and analysis tools for Python. pandas adds R-style data frames that make ETL processes like data cleansing easier.

In an ETL context, pandas executes many tasks successfully if you're willing to put in the time. Plus, it's relatively easy to run: Set up simple scripts to load data from a Postgre table, transform and clean that data, and write the data to another Postgre table.

But it's not all fun and games: pandas performs relatively poorly on in-memory and scalability. Sure, you can scale the tool using parallel chunks, but the process isn't as simple as using something like Airflow. 

When Does pandas Make Sense? 

When you need to extract data, clean it, transform it, and write it to Excel, a CSV file, or an SQL database. Once you work with large data sets, it makes sense to adopt a more scalable approach.

Facts About pandas

  • NumFocus sponsors pandas.
  • Many Python users choose pandas for ETL batch processing.
  • pandas launched in 2008.
  • pandas boasts a rating of 4.5/5 on G2.com. (That's higher than Airflow.) Users say it's "powerful," "very practical," but there is "a learning curve."

4. petl as a Python ETL Solution

For ETL, petl is probably the most straightforward solution. The tool builds tables in Python, extracts data from multiple sources, and facilitates all kinds of ETL tasks. It's like pandas in functionality, but it doesn't offer the same level of analysis. 

The petl tool handles hyper-complex datasets relatively well, makes good use of system memory, and has reliable scale. But, it lacks in the speed department. Still, it's much easier to leverage petl than building ETL using SQLAlchemy or other custom-coded solutions.

When Does petl Make Sense? 

If you need the basics of ETL without the analytics and when you're not bothered about speed.

Facts About petl

  • petl isn't known for its speed or ability to handle large datasets.
  • petl stands for "Python ETL."
  • Towards Data Science calls petl "basic" and "trivial" but commends it for supporting standard transformations like sorting, joining, aggregation, and row operation.

5. Bonobo as a Lightweight Python ETL Framework

Bonobo is a lightweight Python ETL tool that's relatively easy to use for rapidly deploying pipelines and executing them in parallel. Bonobo extracts data from multiple sources — CSV, JSON, XML, XLS, SQL, etc. — and follows atomic UNIX principles. The best thing about Bonobos is that users don't have to learn a new API. So if you know Python, working in Bonobo is a breeze. You can build graphs with business requirements in mind, create libraries, and perform (simple) ETL batch automation.

Bonobo is a decent choice for Python users. It's open-source, scalable, and handles semi-complex schemas. 

When Does Bonobo Make Sense? 

When completing simple, lightweight ETL jobs. And when you don't have the time to learn a new API. You’ll still need knowledge of Python, though, so no-code Xplenty might provide a better option. 

Facts About Bonobo

  • An official Bonobo Docker extension lets you run jobs within Docker containers.
  • Bonobo has CLI execution.
  • Bonobo has Graphviz for ETL job visualization.
  • There's an official SQLAlchemy extension (in alpha).
  • A reporter for Python Pandemonium found writing his first-ever ETL in Python with Bonobo a relatively simple process. 

6. Bubbles as a Python Framework for ETL

Bubbles is another Python framework that runs ETL. Unlike some other frameworks, Bubbles uses metadata to describe pipelines. Use it for data integration, data cleansing, data auditing, data monitoring, and more. Although written for Python, Bubbles' author says his tool isn't Python-exclusive. 

Another benefit of Bubbles is that it's "technologically agnostic," which means you don't have to worry about working with or accessing data — just the transformation.

When Does Bubbles Make Sense? 

When you need a rapid ETL setup that's technologically agnostic. And when you want the freedom to focus solely on ETL processes.

Facts About Bubbles

  • Bubbles is abstract, with a focus on ETL rather than learning Python. Open Knowledge Labs says: "Why should someone who just wants to achieve his goal of extracting, transforming, and presenting the data care about the underlying technology and query language?"

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Other ETL Tools, Libraries & Frameworks

There are simply too many Python (and other) tools that handle ETL to include in this post. We tried to keep our list simple by including popular ETL options that have different use cases. But there are plenty of other tools that we could mention.

In this section, we're going to list other popular ETL platforms by language.

Python

  • BeautifulSoup: This Python tool pulls data out of webpages (XML, HTML). It integrates with tons of ETL tools like petl.
  • PyQuery: Also extracts data from webpages but with a jquery-like syntax.
  • Blaze: This is an interface that queries data. Part of the "Blaze Ecosystem," a framework for ETL that uses Blaze, Dask, Datashape, DyND, and Odo.
  • Dask: Use Dask for Parallel computing via task scheduling. It also processes continuous data streams. Also part of the "Blaze Ecosystem."
  • Datashape: A simple data-description language similar to NumPly. It describes in-situ structured data with no canonical transformation.
  • DyND: The Python exposure for DyND — a C++ library for dynamic, multidimensional arrays.
  • Odo: Move data between multiple containers. Odo uses the native CSV loading capabilities of SQL databases, making it faster than loading with Python.
  • Joblib: More tools that use Python functions for pipelines, but Joblib has a few unique perks that make it suitable for certain jobs such as NumPy arrays.
  • lxml: Processes HTML and XML in Python.
  • Retrying: Lets you add retry behavior to executions.
  • riko: A Yahoo! Pipes replacement that's useful for stream data. Not a full-blown ETL solution, but it's pure Python, and it makes extracting data streams much easier.

Cloud-Based

  • Xplenty: Do you want to set up automated pipelines across a massive variety of sources using best-of-breed visualization and rapid integrations? You need Xplenty! Point-and-click, 200+ out-of-the-box integrations, Salesforce-to-Salesforce integration, and more. No code required whatsoever. The only solution for ETL.
  • AWS Data Pipeline: Amazon's data pipeline solution. Set up pipelines between AWS instances and legacy servers.
  • AWS Glue: Amazon's fully managed ETL solution. Manage it directly through the AWS Management Console.
  • AWS Batch: Used for batch computing jobs on AWS resources. It has good scalability that suits engineers on large compute jobs.
  • Google Dataflow: Google's ETL solution for batch jobs and streams.
  • Azure Data Factory: Microsoft's ETL solution.

Miscellaneous

  • Toil: This USCS project handles ETL almost identically to Luigi. (Use Luigi to wrap Toil pipelines for additional check pointing.)
  • Pachyderm: Another alternative to tools like Airflow. Here's a great GitHub writeup about some of the simple differences between Airflow and Pachyderm. (Pro tip: Paychyderm has an open-source edition on its website.)
  • Mara: Yep, another ETL framework that uses Python's capabilities. It sits somewhere between pure Python and Apache Airflow, and it's fast and simple to set up.
  • Pinball: Pinterest's workflow manager with auto-retries, priorities, overrun policies, and horizontal scalability.
  • Azkaban: Created by LinkedIn, Azkaban is a Java-based tool for Hadoop batches. But if you're trying to run hyper-complex Hadoop batches, think about Oozie instead.
  • Dray.it: A Docker workflow engine that helps with resource management.
  • Spark: Set up your entire batch streaming ETL.

Other Languages

We won't dive too deep into the tools below. But here's a list of ETL platforms outside of the Python space.

Java

GO

JavaScript (Node.js)

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The six Python frameworks, libraries, and tools on this list prove useful for less-complex jobs. But most growing enterprises need a speedier, scalable solution that leverages multiple tool layers for comprehensive ETL.  

Xplenty is a no-code, cloud-based solution that builds robust pipelines in minutes, with 200+ integrations that make ETL a piece of cake. It requires no data engineering experience. 

Xplenty has limitless features. Most ETL tools move data from Salesforce to a warehouse, but Xplenty moves it back again. Then there's the super-simple workflow creation for defining dependencies between tasks. The easy data transformations. A reliable REST API. Enhanced data security and compliance. And free customer support for all users. It's the only ETL solution you'll ever need. 

Forget about Python-based tools in 2021. You need a no-code ETL solution that lets you extract, transform, and load data without having to start from scratch. Xplenty is pain-free but sturdy enough to handle even the most demanding of workloads. 

Xplenty is the future of ETL. No code. No messing around. It's data transformation on your terms. Just the way you like it. Click here to schedule an intro call with our support team to see if Xplenty is the right fit for you.

Источник: https://www.xplenty.com/blog/comparison-of-the-top-python-etl-tools/

5 Replies to “Airflow scheduler - Crack Key For U”

  1. I've missed class due to a back injury and was feeling so overwhelmed about how far behind I have gotten. Your videos are so thorough and have saved me from losing my mind!!!! THANK YOU!!!!!!!!!

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